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  • Introduction


  • 2. HOW WELFARE IS PROVIDED? VOLUNTARY SECTOR R. Institutions 1200 = £162 2006 = 1017 COMMUNITY Alternative Family 1200/3000 = £450 2005 = 5128 Total= 8246 PUBLIC SECTOR R. Institutions 2005 = 2101
  • 3. Mean = 9.33 St. D = 5.515 Median = 8 Mode = 7 Mean = 11.87 St. D = 5.644 Median = 13 Mode = 16 Length of Stay in Residential Care P<.001
  • 4.
    • STUDY’S AIMS: What are the needs/difficulties of abandoned young people? How they are impacted by being born of unknown parents and placed at residential care How the provided programmes, services and policies are perceived by young people? What are needed to be done?
  • 5. Where 12 selected settings located in two cities within various neighbourhoods (low, middle or high class) It is … Multilevel Mixed Methods Sampling ‘ Data Triangulation’ It is … a Methodological Triangulation It is …a homogeneous concurrent Sampling: Typical & atypical cases It is … Environmental triangulation quan Data and Results QUAL Data and Results Interpretation Triangulation Mixed Methods Design* Questionnaires Interviews Focus Groups Observation Documents Sampling Care Leavers Sampling Leaving Care Practitioners Sampling Practitioners In Care Sampling Young People In Care Sampling Institutes: Purposive/Snowball Sampling of some Institutes + other institutes were selected as a whole
  • 6. The Characteristics of YP
    • As a result of being born of unknown parents, they…
    • De-attached when they were infants
    • Have experienced repeated breaking Attachments
    • with primary caregivers due to Multi Movements
  • 7. Attachment
    • YP: Don’t remind me. It was the hardest experience in my life
    • Interviewer: How come?
    • YP: Because we moved from our little heaven and world to another world which was full of pains and sadness. Imagine someone tries to grab a child from his mother’s lap. This is what was our situations. After six years of beautiful life, all the sudden , we were deprived from living with people we loved to be with them and places we loved to stay in. The worst thing when the workers we loved and trusted were involved in such transition ”
    • ( a 26 years old Care Leaver )
  • 8. Multiple Movements
    • 51% had not had stable life due to movements
    • M = 59% , F = 44.4% (no sig.)
    • I stayed for 11 years - from birth- at the Nursery social institution in ****, then 2 years at another institution in a village for males. After that I spent one year at social correction agency for deviant juveniles in ****. One year in another city, then 2 years in **** and 4 years in ****. Then I got married for a year but I divorced and remarried but not feeling happy. I’m still feeling that I’m hanging around myself ( 24 male care leavers )
  • 9. The impact of being born…
    • Found in Hospital/Public places
    • Access to personal file
    • 63 % wanted to know birth parents
    • Live w/o Identity (family oriented society)
    • Wondering why their names seem to be alike
    • “ We feel our names were chosen by lot ”
    • several young people
  • 10. The impact of being born (2)
    • Different name from Society (family oriented)
    • Name not matching Alternative Family
    • Start asking 12+…, No persuasive response
    • Confused and uncertain / self-development /esteem
    • More Half embarrassed/feel stigmatised when asked about birth parents/family
    • 53% in Riyadh vs. 56% In Jeddah
  • 11. Positive Responses
    • Media Involved
    • Community Participation
    • Generous Financial Support
    • Career Support e.g. Study abroad
    • Kinship through Breast Feeding
    • But there are some missings ….
  • 12. Conclusion: So what are needed?
    • Is alternative family/adoption the answer? If not…,
    • Is there a need for small homes vs. Large institute?
    • Or do we need to increase the number of RI?
    • Do we need to review the application of religious policy to adoption (e.g. name matching) ?
    • What are needed to ensure that only qualified and humane staff (mind/heart) are involved in provided care?
  • 13.
    • What do they need while they in care?
    • How can we create social support system for them?
