7/24/2013 MAJOR MOONS OF JUPITER &
SATURN
1
7/24/2013 MAJOR MOONS OF JUPITER & SATURN 2
7/24/2013
MAJOR MOONS OF JUPITER &
SATURN 3
 HISTORY………………………………………… 04
 ORIGIN OF MOONS………………………06
 INTRODUCTION TO JU...
7/24/2013 MAJOR MOONS OF JUPITER &
SATURN
4
 Jupiter has 4 major moons
 These 4 (IO,EUROPA,GANYMEDE &
CALLISTO) large Jo...
7/24/2013 MAJOR MOONS OF JUPITER &
SATURN
5
 TETHYS & DIONE: In 1684 by
GIOVANNI
 TITAN: In 1655 by CHRISTIAN
HUYGENS
 ...
7/24/2013 6
MAJOR MOONS OF JUPITER &
SATURN
 Many of the moons of the planets
formed through accretion but on a small
sca...
7/24/2013 7
MAJOR MOONS OF JUPITER &
SATURN
 ………with condensation & accretion
continuing to occur
 Some of the smaller m...
7/24/2013 8
MAJOR MOONS OF JUPITER &
SATURN
7/24/2013 MAJOR MOONS OF JUPITER & SATURN 9
7/24/2013 MAJOR MOONS OF JUPITER & SATURN 10
 5th planet in the solar system
 The massive & largest one
 Name originate...
7/24/2013 MAJOR MOONS OF JUPITER & SATURN 11
Q: HOW MANY MOONS DOES JUPITER HAVE?
ANS:A LARGE NUMBER ……………………………
63!
Divid...
7/24/2013 MAJOR MOONS OF JUPITER & SATURN 12
iv. Outer most moons: just very small in size
7/24/2013 MAJOR MOONS OF JUPITER & SATURN 13
 They are four in
number named as:
i. GANYMEDE
ii. CALLISTO
iii. IO
iv. EURO...
7/24/2013 MAJOR MOONS OF JUPITER & SATURN 14
7/24/2013 MAJOR MOONS OF JUPITER & SATURN 15
7/24/2013 MAJOR MOONS OF JUPITER & SATURN 16
 Largest of the JOVIANS
moons 5260km in
the diameter
 Density of 1.93g/cm3
...
7/24/2013 MAJOR MOONS OF JUPITER & SATURN 17
 Average reflectivity of 50%
 A silicate rich core with mantle of liquid
wa...
7/24/2013 MAJOR MOONS OF JUPITER & SATURN 18
 There are two distinctly different
types of TERRAIN
i. Dark terrain
ii. Bri...
7/24/2013 MAJOR MOONS OF JUPITER & SATURN 19
7/24/2013 MAJOR MOONS OF JUPITER & SATURN 20
7/24/2013 MAJOR MOONS OF JUPITER & SATURN 21
 DARK TERRAIN
 Polygonal in shape & separated each
other by brighter terrain
7/24/2013 MAJOR MOONS OF JUPITER & SATURN 22
 May have a reasonable amount of DUST
and ROCKY debris
 Highly cratered sur...
7/24/2013 MAJOR MOONS OF JUPITER & SATURN 23
 BRIGHTER TERRAIN
 May be made up of PURE water
 They are mostly LOW crate...
7/24/2013 MAJOR MOONS OF JUPITER & SATURN 24
7/24/2013 MAJOR MOONS OF JUPITER & SATURN 25
 It has no atmosphere to speak of
 Diameter of 4900km
 Highest noonday tem...
7/24/2013 MAJOR MOONS OF JUPITER & SATURN 26
7/24/2013 MAJOR MOONS OF JUPITER & SATURN 27
 Never volcanically active
 Has the lowest density of
all the other GALILEA...
7/24/2013 MAJOR MOONS OF JUPITER & SATURN 28
7/24/2013 MAJOR MOONS OF JUPITER & SATURN 29
 Bright-orange colored sphere
with, white irregular splotches
 Polar region...
