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    Koppen classification 2011 Koppen classification 2011 Document Transcript

    • Koppen Climatic Classification System 2011 Friday, June 07, 2013 Page 1 Submitted Topic: Kooppen Climatic Classification System Submitted To: Sir.Salman Tariq Submitted By: Atiqa Ijaz Khan Roll no.: SS09-03 Date of Submission: 17th –Nov-2011
    • Koppen Climatic Classification System 2011 Friday, June 07, 2013 Page 2 1) The Classical Age of Climatic Classification 03 a. Kooppen System 03 b. Thornthwaite System 03 2) The Modified Koopen System 03 a. 1st letter b. 2nd letter c. 3rd letter 3) Detailed Classification 07 a. Climate and Temperature 07 i. Tropical Moist 07 1. Af 2. Am 3. Aw ii. Dry Climate 08 1. Bw 2. Bs iii. Moist_subtropical Mid-latitude Climate 08 1. Cfa 2. Cfb 3. Cs iv. Moist Continental Mid-latitude Climate 08 1. Dfa 2. Dfb 3. Dfw, Dfc, Dwd, Dwc v. Polar Climate 09 1. ET 2. EF b. Climate and Vegetation 09 i. Tropical Climate. ii. Desert Climate iii. Mid-latitude Climate iv. Moist winters v. Polar Climate 4) High lands 15 5) Short Summary 16 6) References 21
    • Koppen Climatic Classification System 2011 Friday, June 07, 2013 Page 3 The Classical Age of Climatic Classification: Because of the relatively short data records and the massive amount of the atmospheric data collected from individual weather stations, the identification of the true climatic regions is a relatively recent endeavor. This age has been broadly classified into two major types as: 1. Kooppen Climatic Classification: A widely used classification of world climates based on the annual and monthly averages of temperature and precipitation was devised by the famous German scientist Waldimir Köppen (1846– 1940). Initially published in 1918,the original Köppen classification system has since been modified and refined. Faced with the lack of adequate observing stations throughout the world, Köppen related the distribution and type of native vegetation to the various climates. In this way, climatic boundaries could be approximated where no climatological data were available. 2. Thornthwaite Climatic Classification: This was formulated by C. Wrren Thornthwiate in 1931 and completed in 1948. It represent an alternative to the Kooppen classification system. The Modified Kooppen Classification System: The Köppen Climate Classification System is the most widely used system for classifying the world's climates. Its categories are based on the annual and monthly averages of temperature and precipitation. The Köppen system recognizes five major climatic types; each type is designated by a capital letter. Classical age of climatic classification Koopppen Classification Thornthwaite Classififcation
    • Koppen Climatic Classification System 2011 Friday, June 07, 2013 Page 4 1st letter: Code Type Description A Tropical climate  Monthly average temperature > 18°C  No winter season  Strong annual precipitations (higher than evaporation) B Dry climate / Desert  Annual evaporation higher than precipitations  No permanent rivers C Hot moderate climate  The 3 coldest months average a temperature between -3°C and 18°C  Hottest month average temperature > 10°C  The summer and winter seasons are well defined D Cold moderate climate  Coldest month average temperature of the coldest month < -3°C  Hottest month average temperature > 10°C  The seasons summer and winter seasons are well defined E Polar climate  Average temperature of the hottest month > 10°C  The summer season is very little different from the rest of the year 2nd letter: Code Description Applies to S  Steppe climate (semi-arid)  Annual precipitations range between 380 and 760 mm B W  Dry (Arid and semi-arid) climates  Annual precipitations < 250 mm B F  Wet climate  Precipitations occur every month of the year  No dry season A-C-D W  Dry season in winter A-C-D
    • Koppen Climatic Classification System 2011 Friday, June 07, 2013 Page 5 Examples: 1. Af: Tropical rain forest climate. Examples : Singapore, Belém, Brazil. 2. Aw: Tropical wet and dry or savanna climate. Examples : Bangalore, India, Veracruz, Mexico, Townsville, Australia. 3. Am: Tropical monsoon climate. Examples : Conakry, Guinea, Chittagong, Bangladesh. 4. BS: steppe climate 5. BW: desert climate 6. Cf: humid moderate climate without dry seasons 7. CW: humid moderate climate with dry winter 8. Cs: Mediterranean climate : humid moderate climate with dry summer 9. Df: cold continental climate without dry season 10. Dw: cold continental climate with dry winter 11. ET: Tundra climate. Examples : Iqaluit, Nunavut, Canada. Provideniya, Russia. Deception Island, Antarctica. Longyearbyen, Svalbard. 12. EF: Ice cap climate 13. EM: subarctic maritime climate S  Dry season in summer C M  Monsoon climate:  Annual precipitations > 1500 mm  Precipitations of the driest month < 60 mm A T  Average temperature of the hottest month between 0 and 10°C E F  Average temperature of the hottest month < 0°C E M  Abundant precipitations  Mild winter E