    • Are they prepared to leave care and live independently but successfully? pathway plan
    • What do they need after leaving care?
    • Is policy transfer feasible?
    • e.g. National Leaving Care Scheme/Act
    What are needed (2) ?
  • 14. What are needed (3) ?
    • How resilience can be used to help these people cope with issues related to their social identity?
    • Should we help these people fit (meet the needs of society or help society fit them? Mark Darkeford
  • 15.
    • Bernardi, L., Keim, S and Lippe, H. (2007). Social Influences on Fertility: A Comparative Mixed
    • Methods Study in eastern and Western Germany. Journal of Mixed Methods Research, 1: 23- 47.
    • * Creswell, J. W. (2007). HSHS Mixed Methods Conference Workshop
    • Denzin, N. (1970). The Research Act in Sociology. Chicago: Aldine Publishing Company.
    • Denzin, N. And Lincolon, Y.S. (1998). Strategies of Qualitative Inquiry. California: SAGE .
    • Guion, L. (2002). ‘Triangulation: Establishing the Validity of Qualitative Studies’.
    • Morgan, D. L. (1998). Practical Strategies for Combining Qualitative and Quantitative Methods:
    • Applications to Health Research. Qual Health Res, 8: 362-376.
    • Stake, R.E. (2006). Multiple Case Study Analysis. New York: The Guilford Press.
    • Tashakkori, A. And Creswell, J. W. (2007). Editorial: Exploring the Nature of Research Questions in Mixed
    • Methods Research. Journal of Mixed Methods Research, 1: 207-211
    • Teddlie, C. And Yu, F. (2007). Mixed Methods Sampling: A Typology With Examples. Journal of Mixed
    • Methods Research, 1: 77-100.
    • Yin, R. (2003). Case Study Research: Design and Methods. California: Sage.
    References for Methodologies
  • 16. References for Research Topic
    • Evans, D. And Kearney, J. (1996). Working in Social Care: A Systemic Approach . Vermont: Ashgate Publishing Limited.
    • Alansary, A. (2004 ). Pscyological and Behvioural Problems of Children of Unknown Parents: Integrating them Through Alternative Families . Kuwait: Council of
    • Alassaf, S. (1989). Dealing with Children of Unknown Identity: Descriptive and Evaluative Study . Riyadh: Arabic Centre for Training and Security Studies.
    • Alawadhy, F. A. (Undated). The Regulations of Children of Unknown Parents in Islamic Jurisprudence. Department of Edification and Counseling in Theological Studies.
    • Al nafisah, A. H. (1990). Contemporary Jurisprudence Research Journal: A journal Specialised in Islamic Jurisprudence . 7, 2: 33-44.
    • Alnaser, F. (2004). The Attitudes of Society and Residential Institutes towards Children of Unknown Parents: Social Perspective . Kuwait: Council of Ministers of Labour and Social Affairs of Gulf Areas.
    • Alsadhan, A. N. (2003). Children without Families . Riyadh: Alobaikan.
    • Alzaharny, M. (2001). Informing Children of Unknown Parents About their Social Situation. Riyadh: King Fahed National Library.
    • Biehal et al. (1995). Moving on: Young People and Leaving Care Schemes . London: HMSO.
    • Beldwin, D. A. (1998). Growing Up In & Out Care: An ethnographic Approach to Young People’s Transition to Adulthood . Doctoral Thesis at University of York.
    • Mitwally, M.M. (Undated). Islamic Care for Illegitimates.
    • The Annual Statistic Book. (2003/2004). Ministry of Labour and Social Affairs. Riyadh. Daar Alhilal.
    • The Annual Statistic Book. (2005/2006). Ministry of Labour and Social Affairs. Riyadh. Daar Alhilal.
    • Sinclair, I. (1988). Residential Care: The Research Reviewed . London: Her Majesty’s Stationery Office.
  • 17.
    • Ahmed A. Albar
    • [email_address]