7/24/2013 MAJOR MOONS OF JUPITER & SATURN 30
 Absolutely no impact craters
UNIQUNESS: nothing similar had
been found in t...
7/24/2013 MAJOR MOONS OF JUPITER & SATURN 31
 They are the vents of the volcanoes
 At least 8 are currently active
 Eru...
7/24/2013 MAJOR MOONS OF JUPITER & SATURN 32
7/24/2013 MAJOR MOONS OF JUPITER & SATURN 33
 Umbrella-shaped
plume
 Gigantic fan –
shaped in the
vacuum
 Produced by t...
7/24/2013 MAJOR MOONS OF JUPITER & SATURN 34
 Mostly colored patterns includes
yellow, red, orange and brown
 Its surfac...
7/24/2013 MAJOR MOONS OF JUPITER & SATURN 35
 There exist mountain ranges
 INTERESTINGLY up to 10km in height
HERE QUEST...
7/24/2013 MAJOR MOONS OF JUPITER & SATURN 36
 Average day time temperature is -145C
 Although as hot as 300C near
volcan...
7/24/2013 MAJOR MOONS OF JUPITER & SATURN 37
7/24/2013 MAJOR MOONS OF JUPITER & SATURN 38
 Not founded water any where in
surface, interior and not even on the
atmosp...
7/24/2013 MAJOR MOONS OF JUPITER & SATURN 39
 Light brown surface with white patches
 Move in the circular orbit of
670,...
7/24/2013 MAJOR MOONS OF JUPITER & SATURN 40
 Absolutely no
atmosphere
 Max. day time
temperature is-180C
 Reflectivity...
7/24/2013 MAJOR MOONS OF JUPITER & SATURN 41
 Slightly smaller density
of about 3.03g/cm3
 No signs of volcanism
either ...
7/24/2013 MAJOR MOONS OF JUPITER & SATURN 42
 UNIQUENESS: the only world in
the solar system besides Earth that has
…………W...
7/24/2013 MAJOR MOONS OF JUPITER & SATURN 43
7/24/2013 MAJOR MOONS OF JUPITER & SATURN 44
 There are only few signs of craters
(only 3 probable craters of 18-25km
apa...
7/24/2013 MAJOR MOONS OF JUPITER & SATURN 45
7/24/2013 MAJOR MOONS OF JUPITER & SATURN 46
 Water exposed to the
space rapidly evaporates
forming a thin layer
of atmos...
7/24/2013 MAJOR MOONS OF JUPITER & SATURN 47
 Exceedingly cold temperature outside
condenses the it into solid – ICE
 Th...
7/24/2013 MAJOR MOONS OF JUPITER & SATURN 48
7/24/2013 MAJOR MOONS OF JUPITER & SATURN 49
 Theoretical calculations of the current
thermal state of EUROPA have an
int...
7/24/2013 MAJOR MOONS OF JUPITER & SATURN 50
 Result suggested that some LUIQUID
WATER may be still present in the interi...
7/24/2013 MAJOR MOONS OF JUPITER & SATURN 51
7/24/2013 MAJOR MOONS OF JUPITER & SATURN 52
Saturn was the outermost
planet known to ancient
astronomy
It is the 6th pl...
7/24/2013 MAJOR MOONS OF JUPITER & SATURN 53
 The atmosphere of Saturn consists of
molecular Hydrogen ,Helium ,Methane
an...
7/24/2013 MAJOR MOONS OF JUPITER & SATURN 54
 Saturn has 67! moons out of which 5
largest are:
1. Titan
2. Rhea
3. Dione
...
7/24/2013 MAJOR MOONS OF JUPITER & SATURN 55
 Titan is the 2nd largest moon of solar
system and 1st of Saturn
 We call i...
7/24/2013 MAJOR MOONS OF JUPITER & SATURN 56
Titan probably contains a rocky core
surrounded by a thick mantle of water i...