    • Koppen Climatic Classification System 2011 Friday, June 07, 2013 Page 6 3rd letter A third letter allows us to refine the B,C and D climate types. It is related to the temperature variations. Code Description Appli es to a: hot summer  Average temperature of the hottest month > 22°C C-D b: moderate summer  Average temperature of the hottest month < 22°C  The 4 hottest months average temperatures > 10°C C-D C: short and cold summer  Average temperature of the hottest month < 22°C  Monthly average temperatures > 10°C for less than 4 months  Average temperature of the coldest month > -38°C C-D D: very cold winter  Average temperature of the coldest month < -38°C D H: dry and heat  Annual average temperature > 18°C B K: dry and cold  Annual average temperature < 18°C B Examples : 1. BWh : Sahara 2. BWh : Yuma, Arizona 3. Cfb : France 4. Dfc : Siberia 5. Etw : Canada's Yukon Territory
    • Koppen Climatic Classification System 2011 Friday, June 07, 2013 Page 7 Detailed Classification: This detailed classification has been divided into two types as: 1-Climate and Temperature: 1) Tropical Moist Climates (A) Tropical moist climates extend northward and southward from the equator to about 15 to 25 degrees of latitude. In these climates all months have average temperatures greater than 18 degrees Celsius. Annual precipitation is greater than 1500 mm. Three minor Köppen climate types exist in the A group and their designation is based on seasonal distribution of rainfall. a) Af or tropical wet is a tropical the climate where precipitation occurs all year long. Monthly temperature variations in this climate are less than 3 degrees Celsius. Because of intense surface heating and high humidity cumulus and cumulonimbus clouds form early in the afternoons almost every day. Daily highs are about 32 degrees Celsius while night time temperatures average 22 degrees Celsius. b) Am is a tropical monsoon climate. Annual rainfall is equal to or greater than Af, but falls in the 7 to 9 hottest months. During the dry season very little rainfall occurs. c) Tropical wet and dry or savanna (Aw) has an extended dry season during winter. Precipitation during the wet season is usually less than 1000 millimeters and only during the summer season. Baobob and acia in East Africa Detailed Classification Climate and temperature Climate and Vegetation
    • Koppen Climatic Classification System 2011 Friday, June 07, 2013 Page 8 2) Dry Climates (B) The most obvious climatic feature of these climate is potential evaporation and transpiration exceed precipitation. These climates extend from 20 - 35 degrees North and South of the equator and in large continental regions of the mid-latitudes often surrounded by mountains. Minor types of this climate include: a) Bw - dry arid (desert) is a true desert climate. It covers 12 % of the earth's land surface and is dominated by xerophytic vegetation. b) Bs - dry semiarid (steppe). Is a grassland climate that covers 14% of the earth's land surface. It receives more precipitation than the Bw either from the intertropical convergence zone or from mid-latitude cyclones. Cumulus cloud over steep grassland of Western North America 3) Moist Subtropical Mid-Latitude Climates (C) This climate generally has warm and humid summers with mild winters. Its extent is from 30 to 50 degrees of latitude mainly on the eastern and western borders of most continents. During the winter the main weather feature is the mid-latitude cyclone. Convective thunderstorms dominate summer months. Three minor types exist: a) Cfa-humid subtropical: The humid subtropical climate (Cfa) has hot muggy summers and mainly thunderstorms. Winters are mild and precipitation during this season comes from mid-latitude cyclones. A good example of a Cfa climate is the southeastern USA. b) Cfb- marine: climates are found on the western coasts of continents. They have a humid climate with short dry summer. Heavy precipitation occurs during the mild winters because of continuous presence of midlatitude cyclones. c) Mediterranean climates (Cs): receive rain primarily during winter season from the mid-latitude cyclone. Extreme summer aridity is caused by the sinking air of the subtropical highs and may exist for up to 5 months. Locations in North America are from Portland, Oregon to all of California. 4) Moist Continental Mid-latitude Climates (D) Moist continental mid-latitude climates have warm to cool summers and cold winters. The location of these climates is pole ward of the C climates. The warmest month is greater than 10 degrees Celsius, while the coldest month is less than -30 degrees Celsius. Winters are severe with snowstorms, strong winds, bitter cold from Continental Polar or Arctic air masses. Like the C climates there are three minor types: a) Hot summer (Dfa): Distinctive four seasons with marked temperature. US from eastern to Midwest b) Mild summer (Dfb): Less precipitation,less humid and drier. c) Subarctic(Dfc, Dfd, Dwd, Dwc): Serve winters with clear sky dominated by high pressure.
