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Problem Solving

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review on problem solving

review on problem solving

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  • 1. Problem Solving Dandi Daley Mackall Reviewed by- Dr. Atiqul Haq Mazumder
  • 2.  
  • 3. Thinking is a process and thought is the product output
  • 4.
    • Problem Solving
    • A systematic approach to define problem and create many possible solutions without judging them.
  • 5.
    • It is a cognitive process directed at a goal where no solution method is obvious to the problem solver.
  • 6.
      • “ It's not a problem that we have a problem. It's a problem if we don't deal with the problem.”
      • --Mary Kay Utech
  • 7. The “Pop-Up” principle suggests that solutions yield problems of their own. Problem 1 Problem 3 Problem 4 Problem 2 Problem 5 Solution to Problem 2 Solution to Problem 1
  • 8.
    • “ The problem is not that there are problems. The problem is expecting otherwise and thinking that having problems is a problem.”
    • --Theodore Ruskin
  • 9.
    • Problem Solving Skill
    • We use problem solving skill in everyday live without our conscious awareness:
  • 10.
    • Thinking Creatively
    • Thinking logically
    • Analyzing the problem
    • By research
  • 11.
    • Forming a hypothesis
    • Troubleshooting
  • 12. “ Confident of your problem solving skills, you can turn each problem in to an opportunity”
  • 13. Basic Brain Structure
  • 14. Left Brain Vs Right Brain
  • 15. Left Brain Right Brain
    • Analytic thought
      • Step by step process
    • Holistic thought
      • Seeing “big” picture before understanding details
  • 16.
    • Logic
      • Conclusions based upon a logical or consecutive order
    • Intuition
      • Insight based upon incomplete patterns or “hunches”
  • 17.
    • Language
      • Using words to name/describe/define
    • Creativity
      • Demonstrative with minimal word use, understanding relationship s
  • 18.
    • Math & Science
      • Number use, awareness of time, symbols, facts & linear reasoning
    • Art & Music
      • Putting pieces together to form “wholes”
  • 19. Scientific Thinking Creative Thinking Logical, Critical, Analytical, Convergent, Predictable, Straight-liner thinking Insightful, Inspirational, Exploratory, Divergent, Generative, Unpredictable, Lateral thinking
  • 20. One right answer Probability Right brain Judgment New answer to old problems Possibility Left brain Suspended
  • 21. Focused Objective Verbal Linear Yes, But Reasoning Diffused Subjective Visual Associated Yes, And Novelty
  • 22.
    • Problem Solving Skill
    • Development of the left brain led to greater attention to critical thinking
  • 23.
    • Problem Solving Skill
    • Optimal use of the mind requires both critical and creative thinking
  • 24.
    • Four Steps of Critical Thinking
    • Identifying the problem
    • Brainstorming many options
    • Negotiating
    • Selecting the best option
  • 25.
    • Six Steps of Creative Thinking
    • Identifying idea requirement
    • Idea generation
    • Idea assessment
  • 26.
    • Idea development
    • Idea evaluation
    • Idea utilization
  • 27.
    • System of Creative Thinking
  • 28.  
  • 29.  
  • 30. of 21 Thinking Inside the Box (Thesis) Thinking Outside the Box (Antithesis) Praise success and praise failure Praise success and punish failure
  • 31.
    • Example of Flows of Ideas; New Terms
    • Tournament of mind
    • Mutation of ideas
    • Idea engineering
  • 32.
    • Mind mapping
    • Idea sensing
    • Idea accounting
    • Idea transferring
    • Idea pooling
  • 33.
    • Creative Thinking Requires:
    • Creative ability
    • Creative attitude
    • Power of imagination
  • 34.
    • Myths About Creative Thinking :
    • Comes out in a flush
    • It’s natural , can’t be
    • acquired
    • Born genius
  • 35.
    • Techniques for Creative Thinking
    • Brainstorming
  • 36.
    • Don’t Accept Everything at Face value. Challenge Assumptions .
  • 37.
    • Keep a Notebook to Synthesize ideas
    “ Chance favours the prepared mind.” – Louis Pasteur
  • 38.
    • Visualization: Future Pacing
  • 39.
    • Potholes and Pitfalls
    • Logical Fallacies
    • “ Not So Fast”
    • Rush to judgment
  • 40.
    • Hasty Generalization
    • Poisoning the Well
    • Car Washing in the Rain
    • “ You Just Gotta”
  • 41.
    • Techniques for Brainstorming
    • Brainstorming by Word Association
    Book Study Success
  • 42.
    • Techniques for Brainstorming
    • Brainstorming by Clustering/ Mapping
    Library Exam Stress Meditation Teachers Impression Books New Market Home
  • 43.
    • Brainstorming by free writing