7/24/2013 MAJOR MOONS OF JUPITER & SATURN 57
7/24/2013 MAJOR MOONS OF JUPITER & SATURN 58
 Titan is very glowing
 Throughout its day-to-day; its color is
changes fro...
7/24/2013 MAJOR MOONS OF JUPITER & SATURN 59
7/24/2013 MAJOR MOONS OF JUPITER & SATURN 60
 Titan‟s atmosphere is thick and denser
 It is made up of mostly N2, Ar, a ...
7/24/2013 MAJOR MOONS OF JUPITER & SATURN 61
7/24/2013 MAJOR MOONS OF JUPITER & SATURN 62
 It also have liquid lakes, clouds and
mountains…………………lakes of METHANE
and ...
7/24/2013 MAJOR MOONS OF JUPITER & SATURN 63
 If a person wants to fly
then……………………………………………………………
Titan‟s atmosphere is ...
7/24/2013 MAJOR MOONS OF JUPITER & SATURN 64
 It is the 9th largest moon of solar
system and 2nd of Saturn.
 Its surface...
7/24/2013 MAJOR MOONS OF JUPITER & SATURN 65
It has craters
but these are
flatter than our
moon.
7/24/2013 MAJOR MOONS OF JUPITER & SATURN 66
 It is the only moon who have rings
around it
 Its faint rings contain dust...
7/24/2013 MAJOR MOONS OF JUPITER & SATURN 67
7/24/2013 MAJOR MOONS OF JUPITER & SATURN 68
 It is the 4th moon of the Saturn
 It has huge fractures on hemisphere
whic...
7/24/2013 MAJOR MOONS OF JUPITER & SATURN 69
It has craters.
7/24/2013 MAJOR MOONS OF JUPITER & SATURN 70
 Forwarded hemisphere is dark
 It is covered with dens population of
crater...
7/24/2013 MAJOR MOONS OF JUPITER & SATURN 71
 Consists of a complex network of
bright; wispy marking superimposed over
a ...
7/24/2013 MAJOR MOONS OF JUPITER & SATURN 72
TRAILING HEMISPHERE FORWARD HEMISPHERE
7/24/2013 MAJOR MOONS OF JUPITER & SATURN 73
 Scientists believed that in earlier it is
tidally locked
 Meteoric impact ...
7/24/2013 MAJOR MOONS OF JUPITER & SATURN 74
7/24/2013 MAJOR MOONS OF JUPITER & SATURN 75
 It is the 5th important moon of Saturn
 It is 248km in diameter
 A huge i...
7/24/2013 MAJOR MOONS OF JUPITER & SATURN 76
It has heavy and light craters in shape
of belt across the moon.
7/24/2013 MAJOR MOONS OF JUPITER & SATURN 77
 It is highly reflective object in the
solar system known due to its VISUAL
...
7/24/2013 MAJOR MOONS OF JUPITER & SATURN 78
 It has a large Canyon (Ithaca Chasma)
which runs about 1242 miles long
 Th...
7/24/2013 MAJOR MOONS OF JUPITER & SATURN 79
7/24/2013 MAJOR MOONS OF JUPITER & SATURN 80
 It is the 6th important moon of Saturn
 It has a plum of liquid water and
...
7/24/2013 MAJOR MOONS OF JUPITER & SATURN 81
7/24/2013 MAJOR MOONS OF JUPITER & SATURN 82
As it reflects 100% sunlight that
it receives.
7/24/2013 MAJOR MOONS OF JUPITER & SATURN 83
 Near south pole there are “V” and “Y”
shaped ridges and valleys which are
c...
7/24/2013 MAJOR MOONS OF JUPITER & SATURN 84
1. It is migrating towards Saturn which
increasing its rotation due to which
...
7/24/2013 MAJOR MOONS OF JUPITER & SATURN 85
2. Warm material rose from the interior
of the surface leading to a polar
ter...