    • Koppen Climatic Classification System 2011 Friday, June 07, 2013 Page 9 Conifers (Dw) 5) Polar Climates (E) Polar climates have year-round cold temperatures with warmest month less than 10 degrees Celsius. Polar climates are found on the northern coastal areas of North America and Europe, Asia and on the landmasses of Greenland and Antarctica. Two minor climate types exist as: a) ET or polar tundra is a climate where the soil is permanently frozen to depths of hundreds of meters, a condition known as permafrost. Vegetation is dominated by mosses, lichens, dwarf trees and scattered woody shrubs. b) EF or polar ice caps has a surface that is permanently covered with snow and ice. 2-Climate and vegetation Koppen used vegetation groups to aid in climate classification. Koppen used definite temperature and precipitation criteria to distinguish between climate types. Tropical (A) Climates All tropical climates are warm; the subdivisions are based on differences in preicipitation. Tropical Rainforest (AF) Climate Located in the ITCZ (10-15 N/S). Diurnal range in temperature is greater than the difference between the warmest and coolest months (annual range). Every month has precipitation and no month is deficient in rainfall. This high amount of rainfall keeps the soil moisture at capacity. a) Tropical Rainforest (AF) Climate Vegetation Tropical rainforest vegetation is very closely associated with the tropical rainforest climate. Representative areas include: Amazon Basin Congo Basin in Africa, parts of the Indo-Malaysian area of Asia. The tropical rainforest is densely forested. Three levels of vegetation are frequently recognized in the typical rainforest as: Climate and Termperature Tropical (A) Af Am Aw Dry(B) Bs Bw Mid-latitude(C) Cfa Cfb Cs Moist contenental(D) Dfa Dfb Dfc, Dfb, Dwd, Dwc Polar(E) ET EF
    • Koppen Climatic Classification System 2011 Friday, June 07, 2013 Page 10  The high level consists of solitary giant trees that reach heights of 200 feet extending far above the rest of the forest.  The middle layer of trees grow to heights of 100-130 feet and makes a massive canopy which sunlight has difficulty penetrating.  Beneath the middle layer is the bottom portion of the forest which has little undergrowth because of lack of sunlight. The tree trunks are slender with few branches.The crowns begin at great heights where sunlight is available.70% of all plant species growing in the tropical rainforest are trees. There is great divesity of species with no pure stands of trees. A single acre may contain 50 species of trees. A number of other plants other then trees have adapted themselves to the environment:  Lianas - plants that do not have rigid stems, vine-like. They use trees as support to grow towards the sunlight.  Epiphytes - such as bromeliads and orchids make homes in the trees deriving moisture from the air. Although the ground in the rainforest is clear from undergrowth it is difficult to get around. The soil is always wet so tree roots do not go deep into the soil. Buttresses fan out 10-15 feet on all sides as support. The soil in tropical rainforests is extremely poor, and is very acid. The luxuriant vegetation grows in infertile soil. Nutrients are locked up in the vegetation that falls to the forest floor. Since there are no temperature or precipitation seasons here leaves fall when they die throughout the year. Thick layers of plant material collect on the rainforest floor. This material decays quickly in the hot, humid climate and releases its nutrients immediately. Extensive root systems close to the surface soak up the nutrients quickly. If the rainforest is not disturbed, growth can go on indefinitely. As soon as an area is deforested, intense leaching of the soil begins and remaining nutrients can be depleted in several years. If these fields are abandoned, secondary forest moves in that may take centuries to return to rainforest. b) Tropical Monsoon (Am) Climate Always hot, seasonally excessively moist. Similar to tropical rainforest (Af) climate in temperature conditions. Distinguish: It is distinguished from Af by its rainfall regime. The winter/summer reversal of airflow brings dry and wet seasons to the Am climate. Am vegetation: The forest becomes less dense with individual trees more widely spaced. Ground cover is heavier because more light penetrates to the ground surface. The forest is semi-deciduous, i.e. some trees drop their leaves during the dry season and some retain their leaves. The trees that retain leaves have adaptations to dry weather that include: deep or extensive roots. small leaves thick cuticles. Many of the trees found in the rainforest are also found in the semi-deciduous forest but drop their leaves during the dry season. Somewhat pure stands of trees occur including: teak, ebony, mahogony, cacao, rubber and banana. c) Tropical Wet & Dry(Aw) Climate North and south of the Af climate are areas where the ITCZ penetrates during the high sun period bringing