Problem Solving


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Problem Solving

  1. 1. Problem Solving Dandi Daley Mackall Reviewed by- Dr. Atiqul Haq Mazumder
  2. 3. Thinking is a process and thought is the product output
  3. 4. <ul><li>Problem Solving </li></ul><ul><li>A systematic approach to define problem and create many possible solutions without judging them. </li></ul>
  4. 5. <ul><li>It is a cognitive process directed at a goal where no solution method is obvious to the problem solver. </li></ul>
  5. 6. <ul><ul><li>“ It's not a problem that we have a problem. It's a problem if we don't deal with the problem.” </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>--Mary Kay Utech </li></ul></ul>
  6. 7. The “Pop-Up” principle suggests that solutions yield problems of their own. Problem 1 Problem 3 Problem 4 Problem 2 Problem 5 Solution to Problem 2 Solution to Problem 1
  7. 8. <ul><li>“ The problem is not that there are problems. The problem is expecting otherwise and thinking that having problems is a problem.” </li></ul><ul><li>--Theodore Ruskin </li></ul>
  8. 9. <ul><li>Problem Solving Skill </li></ul><ul><li>We use problem solving skill in everyday live without our conscious awareness: </li></ul>
  9. 10. <ul><li>Thinking Creatively </li></ul><ul><li>Thinking logically </li></ul><ul><li>Analyzing the problem </li></ul><ul><li>By research </li></ul>
  10. 11. <ul><li>Forming a hypothesis </li></ul><ul><li>Troubleshooting </li></ul>
  11. 12. “ Confident of your problem solving skills, you can turn each problem in to an opportunity”
  12. 13. Basic Brain Structure
  13. 14. Left Brain Vs Right Brain
  14. 15. Left Brain Right Brain <ul><li>Analytic thought </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Step by step process </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Holistic thought </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Seeing “big” picture before understanding details </li></ul></ul>
  15. 16. <ul><li>Logic </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Conclusions based upon a logical or consecutive order </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Intuition </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Insight based upon incomplete patterns or “hunches” </li></ul></ul>
  16. 17. <ul><li>Language </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Using words to name/describe/define </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Creativity </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Demonstrative with minimal word use, understanding relationship s </li></ul></ul>
  17. 18. <ul><li>Math & Science </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Number use, awareness of time, symbols, facts & linear reasoning </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Art & Music </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Putting pieces together to form “wholes” </li></ul></ul>
  18. 19. Scientific Thinking Creative Thinking Logical, Critical, Analytical, Convergent, Predictable, Straight-liner thinking Insightful, Inspirational, Exploratory, Divergent, Generative, Unpredictable, Lateral thinking
  19. 20. One right answer Probability Right brain Judgment New answer to old problems Possibility Left brain Suspended
  20. 21. Focused Objective Verbal Linear Yes, But Reasoning Diffused Subjective Visual Associated Yes, And Novelty
  21. 22. <ul><li>Problem Solving Skill </li></ul><ul><li>Development of the left brain led to greater attention to critical thinking </li></ul>
  22. 23. <ul><li>Problem Solving Skill </li></ul><ul><li>Optimal use of the mind requires both critical and creative thinking </li></ul>
  23. 24. <ul><li>Four Steps of Critical Thinking </li></ul><ul><li>Identifying the problem </li></ul><ul><li>Brainstorming many options </li></ul><ul><li>Negotiating </li></ul><ul><li>Selecting the best option </li></ul>
  24. 25. <ul><li>Six Steps of Creative Thinking </li></ul><ul><li>Identifying idea requirement </li></ul><ul><li>Idea generation </li></ul><ul><li>Idea assessment </li></ul>