7/24/2013 MAJOR MOONS OF JUPITER & SATURN 86
7/24/2013 MAJOR MOONS OF JUPITER & SATURN 87
7/24/2013 MAJOR MOONS OF JUPITER & SATURN 88
 Astronomy today,McMillan,5th edition,2005,pp-358
 The space-age solar syst...
7/24/2013 MAJOR MOONS OF JUPITER & SATURN 89
 Solar system bodies JPL/NASA, 2nd week of May
 Origin of Europa & Galilean...
7/24/2013 MAJOR MOONS OF JUPITER & SATURN 90
 Article by Institute of Astronomy University of
Hawaii, Scott Steppard & Da...
7/24/2013
MAJOR MOONS OF JUPITER &
SATURN91
Despite of the modern technology, still man is
unable to know the UNIVERSE – a...
MAJOR MOONS OF JUPITER & SATURN 927/24/2013
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Moons 2009

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Moons 2009

  1. 1. 7/24/2013 MAJOR MOONS OF JUPITER & SATURN 1
  2. 2. 7/24/2013 MAJOR MOONS OF JUPITER & SATURN 2
  3. 3. 7/24/2013 MAJOR MOONS OF JUPITER & SATURN 3  HISTORY………………………………………… 04  ORIGIN OF MOONS………………………06  INTRODUCTION TO JUPITER……10  MAJOR MOONS………………………………11  INTRODUCTION TO SATURN……52  MAJOR MOONS………………………………54  REFERENCES………………………………………88  CONCLUSION……………………………………91
  4. 4. 7/24/2013 MAJOR MOONS OF JUPITER & SATURN 4  Jupiter has 4 major moons  These 4 (IO,EUROPA,GANYMEDE & CALLISTO) large Jovian moons were discovered by GALILEO in 1610  Saturn has 6 major moons  ENCELADUS in 1789 by WILLIAM HERSCHEL
  5. 5. 7/24/2013 MAJOR MOONS OF JUPITER & SATURN 5  TETHYS & DIONE: In 1684 by GIOVANNI  TITAN: In 1655 by CHRISTIAN HUYGENS  RHEA: In 1672 by CASSINI
  6. 6. 7/24/2013 6 MAJOR MOONS OF JUPITER & SATURN  Many of the moons of the planets formed through accretion but on a small scale  Once the nebular gas began to accrete onto the large Jovian protoplanets, condition similar to the miniature solar nebula
  7. 7. 7/24/2013 7 MAJOR MOONS OF JUPITER & SATURN  ………with condensation & accretion continuing to occur  Some of the smaller moons may have been chipped off their parent planets during collision with asteroids  Or may be they captured asteroids themselves
  8. 8. 7/24/2013 8 MAJOR MOONS OF JUPITER & SATURN
  9. 9. 7/24/2013 MAJOR MOONS OF JUPITER & SATURN 9
  10. 10. 7/24/2013 MAJOR MOONS OF JUPITER & SATURN 10  5th planet in the solar system  The massive & largest one  Name originated from GREEK word „JOVE‟-name after their god  Uniquely it represent the model of our own solar system with the moons symboling the planets
  11. 11. 7/24/2013 MAJOR MOONS OF JUPITER & SATURN 11 Q: HOW MANY MOONS DOES JUPITER HAVE? ANS:A LARGE NUMBER …………………………… 63! Divided into 4 groups i. Galilean moons::largest groups of planet-Jupiter moons ii. Inner most moons: mostly small in size, with elliptical orbits iii. 3rd group: orbit with retrograded sense
  12. 12. 7/24/2013 MAJOR MOONS OF JUPITER & SATURN 12 iv. Outer most moons: just very small in size
  13. 13. 7/24/2013 MAJOR MOONS OF JUPITER & SATURN 13  They are four in number named as: i. GANYMEDE ii. CALLISTO iii. IO iv. EUROPA
  14. 14. 7/24/2013 MAJOR MOONS OF JUPITER & SATURN 14
  15. 15. 7/24/2013 MAJOR MOONS OF JUPITER & SATURN 15