convectional precipitation. During the low sun period the trade winds dominate bringing a distinct dry season. Aw vegetation: Move poleward to tropical climates with less annual rainfall and longer dry seasons, the vegetation shows xerophytic adaptations. Xerophytic adaptations include low growing trees to reduce water loss from wind, thick bark, small leaves or thorns. On the equator side of the Aw climate trees are present and this forest can be very luxurious during the wet season but life less during the dry season. As trees become more and more scattered because of the increasing dry period, grasses become dominant. This is Savanna vegetation and is found in the drier Aw climates and well into the BS climate. The grasses have dense root systems and can absorb moisture rapidly so very little rain makes it past the roots deep into the soil. During the dry season the tops of the grasses die but the roots remain viable. The dead
    • Koppen Climatic Classification System 2011 Friday, June 07, 2013 Page 11 grasses insulate the roots form cold and drought. Trees are found in the Savanna but are widely separated because of lack of moisture and need for extensive root systems. Root systems are oriented either vertically (very deep to tap deep soil moisture, typically 10 times height of tree), or horizontally (close to surface to absorb maximum amount of rainfall, typically 5-7 times height of tree). Deep-rooted trees have a shortened dormancy period because they can tap deep soil moisture during dry season. Examples: Tree/shrub species found on Savanna: Acacia, Eucalyptus. Chaprral vegetation in North America Desert Climates (BS, BW) a) Semi-arid Hot Climate (BSh) or Low-latitude Steppe: This climate is found surrounding the low-latitude deserts. You cannot distinguish between Bsh and BWh climates by temperature only, but consider precipitation also. Although the precipitation in the BSh climate is not very much, it is greater than the deserts. The typical steppe has 10" precipitation per year and always less than 30". Seasonal distribution varies. BSh climates on the equator side receive 80% of rainfall during the high-sun period when the ITCZ migrates to the region. The steppes on the poleward side of the low-latitude deserts experience maximum precipitation during the low-sun period. Precipitation is mainly from cyclonic fronts that occasionally swing far south. The water balance shows a deficit throughout the year. b) Low-Latitude Deserts (BWh) These deserts lie approximately between 18-28 in both hemispheres. They coincide with the equatorward edge of the subtropical high pressure belt and trade winds. Includes the world's great deserts: Sahara, Sonoran, Thar, Kalahari, Great Australian. Desert Vegetation: Deserts are regions where PEVT is much higher than annual precipitation. The name desert was originally a term describing vegetation that was coined in North Africa. Desert means "plants that are evenly spaced". Western civilization applies the term desert to both vegetation and climate. All deserts have some plant life. Even the driest deserts, which appear without plant life most of the time, contain dormant seeds that come to life after rare showers. The rain showers may be years apart.
    • Koppen Climatic Classification System 2011 Friday, June 07, 2013 Page 12 Creosote and cacti in Southwestern America In the world's deserts there are two major types of plant life:  Species nourished directly be rain and may be dormant for long periods of time. Are annuals and perannials.  Other plants live in protected areas, e.g. valleys and depressions and seek water through their extensive root systems. Desert plants have to survive extreme dryness and drastic diurnal and annual temperature ranges. Example: Location/Temp. Average max. temp. Average min. temp. Range Lima, Peru 89F 51F 38F Yuma, Ariz. 113 31 89 Reno, Nev. 98 -1 99 Kazalinsk,Russia 103 -21 124 Many desert plants are adapted to use dew for moisture and can take in water through leaves and stem. 1) Adaptation of Xerophytic Plants:  Have extensive root systems oriented either horizontally or vertically.  Above ground plants have compact growth with leaves hugging the ground.  Leaves have thick cuticles.  Leaves are small or absent or have hairs that raise wind off surface. 2) Growth Forms of Desert Plants:  Leafless Evergreen Shrub - e.g. Cactus, which is found in the Americas or Euphorbia found in Africa. Have shallow, poorly developed root systems but can store a lot of water. Leaves are absent but trunk is green and can photosynthesize.  Deciduous Shrubs - major component of desert vegetation. They leaf out only when sufficient water is present. Can leaf out more than once a year. Growth is very fast in wet periods.  Ephemerals - only present when enough water falls to ensure a complete growth cycle. e.g. grasses annuals - have fragrent, colorful flowers to ensure pollenation. Seeds know when to sprout because outer covering is abraded or chemical is washed off.
