‘ Evolutionary psychology is the combination of two sciences -- evolutionary biology and cognitive psychology’. Introducing Evolutionary Psychology, Dylan Evans & Oscar Zarate, Totem Books, New York, 2000
6. Evolved psychological mechanisms are functional : Designed to solve statistically recurrent adaptive problems
‘ Connection do exist: our arts, our philosophies, our literature are the product of human minds interacting with one another, and the human mind is a product of human brain, which is organized in part by the human genome and has evolved by the physical process of evolution’. -JOHN Brockman (2008)
Principle 1. The brain is a physical system. It functions as a computer. Its circuits are designed to generate behavior that is appropriate to your environmental circumstances.
Principle 2. Our neural circuits were designed by natural selection to solve problems that our ancestors faced during our species' evolutionary history.
Principle 3. Consciousness is just the tip of the iceberg; most of what goes on in your mind is hidden from you. As a result, your conscious experience can mislead you into thinking that our circuitry is simpler that it really is. Most problems that you experience as easy to solve are very difficult to solve -- they require very complicated neural circuitry.
Principle 4. Different neural circuits are specialized for solving different adaptive problems.
Principle 5. Our modern skulls house a stone age mind.
‘ The Blank Slate Theory’ - John Locke ( British Philosopher, 1632-1704 ) ‘Man is a blank slate on which culture writes’ - Emile Durkheim ( French Sociologist, 1858-1917 ), 1895
‘ For nearly all measures personality, heritability is high in western society: identical twins raised apart are much more similar than the fraternal twins raised apart.’ - William R. Clark, Michael Grunstein, 2000-11-09
‘ Two Identical twins raised apart met first’ -From Blank Slate by Steven Pinker
Psychopaths, as far we know, cannot be 'cured'. Indeed, the psychologists Marine Rice has shown that has shown that certain harebrain ideas for therapy, such as boosting their self esteem and teaching them social skills, can even make more dangerous. - Steven Pinker, 2003
presence or absence of epigenetic factors at target sites controls whether particular genes can generate proteins, the workhorses of most physiological processes. -Douglas Steinberg, Determining Nature vs. Nurture : Molecular evidence is finally emerging to inform the long-standing debate, Scientific American Mind, 17, 12 - 14 (2006)
‘ Science is discovering that while we may have fixed set of genes in Chromosomes, which of those Genes is active has great deal to do which our subjective experiences, and how we process them’ -Dawson Church, 2009
Josephine Tesauro, left, active and healthy at 92, is part of a study trying to determine why some people age better than others, even when they are closely related. Live Long? Die Young? Answer Isn’t Just in Genes, GINA KOLATA, The NewYork Times, August 31, 2006, Online link: http://www.nytimes.com/2006/08/31/health/31age.html
With no more than a change in diet, laboratory agouti mice (left) were prompted to give birth to young (right) that differed markedly in appearance and disease susceptibility. DNA Is Not Destiny, The new science of epigenetics rewrites the rules of disease, heredity, and identity; Ethan Watters, Discover Magazine, Nov. 2006 issue, Online link: http://discovermagazine.com/2006/nov/cover/?searchterm=Randy%20Jirtle
Nature vs. Nurture No Nature via nurture Yes We are the minders of our genes Evolutionary psychology describes what human nature is like - it does not prescribe what humans should do' ।