    OK So I need to write about brainstorming. Usually its done in a group but not always sometimes individual. Works best in a group though people feed off each others creativity especially if they have different backgrounds – social professional – etc. So how does it work as a group - get people together for a time period ½ to 1 hour - anything goes. no criticism – insane crazy ideas are ok - need to ensure nobody gets censored though so need a group leader to facilitate stuff. should also record - Also good to later sort out ideas by being critical and further exploring them But the biggest point is to make sure there is no criticism & that people can come up with all sorts of ideas. Should also be fun laughing – sort of like a creative party with stuff written on the blackboard
  • 44. Informal Journals
  • 45. Formal Engineering Journals
  • 46. Dos of Brainstorming Don’ts of Brainstorming
    • Speak/Write Fast
    • Set a Time limit
    • Say the First Thing that Comes to Mind
    • Be Vulnerable
    • Think
    • Censure Yourself
    • Analyze
    • Make Judgment
    • Slow Down
  • 47.
    • People Problems
    • Lack of Training
    • Own Unhappiness
    • Disillusionment with the Job
    • Personal Conflict
  • 48.
    • Unhealthy Competition
    • Customer Conflict
    • Ineffective Team
    • Factions
    • Discrimination
  • 49.
    • Organizational Problems
    • Inability to Get the Resources
    • Unclear Chain of Command
    • Changes in the Economy
    • Changes in the Marketplace
    • Overlapping Responsibilities
  • 50.
    • Mechanical Problems
    • Computers
    • Telephones
    • Fax
    • Copiers
  • 51.
    • Analyzing the Problem
    • The Six Ws The SWOT Test
    • Who? Strength
    • What? Weaknesses
    • When? Opportunities
  • 52. 4.Where? Threats-Seasonal 5.Why? Cost, Number etc 6.What if? Possibilities
  • 53. Dos of Setting Goals Don’ts of Setting Goals
    • Get the Root Cause
    • Be Specific
    • Relate Goal to Overall Purpose
    • Include a Timeframe
    • Visualize the End
    • Settle for the Effect
    • Be General
    • Be Uniformed
    • Make a Wish and hope
    • Lump Goals and Objectives Together
  • 54.
    • Setting Objectives
    Objectives are Bite-size Measurable goals “ The way to achieve success is first to have a definite, clear, practical idea- a goal, an objective. Second, have the necessary means to achieve your ends-wisdom, money, materials, methods. Third, adjust all your means to that end.” -Aristotle
  • 55.
    • A Plan of Action includes-
    • A Clear Statement of the plan
    • Clear-cut Goals and Objectives
    • Step by Step Strategy
    • A Schedule with deadlines
  • 56. “ If you fail to meet your deadline, you could single-handedly derail your company’s action plan”
  • 57.
    • Allocation of Resources
    • Delegation of Jobs
    • Contingency Plans
    • An Internal Review System
  • 58.
    • Follow Through
    • Anticipation Saves on Frustration
    • “ If Your Plan A Fails Apart, Do You Have a Plan B?"
  • 59.
    • Troubleshooting
    • “ Good Working Teams Try to Troubleshoot Problems Before They Happen.”
  • 60.
    • Flexibility
    • Persistence
    • “ Some men give up their design when they have almost reached their goals; while others, on the contrary, obtain a vigorous efforts than before.”
    • -Polybius
  • 61.
    • Follow Through with Celebration
    • At one week point-When an objective is reached
    • At one month point-When you arrive at the end
  • 62. 3.With every individual success -When you overcome an obstacle 4.At positive feedback on the plan- Before moving on
  • 63.  
  • 64. 1. Study the problem and focus on the goal. Some Tricks for Creativity
  • 65. 2.Build on others' ideas. Brainstorm.
  • 66. 3.Organize a hotshot team. Build teamwork.
  • 67. 4.Break down a complex solution
  • 68. 5.Document your progress.
  • 69. Phrases that Kill Creativity
    • We tried that before.
    • It costs too much.
    • It’s too radical a change.
    • Let’s get back to reality.
    • You’re right, but . . . .
    • Not that again.
    • We did all right without it.
    • Let’s form a committee.
  • 70.
    • It can’t be done.
    • Quit dreaming.
    • NO!
    • Why me?
    • What now?
    • Not my problem!
    • Don’t ask me!
  • 71.
    • “ You can’t depend upon your eyes when your imagination is out of focus.”
    • – Mark Twain
    • “ Computer are useless. They can only give you answers.”
    • – Pablo Picasso
    • “ To invent, you need a good imagination and a pile of junk.”
    • – Thomas Edison
  • 72.
    • “ The significant problems we face cannot be solved at the same level of thinking we were at when we created them.”
    • – Albert Einstein
    • “ No great discovery is ever made without a bold guess.”
    • – Sir Isaac Newton
  • 73. THANK YOU
  • 74.