Clouds 2011
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Clouds 2011

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    Clouds 2011 Clouds 2011 Presentation Transcript

    • 6/7/2013 METEOROLOGY 1
    • 6/7/2013 METEOROLOGY 2 1) Definition of clouds …03 2) Formation of clouds …06 3) Classification of clouds …10 4) Vertically Developed clouds …16 5) Categories …19 1) Cumulus clouds …20 1) Hmulis …23 2) Fractus …26 3) Congestus …28 4) Castellanus …29 2) Cumulonimbus clouds …31 1) Cumulonimbus Incus …36 2) Cumulonimbus Mammatus …38 3) Cumulonimbus Calvus …41 6) References …44
    • 6/7/2013 3METEOROLOGY  “A visible collection of CONDENSED tiny water droplets and ice crystals suspended in the atmosphere.” Clouds can be in variety of forms.  Some are found at high elevation but other are near the ground relatively
    • 6/7/2013 4METEOROLOGY
    • 6/7/2013 5METEOROLOGY  All the weathering phenomenon occurs due to the clouds… ranges within the troposphere.
    • 6/7/2013 METEOROLOGY 6  Water is known to exist in three forms:  Clouds, snow and rain are all made up of some form of water.
    •  Generally produced by atmospheric motion with upward component cools the air.  Clouds form when temperature is below the dew point.  When air blows over the colder surface. 6/7/2013 METEOROLOGY 7
    • 6/7/2013 METEOROLOGY 8 By orographic uplift of air near the mountainous terrain.
    • 6/7/2013 METEOROLOGY 9  Air parcel will rise up naturally if the air within it is warmer than the surrounding air by convection.
    • 6/7/2013 METEOROLOGY 10 Clouds are classified into a system that uses “Latin” words to describe their appearances. They are define on the basis of their “Heights”. This was done by an English chemist “Luke Howard” in 1803.
    • 6/7/2013 METEOROLOGY 11 LATIN NAMES ENGLISH NAMES Cirrus Curl of hair Stratus Layer like Cumulus Heap Nimbus Rain HOWARD divided them into 4 categories using Latin names as:
    • 6/7/2013 METEOROLOGY 12  They are further divided into 4 groups having 10 types of the clouds: The first 3 groups are differentiating by their heights. The fourth group contains thick clouds as they are NOT describe on the basis of heights level from grounds. GROUPS HEIGHTS High Clouds 5-13km Middle Clouds 2-7km Low Clouds 0-2km Vertically Developed Clouds ---
    • 6/7/2013 METEOROLOGY 13 STRATUS CIRRUS
    • 6/7/2013 METEOROLOGY 14 C U M U L U S N I M B U S
    • 6/7/2013 METEOROLOGY 15 • Stratus • Stratocumulus • Nimbostratus • Cumulus • Cumulonimbus • Altostratus • Altocumulus • Cirrus • Cirrostratus • Cirrocumulus High Clouds Middle Clouds Low Clouds Vertically Developed Clouds
    • 6/7/2013 METEOROLOGY 16  They are due to unstable atmospheric conditions. Height can range up to 12000m. Generated most commonly either by thermal convection or frontal lifting. Releasing incredible amount of energy to condensed the water vapor within the clouds.
    • 6/7/2013 METEOROLOGY 17
    • 6/7/2013 METEOROLOGY 18 They are generally not the sign of calm weather.
    • 6/7/2013 METEOROLOGY 19 Vertically developed clouds are more conveniently divided into 2 categories as: 1)Cumulus Clouds i. Cumulus Humilis Clouds ii. Cumulus Fractus Clouds iii. Cumulus Congestus Clouds iv. Cumulus Constellus Clouds 2)Cumulonimbus Clouds i. Cumulonimbus Incus Clouds ii. Cumulonimbus Mammatus Clouds iii. Cumulonimbus Calvus Clouds
    • 6/7/2013 METEOROLOGY 20 They look like white ball of cotton _ isolated in sky. Are sign of pleasant weather. They have flat bottoms and lumpy tops. Top often is in the form of towers--- shows the limit of rising air. Rising air is associated with high relative humidity. Generally they are formed by convection resulting from solar heating in summers. Over open lakes in autumn and winters. Formation :
    • 6/7/2013 METEOROLOGY 21
    • 6/7/2013 METEOROLOGY 22 They are found as low as 330ft.