  25. 26. <ul><li>Idea development </li></ul><ul><li>Idea evaluation </li></ul><ul><li>Idea utilization </li></ul>
  26. 27. <ul><li>System of Creative Thinking </li></ul>
  27. 30. of 21 Thinking Inside the Box (Thesis) Thinking Outside the Box (Antithesis) Praise success and praise failure Praise success and punish failure
  28. 31. <ul><li>Example of Flows of Ideas; New Terms </li></ul><ul><li>Tournament of mind </li></ul><ul><li>Mutation of ideas </li></ul><ul><li>Idea engineering </li></ul>
  29. 32. <ul><li>Mind mapping </li></ul><ul><li>Idea sensing </li></ul><ul><li>Idea accounting </li></ul><ul><li>Idea transferring </li></ul><ul><li>Idea pooling </li></ul>
  30. 33. <ul><li>Creative Thinking Requires: </li></ul><ul><li>Creative ability </li></ul><ul><li>Creative attitude </li></ul><ul><li>Power of imagination </li></ul>
  31. 34. <ul><li>Myths About Creative Thinking : </li></ul><ul><li>Comes out in a flush </li></ul><ul><li>It’s natural , can’t be </li></ul><ul><li>acquired </li></ul><ul><li>Born genius </li></ul>
  32. 35. <ul><li>Techniques for Creative Thinking </li></ul><ul><li>Brainstorming </li></ul>
  33. 36. <ul><li>Don’t Accept Everything at Face value. Challenge Assumptions . </li></ul>
  34. 37. <ul><li>Keep a Notebook to Synthesize ideas </li></ul>“ Chance favours the prepared mind.” – Louis Pasteur
  35. 38. <ul><li>Visualization: Future Pacing </li></ul>
  36. 39. <ul><li>Potholes and Pitfalls </li></ul><ul><li>Logical Fallacies </li></ul><ul><li>“ Not So Fast” </li></ul><ul><li>Rush to judgment </li></ul>
  37. 40. <ul><li>Hasty Generalization </li></ul><ul><li>Poisoning the Well </li></ul><ul><li>Car Washing in the Rain </li></ul><ul><li>“ You Just Gotta” </li></ul>
  38. 41. <ul><li>Techniques for Brainstorming </li></ul><ul><li>Brainstorming by Word Association </li></ul>Book Study Success
  39. 42. <ul><li>Techniques for Brainstorming </li></ul><ul><li>Brainstorming by Clustering/ Mapping </li></ul>Library Exam Stress Meditation Teachers Impression Books New Market Home
  40. 43. <ul><li>Brainstorming by free writing </li></ul>OK So I need to write about brainstorming. Usually its done in a group but not always sometimes individual. Works best in a group though people feed off each others creativity especially if they have different backgrounds – social professional – etc. So how does it work as a group - get people together for a time period ½ to 1 hour - anything goes. no criticism – insane crazy ideas are ok - need to ensure nobody gets censored though so need a group leader to facilitate stuff. should also record - Also good to later sort out ideas by being critical and further exploring them But the biggest point is to make sure there is no criticism & that people can come up with all sorts of ideas. Should also be fun laughing – sort of like a creative party with stuff written on the blackboard
  41. 44. Informal Journals
  42. 45. Formal Engineering Journals
  43. 46. Dos of Brainstorming Don’ts of Brainstorming <ul><li>Speak/Write Fast </li></ul><ul><li>Set a Time limit </li></ul><ul><li>Say the First Thing that Comes to Mind </li></ul><ul><li>Be Vulnerable </li></ul><ul><li>Think </li></ul><ul><li>Censure Yourself </li></ul><ul><li>Analyze </li></ul><ul><li>Make Judgment </li></ul><ul><li>Slow Down </li></ul>
  44. 47. <ul><li>People Problems </li></ul><ul><li>Lack of Training </li></ul><ul><li>Own Unhappiness </li></ul><ul><li>Disillusionment with the Job </li></ul><ul><li>Personal Conflict </li></ul>
  45. 48. <ul><li>Unhealthy Competition </li></ul><ul><li>Customer Conflict </li></ul><ul><li>Ineffective Team </li></ul><ul><li>Factions </li></ul><ul><li>Discrimination </li></ul>
  46. 49. <ul><li>Organizational Problems </li></ul><ul><li>Inability to Get the Resources </li></ul><ul><li>Unclear Chain of Command </li></ul><ul><li>Changes in the Economy </li></ul><ul><li>Changes in the Marketplace </li></ul><ul><li>Overlapping Responsibilities </li></ul>
