Ch03 ppt-theory

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  • 1. Chapter Three: The Use of Theory RESEARCH DESIGN Qualitative, Quantitative, and Mixed Methods Approaches Third Edition John W. Creswell
  • 2. Chapter Outline
    • Quantitative Theory Use
      • Variables in Quantitative Research
      • Definition of a Theory
      • Forms of Theories
      • Placement of Quantitative Theories
      • Writing a Quantitative Theoretical Perspective
    • Qualitative Theory Use
      • Variation in Theory Use in Qualitative Research
      • Locating the Theory in Qualitative Research
    • Mixed Methods Theory Use
  • 3. Variables in Quantitative Research
    • Independent
      • Variables that probably cause outcomes
    • Dependent
      • The outcomes that depend on the independent variables
    • Intervening or mediating
      • Variables that stand between the independent and dependent variables
    • Moderating
      • New variables that measure the joint impact of two variables
    • Control
      • Independent variables that are measured and statistically "controlled"
    • Confounding
      • Variables that could also affect the dependent variables, but cannot or will not be measured
  • 4. Forms of Theories
    • Theory
      • Interrelated set of constructs formed into propositions that specify the relationships among variables
      • Describes how and why variables are related
    • Forms include
      • Set of hypotheses
      • Series of if-then statements
      • Visual model
  • 5. The Deductive Approach Used in Quantitative Research Researcher measures or observes variables using an instrument to obtain scores Researcher defines and operationalizes variables derived from the theory Researcher tests hypotheses or research questions from the theory Researcher tests or verifies a theory
  • 6. Placing Theory in a Quantitative Study Placement Advantages Disadvantages In the introduction Common approach; familiar to readers; conveys a deductive approach Difficult for a reader to isolate theory base from other components of the research process In the literature review Including theories in a literature review is a logical extension or part of the literature Difficult for a reader to see the theory in isolation from the larger literature After hypotheses or research questions The theory discussion explains how and why variables are related May leave out an extended discussion about the origin and use of the theory In a separate section Clearly separates the theory from other components of the research process, enables a reader to better identify and to understand the theory base The theory discussion is isolated and may not easily connect with other components of the research process
  • 7. Theory Use in Qualitative Research
    • Theory may be used as:
      • A broad explanation
      • A theoretical lens or perspective
        • Feminist perspective
        • Racialized discourse
        • Critical theory
        • Queer theory
        • Disability inquiry
      • An endpoint, a theory that is generated
    • Researcher may also choose not to employ theory in a qualitative study
  • 8. The Inductive Logic of Research in a Qualitative Study Researcher asks open-ended questions of participants or records fieldnotes Researcher analyzes data to form themes or categories Researcher looks for broad patterns, generalizations, or theories from themes or categories Researcher poses generalizations, or theories, and compares to past experiences and literature Researcher gathers information
  • 9. Use of Theory in Mixed Methods
    • Mixed methods studies may:
      • Include theory deductively (theory testing)
      • Include theory inductively (an emerging pattern)
      • Use a theoretical lens or perspective to guide the study
  • 10. Chapter Three: The Use of Theory RESEARCH DESIGN Qualitative, Quantitative, and Mixed Methods Approaches Third Edition John W. Creswell