Produced Water | Session II - John Veil
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Introduction to Produced Water

Introduction to Produced Water

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Produced Water | Session II - John Veil Presentation Transcript

  • 1. Introduction to Produced Water John Veil 410-212-0950 john@veilenvironmental.com www.veilenvironmental.com Fossil Fuel Produced Water: Asset Or Waste? Atlantic Council Washington, DC June 24-25 2013
  • 2. 2 Topics for Discussion  What is produced water?  U.S water volumes and management practices  Different water issues for each type of hydrocarbon production
  • 3. What Is Produced Water – View from the White House 3
  • 4. 4 What is Produced Water?  Water that comes to the surface with oil and gas  Contains many chemical constituents – Salt content (salinity, total dissolved solids [TDS], electrical conductivity) – Oil and grease • Composite of many hydrocarbons and other organic materials – Toxicity from various natural inorganic and organic compounds or chemical additives – NORM
  • 5. A View of Produced Water inside the Well
  • 6. 6 Produced Water Characteristics  Usually is salty – Chlorides vary from <1 to >200,000 mg/l 0 200 400 600 800 1000 1200 1400 1600 1800 Cryst al Geyser M t n V aley Evian Perrier Swiss Alp Hayden Club Soda V it t el Panaf iel E. Powder Gerolst einerAppollinaris TotalDissolvedSolids(ppm) Source: S. DeAlbuquerque, ConocoPhillips Bottled drinking water Produced water
  • 7. 7 Produced Water Volume Changes Over Time in a Well and a Field onal vs. CBM Well Behavior Source: S. DeAlbuquerque, ConocoPhillips OIL AND GAS CBM GAS WATER Producing Time Producing Time rains Matrix leats RateRate WATER • Conventional oil and gas well • Coal bed methane well • Shale gas wells behave in a similar manner
  • 8. 8 International Distribution of Oil Wells Geographic Region # Producing Oil Wells as of December 2008 Asia Pacific 88,691 Western Europe 6,208 Eastern Europe & Former Soviet Union 120,049 Middle East 12,203 Africa 9,984 Latin America & Caribbean 69,580 Canada 62,519 U.S. 498,619 Total 867,853 Source: Oil & Gas Journal, December 22, 2008
  • 9. 9 Number of U.S. Producing Wells (oil and gas combined) Type of Well Total Onshore (low production) 718,976 (2006) Onshore (high production) 217,214 (2004) Offshore 7,961 (2004) Total 944,151 Source: U.S. Department of Energy, Energy Information Administration and Interstate Oil and Gas Compact Commission
  • 10. 10 Produced Water Volumes and Management Practices
  • 11. Detailed Produced Water Inventory for the U.S. • Clark, C.E., and J.A. Veil, 2009, Produced Water Volumes and Management Practices in the United States. • The report contains detailed produced water volume data for States, Federal Lands, and offshore in 2007 • ~21 billion bbl/year • ~58 million bbl/day or 2.4 billion gallons/day • ~3.3 billion m3/year or 9.2 million m3/day • The report also provides estimates of water-to-oil ratio • World-wide estimate – 2:1 to 3:1 • U.S. estimate – 5:1 to 8:1 • with more complete data sets that include TX and OK data, this would be >10:1 11 To download a copy of the report, go to: http://www.veilenvironmental.com/publications/pw/ANL_EVS__R09_produced_ water_volume_report_2437.pdf
  • 12. U.S. Produced Water Volume by Management Practice for 2007 (1,000 bbl/year) Injection for Enhanced Recovery Injection for Disposal Surface Discharge Total Managed Total Generated Onshore Total 10,676,530 7,144,071 139,002 18,057,527 20,258,560 Offshore Total 48,673 1,298 537,381 587,353 587,353 Total 10,725,203 7,145,369 676,383 18,644,880 20,995,174 12 • Onshore – 98% goes to injection wells • 60% to enhanced recovery • 40% to disposal • Offshore – 91% goes to discharge • Overall for U.S. – 96% goes to discharge
  • 13. Disproportionate Emphasis on Shale Gas Wastewater  Assumptions (tried to choose conservative estimates) – 20,000 shale gas wells are fractured in a year – Each frac job requires 5 million gallons – Only 50% of the frac fluid volume returns as flowback and produced water  Total shale gas flowback and produced water for the U.S. = 50 billion gallons per year
  • 14. Disproportionate Emphasis on Shale Gas Wastewater (2)  U.S. produced water volume in 2007 for all oil and gas = 21 billion bbl (Source: Clark and Veil, 2009) = 882 billion gal/year  Compare shale gas water to all produced water – 50 billion/882 billion or about 5.7%.  Putting this in perspective, shale gas receives more than 90% of the attention yet it consists of less than 6% of all the volume of produced water.
  • 15. 15 Water Issues by Production Method
  • 16. Variations in Water Needs and Generation by Production Method Type of Oil and Gas Production Water Needs for Production Produced Water Generated Conventional Oil and Gas - Modest needs for hydraulic fracturing - More needed for enhanced recovery later on - Low volume initially - Increased volume over time - High lifetime pw production Coalbed Methane - Modest needs for hydraulic fracturing - High volume initially - Decreases over time Shale Gas - Large needs for hydraulic fracturing - Initial flow rate is high, but quickly drops to very low - Low lifetime flowback and produced water production Heavy Crude - Steam flood to help move heavy oil to production wells - Much of the water results from the injected steam used in steam flooding Oil/Tar Sands - Steam (or water) injection used in large volumes - In-situ production methods: some water is formation water, but much is from the injected steam - Oil sand mining production methods and subsequent processing steps also generate wastewater
  • 17. Conclusions and Final Thoughts  There is a lot of produced water generated each year from hundreds of thousands of oil and gas wells  Not all forms of hydrocarbon production share the same water needs and produced water generation profiles  Management of that water must be practical and comply with regulations  Discharge is not allowed at most onshore wells but is used commonly for offshore wells  Most of the produced water in the U.S. is injected – 60% for enhanced recovery – 40% for disposal