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2013 UKM Faculty of Dentistry Oral Biology Guidebook

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Atikaedit oral biology guide book 20132014

  1. 1. ORAL BIOLOGY COURSE GUIDEBOOK (DA 1417) DDS PROGRAMME YEAR 1 ACADEMIC SESSION 2013/2014 2013 EDITION DEPARTMENT OF CLINICAL ORAL BIOLOGY, FACULTY OF DENTISTRY, UKM 1
  2. 2. This guidebook is intended to be used together with the “Buku Panduan Prasiswazah Fakulti Pergigian” 2
  3. 3. The content of this guidebook has been proof read and verified to be implemented for this current session. Verified by: _______________________ Date: Deputy Dean (Undergraduate, Alumni & Community Partnership) Faculty of Dentistry UKM Approved by: _______________________ Date: Dean Faculty of Dentistry UKM 3
  4. 4. COURSE: ORAL BIOLOGY CONTENT page 1. Introduction .......................................................................................................... 5 2. Course description ................................................................................................ 5 3. Course learning outcomes..................................................................................... 6 4. Mapping of course learning outcomes with dds ukm programme learning outcome (PLO) ...................................................................................................... 7 5. Student learning time to fundamental of oral biology course ............................ 10 6. Details of course learning outcomes and its relation to learning taxonomy, teaching-learning activities and assessment methods ....................................... 13 4. List of topics in oral biology course ..................................................................... 17 5. List of demonstrations and simulation exercises ................................................ 27 6. Assessment and examination ............................................................................. 29 7. Recommended reading references ..................................................................... 36 8. Appendices.......................................................................................................... 38 9. Information about the department of clinical oral biology ................................. 40 4
  5. 5. COURSE: ORAL BIOLOGY 1. Introduction Oral Biology (DA 1417) is one of the subjects that will be taught in year one. You will have to pass all subjects in order for you to move on to the second year. The running of the course is handled by the Clinical Oral Biology Department located at the first floor, Block L with the support of lecturers and staff from other departments. It will be the basis for your knowledge of the dental subjects when you go into the clinics in year 3,4 and 5. I hope you will build a strong foundation in the first year so that the learning process in the clinical years will be smooth sailing. This guidebook will give you an overview of Oral Biology course (DA 1417). It will be taught in both semester I and II with greater emphasis on the tooth and its surrounding structures in Semester I. This course is designed to provide basic knowledge of normal oral structures and function of oral cavity as well as being able to recognize the developmental anomaly or variation that may occur. In this course, students should be able to obtain the basic knowledge of tooth morphology, the hard and soft tissues of the tooth and its surrounding structures as well as the craniofacial development and growth as a basis for further knowledge in clinical dentistry. Student should be able to recognize, use and read different dental formulas and systems used for tooth identification. This guidebook will also provide you the learning objectives of all the topics taught in Semester I and II. You can also find some information regarding the course as well as staff members who will assist you in learning this subject. Students should try to see that all the objectives are achieved after completing the learning of this subject. You can also find the list of suggested reference books in the last section of this guidebook. You should try to read the recommended books. You can find them in the library or at the nearest bookstore. I hope by the end of this year one, you should be able to apply knowledge on tooth morphology, tooth structures, intraoral and craniofacial structures with the ability to develop skills on tooth drawing and tooth carving which are the epitome of a good dentist.I wish you all the best and hope you will find joy in learning Dentistry! 2. Course Description Oral Biology is aimed at introducing the students to the normal structures and function of the oral cavity as well as to be able to recognize the developmental anomaly that may often occur. In this course, students should be able to obtain the basic knowledge of tooth 5
