Produced Water | Session X - Alleman
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Produced Water | Session X - Alleman



Water Management in the Bakken

Water Management in the Bakken



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    Produced Water | Session X - Alleman Produced Water | Session X - Alleman Presentation Transcript

    • WATER MANAGEMENT IN THE BAKKEN Atlantic Council Workshop Fossil Fuel Produced Water: Asset or Waste Washington, DC June 24-25, 2013 Authors: J. Daniel (Dan) Arthur, P.E., SPEC David Alleman
    • ALL Consulting… Hydraulic Fracturing Considerations for Natural Gas Wells of the Marcellus Shale 2008 (first paper addressing environmental implications of fracturing) June 2013 Copyright (c) 2013 ALL Consulting 2
    • Shale Oil N. Dakota • North Dakota has passed Alaska to become the 2nd largest oil-producing state. • North Dakota’s unemployment is 3.3% compared to the national average of 7.2%. • One-third of the natural gas produced in N. Dakota is flared. • Worker demand in North Dakota is high enough that a workers at McDonalds can earn up to $25/hour! • Rent in Williston ranges from $2,000 to $3,400 for a one- bedroom apartment. June 2013 3Copyright (c) 2012 ALL Consulting
    • Water: An Array of Considerations • Logistics: Methods for transporting water and resultant wastes can carry wide variations in costs, liabilities, resource production, manpower, community relations, and environmental implications. • Sourcing: Choosing options for sourcing that is best suited to a particular play or region is critical. • Storage: A key aspect to the feasibility of many options, especially for central facilities, reuse/recycling, blending, etc. • Treatment: Treatment adds costs and creates waste. To use treatment, economic thresholds must be achieved. • Disposal/Reuse: Options are generally driven by the character of a play or region. • Compliance/Monitoring: Critical aspect of managing water! March 2013 4Copyright (c) 2013 ALL Consulting
    • Water Use in the Bakken June 2013 5 • Average water use in the Bakken is approximately 2.1 million gallons per well • Range is from approximately 1.0 to 9.5 million gallons per well
    • Water Sourcing in the Bakken June 2013 ALL Consulting 6 • Primary Water Sources • Municipal fresh water • Fresh ground water • Lake Sakakawea – Conflicts regarding water use have been resolved (at least temporarily) • Now that water from Lake Sakakwea is allowed, water supply does not seem to be an issue at present.
    • Alternate Water Sources - Bakken June 2013 ALL Consulting 7 • Municipal grey water (POTWs) – Supply is limited due to size of population centers • Saline aquifers – water cycling is possible • Water pulled from the Dakota aquifer (~6,000 ppm TDS) then re-injected in the lower portion of the aquifer • Uneconomic at present Bakken
    • Water Sourcing Logistics • Operators may procure their own water sources or may purchase from water depots or trucking companies • Fresh water costs range from approximately $1.50 - $5.00 • Most water is transported by truck • Water is typically heated to approximately 80o F prior to mixing and injection • Water is typically stored in insulated tanks at centralized facilities Source: 8Copyright (c) 2012 ALL ConsultingJune 2013
    • PW Quality • Produced water quality in the Bakken can range from approximately 30,000 to 250,000 ppm TDS • Varies significantly by well • Varies over time June 2013 9Copyright (c) 2013 ALL Consulting
    • PW Management Bakken • Approximately 20% of PW in the Bakken is reused in subsequent fracture operations • The remaining 80% is disposed via Class II injection • Widespread availability of injection wells makes reuse less attractive in most areas • The Dakota aquifer west of the Missouri river is “exempt” and serves as the primary disposal zone June 2013 10Copyright (c) 2013 ALL Consulting
    • Citation Information: Arthur, J.D., and David Alleman (ALL Consulting). Produced Water Management in Unconventional Resource Plays: Strategies and Technology Needs”. Presented at the Atlantic Council Workshop on Produced Water: Asset or Waste?, June 24-25, 2013. Contact Information David Alleman Environmental Manager ALL Consulting 1718 S. Cheyenne Ave. Tulsa, OK 74119 June 2013 11Copyright (c) 2013 ALL Consulting