    • Koppen Climatic Classification System 2011 Friday, June 07, 2013 Page 13 Mid-Latitude Climates ("C"- Cs/Cf/Cm) These climates (C) are located in the belt of the prevailing westerlies. They are characterized by seasonality in temperature. Have mild winters. Different "C" climates based on seasonality of precipitation (f,w,s), and severity of winter (a,b,c). Precipitation regimes depend upon their position relative to the subtropical high pressure belt and the polar front. a) Dry Subtropical Climate (Csa) or Mediterranean: The Mediterranean basin contains the largest area of this climate. This climate is found on the west coasts of middle latitude continents in for example, California, Central Chili, South Africa, Western/Central Australia. Sclerophyll Forest: Largest area of development in Mediterranean Basin. Associated with Cfa climate. The vegetation of this forest is dominated by an evergreen, leathery, drought-resistant foliage. Heights range from 18 inches to 10 feet. The woody vegetation varies depending upon the length of the dry season. In the wettest areas of this climate tree species include cork, pine, oak and olive. These trees provide an open canopy. In drier areas trees tend to disappear and shrubs form a dense covering over the ground. In the drier areas the shrub cover is discontinuous and lower, reflecting the lack of water. b) Subtropical (Cfa) Climate Found on the Southeastern side of continents primarily between 30-40. In the U.S. and China, polar air masses bring cold "spells" in winter. Mid-Latitude Deciduous Forest: This forest community is generally associated with the Cfa and Dfa climates, i.e. continental climates with mild winters. This forest is found in eastern U.S./southern Canada, NW Europe, southern tip South America, East Asia. Approximately 5000 different species of plants here compared with 50,000 in Tropical Rainforest.. There are 2-3 layers of vegetation present:  canopy layer (100')  understory of bushes not well developed,  thick ground cover in early spring when trees have not leafed out yet. Leaves of Decidous brust(Cfa & Dfa) The Mid-latitude Deciduous Forest has great extent both latitudinally and longitudinally. This forest is not homogeneous but has dominent species in different areas because of the wide range of temperature and precipitation that is experienced in this forest. The center of the Eastern Deciduous Forest is located in the Smokies and Cumberland mountains. There are as many as 25 different dominant species in the Eastern Deciduous Forest, all dominent in different areas. c) Marine West Coast (Cfb) Climate This climate lies poleward of the dry subtropical climates on the western sides of continents and can extend quite a distance. The prevailing westerlies constantly bring in moisture from the oceans and if a warm ocean current is present off-shore the climate is even more moist and mild. The degree to which this climate extends inland depends on the presence or absence of
    • Koppen Climatic Classification System 2011 Friday, June 07, 2013 Page 14 mountain barriers. Locations:  The west coast of U.S. from N. California to the panhandle of Alaska.  Southern Chile (narrow band because of mountains).  NW Europe - extends far inland because of lack of North-South trending mountains. This climate (Cfb) is very mild because of the modifying effects of the ocean. This climate does not have large seasonal extremes of temperature, summers are cool and winters are mild. Average summer temps are 60-65F. Average winter temps are 30-45F. Freezing temperatures are more frequent and more severe then in the Humid Subtropics but the growing season is still quite long (6-8 months) considering the latitude. Rainfall is adequate throughout the year, the water budget always shows a surplus. Places such as Europe get 25-30 inches per year. Evaporation rates are low so rainfall is very effective. In areas with mountain barriers precipitation can be high (40-100"/year) on the windward side. Moist, Severe Winter (D) Cimates These climates are found poleward of the "C" climates. The "D" climates have longer, colder winters and greater annual range of temperature as compared with "C" climates. The boundary between C/D climates is where the coldest month averages below 32F. Boreal Forest (assoc. with Cfa, Cfb, Dfa, Dfb) / Tiaga: the Boreal Forest occurs under a number of climatic regimes. The Boreal Forest is associated with climates having cool summers and cold winters. The trees are evergreen and are conifers. They have special adaptations to the severe climate. The air is dry here so plants need adaptations for temperature and precipitation fluctuations. Small leaves have thick cuticles. Trees are conical shaped to allow snow to fall off branches. The canopy is closed and is low to the ground. There is little ground cover. There are few species of trees in the Tiaga but you find extensive pure stands. Representative species include spruce, larch (tamarack), fir birch, pine.  