  16. 16. 7/24/2013 MAJOR MOONS OF JUPITER & SATURN 16  Largest of the JOVIANS moons 5260km in the diameter  Density of 1.93g/cm3 shows that it is at least 50% water ice composition
  17. 17. 7/24/2013 MAJOR MOONS OF JUPITER & SATURN 17  Average reflectivity of 50%  A silicate rich core with mantle of liquid water  No existence of atmosphere
  18. 18. 7/24/2013 MAJOR MOONS OF JUPITER & SATURN 18  There are two distinctly different types of TERRAIN i. Dark terrain ii. Bright terrain  Water ice is the dominant component of the crust  No large scale mountains landforms
  19. 19. 7/24/2013 MAJOR MOONS OF JUPITER & SATURN 19
  20. 20. 7/24/2013 MAJOR MOONS OF JUPITER & SATURN 20
  21. 21. 7/24/2013 MAJOR MOONS OF JUPITER & SATURN 21  DARK TERRAIN  Polygonal in shape & separated each other by brighter terrain
  22. 22. 7/24/2013 MAJOR MOONS OF JUPITER & SATURN 22  May have a reasonable amount of DUST and ROCKY debris  Highly cratered surface – suggested that this part is relatively OLD must be dated back to METEORIC bombardment age that ended up 4biillion years ago
  23. 23. 7/24/2013 MAJOR MOONS OF JUPITER & SATURN 23  BRIGHTER TERRAIN  May be made up of PURE water  They are mostly LOW cratered area – suggested its age up to just 3.5 billion years
  24. 24. 7/24/2013 MAJOR MOONS OF JUPITER & SATURN 24
  25. 25. 7/24/2013 MAJOR MOONS OF JUPITER & SATURN 25  It has no atmosphere to speak of  Diameter of 4900km  Highest noonday temperature is of - 110C – highest of the GALILEAN moons  Has a very darkest surface due to low reflectivity of just 20%
  26. 26. 7/24/2013 MAJOR MOONS OF JUPITER & SATURN 26
  27. 27. 7/24/2013 MAJOR MOONS OF JUPITER & SATURN 27  Never volcanically active  Has the lowest density of all the other GALILEAN moons – 1.79g/cm3  Relatively small amount of heavier radioactive elements
  28. 28. 7/24/2013 MAJOR MOONS OF JUPITER & SATURN 28
  29. 29. 7/24/2013 MAJOR MOONS OF JUPITER & SATURN 29  Bright-orange colored sphere with, white irregular splotches  Polar regions are relatively darker
  30. 30. 7/24/2013 MAJOR MOONS OF JUPITER & SATURN 30  Absolutely no impact craters UNIQUNESS: nothing similar had been found in the solar system………THAT IS……a large number of odd-looking sinkholes like depression scattered over the surface
  31. 31. 7/24/2013 MAJOR MOONS OF JUPITER & SATURN 31  They are the vents of the volcanoes  At least 8 are currently active  Eruptions take place on continual basis  Last for few months to years  Named after GREEK gods of FIRE  IO is the only world in the universe besides Earth known to have active volcanoes
  32. 32. 7/24/2013 MAJOR MOONS OF JUPITER & SATURN 32
  33. 33. 7/24/2013 MAJOR MOONS OF JUPITER & SATURN 33  Umbrella-shaped plume  Gigantic fan – shaped in the vacuum  Produced by the eruption of gases and materials from the volcanoes
  34. 34. 7/24/2013 MAJOR MOONS OF JUPITER & SATURN 34  Mostly colored patterns includes yellow, red, orange and brown  Its surface is mostly covered with this volcanic material  Emitted gases are the SO2 And H2S(hydrogen sulfide)- by the help of REFLECTANCE SPECTRUM