  47. 50. <ul><li>Mechanical Problems </li></ul><ul><li>Computers </li></ul><ul><li>Telephones </li></ul><ul><li>Fax </li></ul><ul><li>Copiers </li></ul>
  48. 51. <ul><li>Analyzing the Problem </li></ul><ul><li>The Six Ws The SWOT Test </li></ul><ul><li>Who? Strength </li></ul><ul><li>What? Weaknesses </li></ul><ul><li>When? Opportunities </li></ul>
  49. 52. 4.Where? Threats-Seasonal 5.Why? Cost, Number etc 6.What if? Possibilities
  50. 53. Dos of Setting Goals Don’ts of Setting Goals <ul><li>Get the Root Cause </li></ul><ul><li>Be Specific </li></ul><ul><li>Relate Goal to Overall Purpose </li></ul><ul><li>Include a Timeframe </li></ul><ul><li>Visualize the End </li></ul><ul><li>Settle for the Effect </li></ul><ul><li>Be General </li></ul><ul><li>Be Uniformed </li></ul><ul><li>Make a Wish and hope </li></ul><ul><li>Lump Goals and Objectives Together </li></ul>
  51. 54. <ul><li>Setting Objectives </li></ul>Objectives are Bite-size Measurable goals “ The way to achieve success is first to have a definite, clear, practical idea- a goal, an objective. Second, have the necessary means to achieve your ends-wisdom, money, materials, methods. Third, adjust all your means to that end.” -Aristotle
  52. 55. <ul><li>A Plan of Action includes- </li></ul><ul><li>A Clear Statement of the plan </li></ul><ul><li>Clear-cut Goals and Objectives </li></ul><ul><li>Step by Step Strategy </li></ul><ul><li>A Schedule with deadlines </li></ul>
  53. 56. “ If you fail to meet your deadline, you could single-handedly derail your company’s action plan”
  54. 57. <ul><li>Allocation of Resources </li></ul><ul><li>Delegation of Jobs </li></ul><ul><li>Contingency Plans </li></ul><ul><li>An Internal Review System </li></ul>
  55. 58. <ul><li>Follow Through </li></ul><ul><li>Anticipation Saves on Frustration </li></ul><ul><li>“ If Your Plan A Fails Apart, Do You Have a Plan B?&quot; </li></ul>
  56. 59. <ul><li>Troubleshooting </li></ul><ul><li>“ Good Working Teams Try to Troubleshoot Problems Before They Happen.” </li></ul>
  57. 60. <ul><li>Flexibility </li></ul><ul><li>Persistence </li></ul><ul><li>“ Some men give up their design when they have almost reached their goals; while others, on the contrary, obtain a vigorous efforts than before.” </li></ul><ul><li>-Polybius </li></ul>
  58. 61. <ul><li>Follow Through with Celebration </li></ul><ul><li>At one week point-When an objective is reached </li></ul><ul><li>At one month point-When you arrive at the end </li></ul>
  59. 62. 3.With every individual success -When you overcome an obstacle 4.At positive feedback on the plan- Before moving on
  60. 64. 1. Study the problem and focus on the goal. Some Tricks for Creativity
  61. 65. 2.Build on others' ideas. Brainstorm.
  62. 66. 3.Organize a hotshot team. Build teamwork.
  63. 67. 4.Break down a complex solution
  64. 68. 5.Document your progress.
  65. 69. Phrases that Kill Creativity <ul><li>We tried that before. </li></ul><ul><li>It costs too much. </li></ul><ul><li>It’s too radical a change. </li></ul><ul><li>Let’s get back to reality. </li></ul><ul><li>You’re right, but . . . . </li></ul><ul><li>Not that again. </li></ul><ul><li>We did all right without it. </li></ul><ul><li>Let’s form a committee. </li></ul>
  66. 70. <ul><li>It can’t be done. </li></ul><ul><li>Quit dreaming. </li></ul><ul><li>NO! </li></ul><ul><li>Why me? </li></ul><ul><li>What now? </li></ul><ul><li>Not my problem! </li></ul><ul><li>Don’t ask me! </li></ul>
  67. 71. <ul><li>“ You can’t depend upon your eyes when your imagination is out of focus.” </li></ul><ul><li>– Mark Twain </li></ul><ul><li>“ Computer are useless. They can only give you answers.” </li></ul><ul><li>– Pablo Picasso </li></ul><ul><li>“ To invent, you need a good imagination and a pile of junk.” </li></ul><ul><li>– Thomas Edison </li></ul>
  68. 72. <ul><li>“ The significant problems we face cannot be solved at the same level of thinking we were at when we created them.” </li></ul><ul><li>– Albert Einstein </li></ul><ul><li>“ No great discovery is ever made without a bold guess.” </li></ul><ul><li>– Sir Isaac Newton </li></ul>
  69. 73. THANK YOU