Evolution Before Darwin• Change over time in organic structures: evolution• Characteristics seemed to have a purpose (porcupines, turtles, skunks)
Darwin’s Theory of Natural Selection• The explanatory challenge: 1. why change takes place 2. how new species emerge 3. what the functions are of parts
The answer--natural selection:Variation, inheritance, differential reproduction
The key to natural selection: Differentialreproductive success because of heritable variants; everyone has ancestors, but not everyone leaves descendants
Natural selection provided 3 key answers• Explained change over time: descent with modification• Explained the apparent purposive quality of component parts: adaptive function• United all species into one grand tree of descent: including humans
Likelihood of Agreeing to Have Sex With SomeoneYou Find Attractive as a Function of Time Known 3 2 Likelihood of Intercourse 1 women 0 men 1 eve 1 year 1 hr 6 mo 3 mo 1 mo 1 day 5 years 2 years 1 wk -1 -2 -3
Sexual Selection Components• Intrasexual Competition
“The core tenets ofevolutionarypsychology..”- David M. Buss (2005)
Core Tenets of Evolutionary Psychology• 1. All behavior is a function of psychological mechanisms + input to those mechanisms
Core Tenets of Evolutionary Psychology• 2. All psychological mechanisms, at some basic level, originate from evolutionary processes
Core Tenets of Evolutionary Psychology• 3. Natural and sexual selection are the most important evolutionary processes responsible for creating psychological mechanisms
Core Tenets of Evolutionary Psychology …All Species have a Nature
Core Tenets of Evolutionary Psychology• 4. Evolved psychological mechanisms can be described as information processing devices. Inputs Decision Rules Outputs
Core Tenets of Evolutionary Psychology• 5. Evolved psychological mechanisms are instantiated in the brain.
Core Tenets of Evolutionary Psychology• 6. Evolved psychological mechanisms are functional: Designed to solve statistically recurrent adaptive problems
‘Connection do exist: our arts, our philosophies, ourliterature are the product of human minds interacting with one another, and thehuman mind is a product of human brain, which is organized in part by the human genome and has evolved by the physical process of evolution’. -JOHN Brockman (2008)
Principle 1. The brain is aphysical system. It functionsas a computer. Its circuitsare designed to generatebehavior that is appropriateto your environmentalcircumstances.
Principle 2. Our neuralcircuits were designed bynatural selection to solveproblems that our ancestorsfaced during our speciesevolutionary history.
Principle 3. Consciousness is just thetip of the iceberg; most of what goeson in your mind is hidden from you. Asa result, your conscious experiencecan mislead you into thinking that ourcircuitry is simpler that it really is.Most problems that you experience aseasy to solve are very difficult to solve-- they require very complicatedneural circuitry.
Principle 4. Different neuralcircuits are specialized forsolving different adaptiveproblems.
Principle 5. Our modernskulls house a stone agemind.
‘The Blank Slate Theory’- John Locke ( British Philosopher, 1632-1704 )‘Man is a blank slate onwhich culture writes’- Emile Durkheim ( French Sociologist,1858-1917 ), 1895
‘For nearly all measurespersonality, heritability ishigh in western society:identical twins raised apartare much more similarthan the fraternal twinsraised apart.’-William R. Clark, MichaelGrunstein, 2000-11-09
‘Two Identical twins raised apart met first’ -From Blank Slate by Steven Pinker
Psychopaths, as far we know, cannot be cured.Indeed, the psychologists Marine Rice has shown that has shown that certain harebrain ideas for therapy, such as boosting their self esteem and teaching them social skills, can even make more dangerous. -Steven Pinker, 2003
presence or absence of epigenetic factors attarget sites controls whether particular genes can generate proteins, the workhorses of most physiological processes. -Douglas Steinberg, Determining Nature vs. Nurture : Molecular evidence is finally emerging to inform the long-standing debate, Scientific American Mind, 17, 12 - 14 (2006)
‘Science is discovering that while we may have fixed set of genes in Chromosomes, which of those Genes is active has great deal to do which oursubjective experiences, and how we process them’ -Dawson Church, 2009
Josephine Tesauro, left, active and healthy at 92, is part of a study trying to determine why some people age better than others, even when they are closely related.Live Long? Die Young? Answer Isn’t Just in Genes, GINA KOLATA, The NewYork Times, August 31, 2006, Online link: http://www.nytimes.com/2006/08/31/health/31age.html
With no more than a change in diet, laboratory agouti mice (left) were prompted to give birth to young (right) that differed markedly in appearance and disease susceptibility. DNA Is Not Destiny, The new science of epigenetics rewrites the rules of disease,heredity, and identity; Ethan Watters, Discover Magazine, Nov. 2006 issue, Online link: http://discovermagazine.com/2006/nov/cover/?searchterm=Randy%20Jirtle
Nature vs. Nurture No Nature via nurture Yes We are the minders of our genes Evolutionary psychologydescribes what human nature is like - it does not prescribe what humans should do।