  35. 35. 7/24/2013 MAJOR MOONS OF JUPITER & SATURN 35  There exist mountain ranges  INTERESTINGLY up to 10km in height HERE QUESTION ARISES FROM WHERE THEY ORIGINATED? The ‟TECTONIC FRUCTURING FORCES‟ as similar in case of Earth
  36. 36. 7/24/2013 MAJOR MOONS OF JUPITER & SATURN 36  Average day time temperature is -145C  Although as hot as 300C near volcanoes  Average night time temperature is -190C
  37. 37. 7/24/2013 MAJOR MOONS OF JUPITER & SATURN 37
  38. 38. 7/24/2013 MAJOR MOONS OF JUPITER & SATURN 38  Not founded water any where in surface, interior and not even on the atmosphere  It has a thin layer of atmosphere  Most probably the active volcanoes that releases the SO2 forms the atmosphere  And pressure is quiet small just about 1*10^-7 atmospheric pressure
  39. 39. 7/24/2013 MAJOR MOONS OF JUPITER & SATURN 39  Light brown surface with white patches  Move in the circular orbit of 670,900km in radius  No impact craters
  40. 40. 7/24/2013 MAJOR MOONS OF JUPITER & SATURN 40  Absolutely no atmosphere  Max. day time temperature is-180C  Reflectivity of 70% as it a bright world
  41. 41. 7/24/2013 MAJOR MOONS OF JUPITER & SATURN 41  Slightly smaller density of about 3.03g/cm3  No signs of volcanism either current or in the past - different from the IO  Mostly the surface is smooth
  42. 42. 7/24/2013 MAJOR MOONS OF JUPITER & SATURN 42  UNIQUENESS: the only world in the solar system besides Earth that has …………WATER!  Density of Europa is consistent with up to 20% of water  Exist as ICE in the interior mostly  And the rest of it is made up of metals & silicate
  43. 43. 7/24/2013 MAJOR MOONS OF JUPITER & SATURN 43
  44. 44. 7/24/2013 MAJOR MOONS OF JUPITER & SATURN 44  There are only few signs of craters (only 3 probable craters of 18-25km apart)  It means that the present icy structure formed long after the era of METEORIC bombardment came to an end
  45. 45. 7/24/2013 MAJOR MOONS OF JUPITER & SATURN 45
  46. 46. 7/24/2013 MAJOR MOONS OF JUPITER & SATURN 46  Water exposed to the space rapidly evaporates forming a thin layer of atmosphere of WATER VAPOUR
  47. 47. 7/24/2013 MAJOR MOONS OF JUPITER & SATURN 47  Exceedingly cold temperature outside condenses the it into solid – ICE  This falls back to the surface ,covering the entire EUROPA landscape with a layer of fine FROST
  48. 48. 7/24/2013 MAJOR MOONS OF JUPITER & SATURN 48
  49. 49. 7/24/2013 MAJOR MOONS OF JUPITER & SATURN 49  Theoretical calculations of the current thermal state of EUROPA have an interesting possibility………………… LIFE
  50. 50. 7/24/2013 MAJOR MOONS OF JUPITER & SATURN 50  Result suggested that some LUIQUID WATER may be still present in the interior - hidden deep underneath the icy crust  Its mantel actually warm enough to support the……… LIFE …………We r go„in to start our INVASION of SATURN… !!!!!!!!!!!
  51. 51. 7/24/2013 MAJOR MOONS OF JUPITER & SATURN 51
  52. 52. 7/24/2013 MAJOR MOONS OF JUPITER & SATURN 52 Saturn was the outermost planet known to ancient astronomy It is the 6th planet of solar system  Its mass is 5.6*10^29g  Its density is 0.7g/cm3
  53. 53. 7/24/2013 MAJOR MOONS OF JUPITER & SATURN 53  The atmosphere of Saturn consists of molecular Hydrogen ,Helium ,Methane and Ammonia.