  6. 6. morphology, the hard and soft tissues of the tooth and also its supporting structures. Students will be trained to recognize, read and apply different dental formulaes and systems commonly used for tooth identification. The craniofacial development and growth will also be taught during the second semester. Lectures will be given on the different types of cranial bone ossification and the development of mandible and maxillary complex during the pre-natal and post- natal periods. Topics on dental occlusion, jaw movements, dental arches and factors that could influence their shape and size will also be emphasized. Topics on mastication cycle and different jaw reflexes will also be taught. The role of oral biology in forensic odontology and human identification will also be highlighted. Changes to the oral cavity and other maxillofacial structures will also be taught. The method of teaching and learning for Semester I and II is a combination of conventional teaching and Problem based learning (PBL). Conventional teaching involves lectures, tutorials and practicals, which you have been exposed during your pre university training. Lectures will be given on topics such as tooth morphology, tooth development and orofacial development and growth. Topics on enamel and eruption during Semester I and topics on Development and Growth in Semester II will be given through Problem Based Learning (PBL). 3. Course Learning Outcomes i. Explain in detail the anatomical and histological structure and function of the tissues in the oral cavity and adjoining areas, namely the teeth, the supporting tissues, oral mucosa in different parts of the oral cavity, salivary glands and adjoining tissues and temporomandibular joint as well as normal nerve and vascular supply for teeth and periodontium. ii. Relate basic structure and functions of the tissues in the oral cavity and adjoining areas at organ, tissue, cellular and molecular levels to the practice of dentistry. iii. Describe the normal and abnormal development of these tissues in the oral cavity and adjoining areas. iv. Conduct clinical examination i.e. assess TMJ and associated structures, perform dental charting and relate the features of dental occlusion through study model v. Conduct assessment of developmental stage of each tooth in young patients in dental X rays. vi. Acquire information from scientific articles on oral biology topics. vii. Develop learning aid in relation to oral biology 6
  7. 7. 1 2 3 4 Explain in detail the anatomical and histological structure and function of the tissues in the oral cavity and adjoining areas, namely the teeth, the supporting tissues, oral mucosa in different parts of the oral cavity, salivary glands and adjoining tissues and temporomandibular joint as well as normal nerve and vascular supply for teeth and periodontium. Cognitive Relate basic structure and functions of the tissues in the oral cavity and adjoining areas at organ, tissue, cellular and molecular levels to the practice of dentistry. Describe the normal and abnormal development of these tissues in the oral cavity and adjoining areas. Conduct clinical examination i.e. assess TMJ and associated structures, perform dental charting and relate the features of dental occlusion through study model 2 2 2 Psychomotor 2 7 PLO 10 PLO 9 PLO 8 PLO 7 PLO 6 PLO 5 PLO 4 PLO 3 Domain PLO 2 Course learning outcome PLO 1 4. Mapping of Course Learning Outcomes with DDS UKM Programme Learning Outcome (PLO) Competencies and Level stated by MDC that are being adressed by the course Relate basic structure and functions of the human body at organ, tissue, C2 cellular and molecular levels to the practice of dentistry Explain normal and abnormal C2 orofacial development Explain craniofacial form and relationships, including C2 evidence of deviation from the norm. Perform clinical examinations, P5 intraoral , radiographic B4 and other Methods of assessment Esei, MCQ, OSPE (Mini tests, Semester 1 exam and Professional exam). Assessment for Tooth drawing and tooth carving. Esei, MCQ, OSPE (Mini tests, Semester 1 exam and Professional exam) Esei, MCQ, OSPE (Mini tests, Semester 1 exam and Professional exam) Assessment during clinical exercise, OSPE
  8. 8. 5 6 Conduct assessment of developmental stage of each tooth in young patients in dental X rays. Acquire information from scientific articles on oral biology topics. Develop learning aid in relation to oral biology Cognitive & Affective 2 Cognitive & Affective 8 2 2 2 2 PLO 10 PLO 9 2 2 7 PLO 8 PLO 7 PLO 6 PLO 5 PLO 4 PLO 3 PLO 2 Domain PLO 1 Course learning outcome Competencies and Level stated by MDC that are being adressed by the course necessary investigations relevant to the practise of dentistry Apply evidence-based C3 approach in the , practice of A3 dentistry Use current information technology A3 resources in contemporary dental practice. Demonstrate ability to acquire P4 knowledge and scientific evidence Use current information technology resources in A3 contemporary dental practice. Methods of assessment OSPE (Semester 1 exam and Professional exam) Assessment during PBL session Assessment during PBL session Assessment during PBL session Assessment during Oral Biology Day.