    • 6/7/2013 METEOROLOGY 23 Humilis stands for “HUMBLE.” Generally have flattened bases and slight vertical development. Mostly rises up to 5-8km. Once the thermals rise above the surface, the potential for cloud development increases. At the condensation level, the relative humidity of the thermal air will be around 100 percent (saturated). Formation :
    • 6/7/2013 METEOROLOGY 24 Between each cumulus humilis, the air descends slowly to replace the rising thermals
    • 6/7/2013 METEOROLOGY 25 As a result, the cloud - field can look very regularl -y Spaced.
    • 6/7/2013 METEOROLOGY 26 Cumulus clouds that appear in irregular fragments, as if they had been shred or torn. Always appear in association with other clouds. For a short time before, during and a short time after precipitation.
    • 6/7/2013 METEOROLOGY 27 They can form in fair weather as rising pockets of warm air rise and condense into these proto-clouds Cumulus fractus on not-so-fair days, too, as they "shredded" by larger cumulonimbus cloud after a rain storm
    • 6/7/2013 METEOROLOGY 28 Congestus is Latin for "piled-up". When a humilis cloud grows vertically it turns into a congestus cloud. These clouds may produce abunda nt show- ers
    • 6/7/2013 METEOROLOGY 29 It stands for “Castle-like”. It displays multiple towers arising from its top, indicating significant vertical air movement
    • 6/7/2013 METEOROLOGY 30
    • 6/7/2013 METEOROLOGY 31 These are more vertically developed than fair weather cumulus and have tops that can reach up to 39,000 feet (12,000m). These are fueled by strong updrafts that transfer air up through the atmosphere. These clouds are named because they are puffy ("cumulo") and because they often are dark clouds which cause rainstorms ("nimbus"). Cumulonimbus clouds are characterized as tall, dense clouds
    • 6/7/2013 METEOROLOGY 32 Cumulonimbus clouds designs its formation mostly during the afternoon time, as this the time when the earth surface gets heated up.  Cumulonimbus clouds are usually seen in the shape of mushroom.
    • Common types of Clouds 6/7/2013 33METEOROLOGY
    • 6/7/2013 METEOROLOGY 34 Cumulonimbus Cloud Over Africa Image Credit: NASAMarch 24, 2011
    • 6/7/2013 METEOROLOGY 35
    • 6/7/2013 METEOROLOGY 36 Incus stands for “Anvil”. A mature cumulonimbus incus is definitely the “King of Clouds”, and sometimes reaching 60,000 feet in tropical and subtropical areas. Formation always be regarded as a significant aviation hazard because of : “the powerful air currents involved in its formation and the potentially damaging effect of the large hailstones it may produce.”
    • 6/7/2013 METEOROLOGY 37
    • 6/7/2013 METEOROLOGY 38 They look like “BAG.” Mammatus is one of the most spectacular and distinctive of all cloud formations.
    • 6/7/2013 METEOROLOGY 39 During a thunderstorm, warm, moist updrafts rise to the top of the troposphere. Here the temperature levels off and the air stabilizes. This causes the rising cloud to expand horizontally over areas of cooler, cloud-free air.
    • 6/7/2013 METEOROLOGY 40 Mechanisi m for rain formation by cumulonimb us mammatus.
    • 6/7/2013 METEOROLOGY 41 Calvus stands for “Bald”. Calvus occurs when convection and atmospheric instability combine to push the cloud tops beyond the congestus stage to heights of up to 30,000 feet.
    • 6/7/2013 METEOROLOGY 42 The mushrooming top is a sign of the vigorous updrafts that may eventually force the cloud up into the highest levels of the troposphere. At this level of the troposphere, temperatures are normally well below freezing, and any condensation that takes place will produce ice crystals rather than water droplets. This gives the top of the cloud a brilliant, white appearance.
    • 6/7/2013 METEOROLOGY 43
    • 6/7/2013 METEOROLOGY 44 1. www.buzzel.com 2. www.uwsp.com 3. www.atmosphere.com 4. www.uiuc.com 5. www.climate4you.com 6. www.apollo.com 7. www.merrian.com 8. www.anglefire.com 9. www.cityofportsomuth.com 10.www.mapmakermeteor.com 11.www.islandnet.com 12.www.jeffsweather.com 13.www.mariauthorbooks.com 14.www.chitambo.com 15.www.trueknowldge.com 16.www.chalkrichmond.co m 17.www.mapsofworld.com 18.www.airlinepilots.com 1. Meteorology Today by C. Donald Ahrens 6th edition 1. Google.com