  54. 54. 7/24/2013 MAJOR MOONS OF JUPITER & SATURN 54  Saturn has 67! moons out of which 5 largest are: 1. Titan 2. Rhea 3. Dione 4. Tethys 5. Enceladus
  55. 55. 7/24/2013 MAJOR MOONS OF JUPITER & SATURN 55  Titan is the 2nd largest moon of solar system and 1st of Saturn  We call it as a hazy titan  A thick uniform haze layer similar to photochemical smog seen above our cities found here
  56. 56. 7/24/2013 MAJOR MOONS OF JUPITER & SATURN 56 Titan probably contains a rocky core surrounded by a thick mantle of water ice.
  57. 57. 7/24/2013 MAJOR MOONS OF JUPITER & SATURN 57
  58. 58. 7/24/2013 MAJOR MOONS OF JUPITER & SATURN 58  Titan is very glowing  Throughout its day-to-day; its color is changes from Blue to Green and Green to Red  As a result; a beautiful glowing orange color is appears.
  59. 59. 7/24/2013 MAJOR MOONS OF JUPITER & SATURN 59
  60. 60. 7/24/2013 MAJOR MOONS OF JUPITER & SATURN 60  Titan‟s atmosphere is thick and denser  It is made up of mostly N2, Ar, a few percent of CH4 in addition to ethane and propane, CO and other compounds  Its atmosphere undergoing a series of chemical reactions powered by sun light
  61. 61. 7/24/2013 MAJOR MOONS OF JUPITER & SATURN 61
  62. 62. 7/24/2013 MAJOR MOONS OF JUPITER & SATURN 62  It also have liquid lakes, clouds and mountains…………………lakes of METHANE and ETHANE………Not of water!!!
  63. 63. 7/24/2013 MAJOR MOONS OF JUPITER & SATURN 63  If a person wants to fly then…………………………………………………………… Titan‟s atmosphere is best !  A person can fly just with……………… man made wings…………………………………… WOW!
  64. 64. 7/24/2013 MAJOR MOONS OF JUPITER & SATURN 64  It is the 9th largest moon of solar system and 2nd of Saturn.  Its surface consists of 25% rocks and 75% water ice  It is known as WISPY RHEA  Due to the tectonic activity
  65. 65. 7/24/2013 MAJOR MOONS OF JUPITER & SATURN 65 It has craters but these are flatter than our moon.
  66. 66. 7/24/2013 MAJOR MOONS OF JUPITER & SATURN 66  It is the only moon who have rings around it  Its faint rings contain dust particles and debris.
  67. 67. 7/24/2013 MAJOR MOONS OF JUPITER & SATURN 67
  68. 68. 7/24/2013 MAJOR MOONS OF JUPITER & SATURN 68  It is the 4th moon of the Saturn  It has huge fractures on hemisphere which made Forward and Trailing side  These are quiet different from each other.
  69. 69. 7/24/2013 MAJOR MOONS OF JUPITER & SATURN 69 It has craters.
  70. 70. 7/24/2013 MAJOR MOONS OF JUPITER & SATURN 70  Forwarded hemisphere is dark  It is covered with dens population of craters  It has large craters having diameter of 62miles or 99km.
  71. 71. 7/24/2013 MAJOR MOONS OF JUPITER & SATURN 71  Consists of a complex network of bright; wispy marking superimposed over a darker surface  With numerous craters  It has small craters as compare to forward hemisphere with diameter of 19miles or 30km.