Humid continental (Dfa): land of tall parire grasses  Humid continental(Dfb): More firs, pines and root plant(potatoes), apples, cherries etc. with shorter growing seasons  Subarctic(Dwd, dfd, dwc, dfw):No agriculture, with open land area normally “taiga forest” Tagia forest Polar (E) Climates a) Tundra (ET) Climate This climate lacks a summer. Its southern boundary is the northern limit of the forest. This boundary occurs approximately with the July 50F isotherm which means the warmest month, in the Tundra, averages 50F. The dividing line between the ET and EF climate is 32F for warmest month. The ET climate has long, cold winters and short summers similar to Alabama in January. Only 2-4 months have average temperatures above freezing. Tundra Vegetation:The transition from Boreal Forest to treeless Tundra is very gradual with tree species thinning out and becoming dwarfed. Although the tundra receives little precipitation (some call it a frozen desert) it remains as snow and insulates the ground in winter. The tundra is
    • Koppen Climatic Classification System 2011 Friday, June 07, 2013 Page 15 underlain by permafrost which produces poor drainage in summer. A Flow Chart: High lands(H): It is not necessary to visit polar regions to experience. Because tepmperature de reases with latitude. Climatic change experincewithin 300m in elevatin is equal to horizontal distance of 300km northward for these changes. Therefore, climbing a mountain makes able to experience different climatic zones within shorter period of time. Climate and Vegetation Tropical (A) Af Am Aw Desert (B) Bsh Bwh Warm and moist (C) Cfa Cba Csa Cool and moist (D) Polar(E)
    • Koppen Climatic Classification System 2011 Friday, June 07, 2013 Page 16 Koppen Climate Classification Chart in a Short Summary: A Tropical humid Af Tropical wet No dry season Am Tropical monsoonal Short dry season; heavy monsoonal rains in other months Aw Tropical savanna Winter dry season B Dry BWh Subtropical desert Low-latitude desert BSh Subtropical steppe Low-latitude dry BWk Mid-latitude desert Mid-latitude desert BSk Mid- latitude steppe Mid-latitude dry CMild Mid-Latitude Csa Mediterranean Mild with dry, hot summer Csb Mediterranean Mild with dry, warm summer Cfa Humid subtropical Mild with no dry season, hot summer Cwa Humid Mild with dry winter, hot summer
    • Koppen Climatic Classification System 2011 Friday, June 07, 2013 Page 17 subtropical Cfb Marine west coast Mild with no dry season, warm summer Cfc Marine west coast Mild with no dry season, cool summer DSevere Mid-Latitude Dfa Humid continental Humid with severe winter, no dry season, hot summer Dfb Humid continental Humid with severe winter, no dry season, warm summer Dwa Humid continental Humid with severe, dry winter, hot summer Dwb Humid continental Humid with severe, dry winter, warm summer Dfc Subarctic Severe winter, no dry season, cool summer Dfd Subarctic Severe, very cold winter, no dry season, cool summer Dwc Subarctic Severe, dry winter, cool summer Dwd Subarctic Severe, very cold and dry winter, cool summer EPolar ET Tundra Polar tundra, no true summer
    • Koppen Climatic Classification System 2011 Friday, June 07, 2013 Page 18 EF Ice Cap Perennial ice HHighland
    • Koppen Climatic Classification System 2011 Friday, June 07, 2013 Page 19
    • Koppen Climatic Classification System 2011 Friday, June 07, 2013 Page 20
    • Koppen Climatic Classification System 2011 Friday, June 07, 2013 Page 21 1. www.about.com (28-10-11) 2. www.blueplanetbiomes.com (11-11-11) 3. Climatology by Robert V. Rohli and Anthony J. Vega 4. www.elmhurst.edu (28-10-11) 5. www.foa.org (11-11-11) 6. www.gpcc.dwd.de (28-10-11) 7. www.meterologyclimate.com (28-10-11) 8. Meterology Today by C. Donald Ahrens. 9th Edtion. 9. www.mjksciteachhinngs.ideas.com (28-10-11) 10. www.nationalgeographic.com (28-10-11) 11. www.srh.noaa.gov. (11-11-11)