  72. 72. 7/24/2013 MAJOR MOONS OF JUPITER & SATURN 72 TRAILING HEMISPHERE FORWARD HEMISPHERE
  73. 73. 7/24/2013 MAJOR MOONS OF JUPITER & SATURN 73  Scientists believed that in earlier it is tidally locked  Meteoric impact took place preferably on the forward facing side  A large impact could change its current orientation
  74. 74. 7/24/2013 MAJOR MOONS OF JUPITER & SATURN 74
  75. 75. 7/24/2013 MAJOR MOONS OF JUPITER & SATURN 75  It is the 5th important moon of Saturn  It is 248km in diameter  A huge impact of crater that covers 2/5 of the surface of it has been found
  76. 76. 7/24/2013 MAJOR MOONS OF JUPITER & SATURN 76 It has heavy and light craters in shape of belt across the moon.
  77. 77. 7/24/2013 MAJOR MOONS OF JUPITER & SATURN 77  It is highly reflective object in the solar system known due to its VISUAL WAVELENGTH  It has an average density of just 1.2g/cm3  Probably have rocky material mixed with the ice
  78. 78. 7/24/2013 MAJOR MOONS OF JUPITER & SATURN 78  It has a large Canyon (Ithaca Chasma) which runs about 1242 miles long  That means Canyon runs across 2/3 of the moon  These cracks are due to the shrinking and cooling of the surface layers
  79. 79. 7/24/2013 MAJOR MOONS OF JUPITER & SATURN 79
  80. 80. 7/24/2013 MAJOR MOONS OF JUPITER & SATURN 80  It is the 6th important moon of Saturn  It has a plum of liquid water and chemicals  Its temperature is -210 degree Celsius
  81. 81. 7/24/2013 MAJOR MOONS OF JUPITER & SATURN 81
  82. 82. 7/24/2013 MAJOR MOONS OF JUPITER & SATURN 82 As it reflects 100% sunlight that it receives.
  83. 83. 7/24/2013 MAJOR MOONS OF JUPITER & SATURN 83  Near south pole there are “V” and “Y” shaped ridges and valleys which are called “TIGER STRIPES”  There are two theories about these stripes
  84. 84. 7/24/2013 MAJOR MOONS OF JUPITER & SATURN 84 1. It is migrating towards Saturn which increasing its rotation due to which rotation axis is flatten  This flattering causes near the surface of poles to push outward and buckle forming ridges
  85. 85. 7/24/2013 MAJOR MOONS OF JUPITER & SATURN 85 2. Warm material rose from the interior of the surface leading to a polar terrain from its current area to a new region  It would then adjust to match the new polar orientation which causes surface tension and ridges formed
  86. 86. 7/24/2013 MAJOR MOONS OF JUPITER & SATURN 86
  87. 87. 7/24/2013 MAJOR MOONS OF JUPITER & SATURN 87
  88. 88. 7/24/2013 MAJOR MOONS OF JUPITER & SATURN 88  Astronomy today,McMillan,5th edition,2005,pp-358  The space-age solar system, Joseph F. Baugher, Institute of Technology Chicago, Illinois: John Wiley & Sons, pp-221-251  Satellites of Jupiter, Saturn & Uranus, International Astronomical Union Circulates, 2nd week of May
  89. 89. 7/24/2013 MAJOR MOONS OF JUPITER & SATURN 89  Solar system bodies JPL/NASA, 2nd week of May  Origin of Europa & Galilean satellites, University of Arizona,2nd week of May  Jupiter’s known satellites Department of Terrestrial Magnetism at Carniege Institute of Science, 2nd week of May
  90. 90. 7/24/2013 MAJOR MOONS OF JUPITER & SATURN 90  Article by Institute of Astronomy University of Hawaii, Scott Steppard & David Jewitt, 2nd week of May  Moons and Planets, William K. Hartmann,5th edition – THOMSON BROOKS/COLE
  91. 91. 7/24/2013 MAJOR MOONS OF JUPITER & SATURN91 Despite of the modern technology, still man is unable to know the UNIVERSE – as these MOONS! This shows the limitation of the MANKIND! Even though he considered HIMSELF “SUPERIOR” Although „HE‟…… Is NOT!!!!
  92. 92. MAJOR MOONS OF JUPITER & SATURN 927/24/2013

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