  9. 9. DDS UKM PLO: PLO 1 – Apply scientific knowledge to practice safe and independent dentistry PLO 2 – Provide oral health care services competently within the scope of general dental practice to various members of the community PLO 3 – Adopt a caring attitude and empathy towads patients and their family, colleagues and the whole community PLO 4 – Practice ethical values and profesionalism within the confines of the laws in the provision of dental service PLO 5 – Communicate effectively and demonstrate leadership skill to function in multicultural society and in work environment PLO 6 – Collaborate with other health professionals and relevant agencies in health promotion and disease prevention. PLO 7 – Use critical thinking and problem solving skills related to comprehensive care of patients. PLO 8 – Use current information technology resources in contemporary dental practice. PLO 9 – Adapt lifelong learning approach and self–assessment in maintaining dental competency PLO 10 – Display entrepreneurial skills in the management of dental practice. 9
  10. 10. PBL(6h+6) Simulation (+1) Clinic (3h+1) 1 2 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 1 1 2 2 2 2 0 0 0 0 2 2 2 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 3 4 5 6 1 1 1 1 8 Anterior teeth Premolar Molar Deciduous Tooth development Root formation 9 Cementum 1 10 Cuti Pertengahan Semester 11 Enamel structure 1 12 Amelogenesis 1 13 Dentine structure 1 14 15 1 1 17 Dentinogenesis Dental pulp Periodontal ligament Eruption 1 18 Mesial drift 1 7 1.2 16 6 6 6 3 Professional Examination Practical Lab (3h+1) Posting (8 hrs x 5dys) (1h+1) Seminar/ Case Presentation (1h+3) Revision (on the timetable) Tutorial (1h+1) Terminology for tooth morphology Seminar/Case Presentation Lectures (1h+2) Written Assignment 0 Project Report 0 Research 0 Clinic 0 Ward round 0 Simulation 0 PBL 0 Practical Lab 2 Tutorial 1 Topic Lectures Sem Introduction to Oral Biology Wk Year 1.1 1 2 1 Continuous assessment Preparation for assessment Non face to face contact Posting (8 hrs x 5dys) Directed Self Learning Face to face contact Total Student Learning Time (SLT) 5. Student Learning Time to Fundamental of Oral Biology Course 3 1 4 12 12 12 7 1 2 1 2 2 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 2 1 2 2 0 0 0 0 0 0 8 1 2 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 4 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 2 0 0 12 0 0 0 0 1 2 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 4 1 2 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 4 1 1 2 2 2 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 8 4 2 0 0 12 0 0 0 0 1 2 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 4 1 2 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 4 1 6 2 6 10 1 1 1 9 23 22
  11. 11. 1 2 3 4 Overview of Semester 1 Oral mucosa Dentogingival junction Facial and dental development 2 Total Student Learning Time (SLT) 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 152.4 Professional Examination Clinic (3h+1) Continuous assessment Simulation (+1) Posting (8 hrs x 5dys) (1h+1) Seminar/ Case Presentation (1h+3) Revision (on the timetable) PBL(6h+6) Seminar/Case Presentation 0 0 0 2 2.4 4 2 2.4 4 1 1 1 3 0 0 0 0 0 0 2 1 1 0 0 0 0 0 1 2 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 6 2 0 1 12 0 0 0 0 25 1 3 0 1 1 1 Project Report Research Clinic Ward round Simulation PBL Practical Lab Tutorial Cuti Semester 1 Practical Lab (3h+1) 22 2.1 Ujian Semester 1 Cuti Semester 1 Tutorial (1h+1) 21 3 0 0 0 0 Dental charting Revision 0 0 0 0 Lectures Wk 18 19 20 Topic Lectures (1h+2) Written Assignment Posting (8 hrs x 5dys) Directed Self Learning Preparation for assessment Non face to face contact JUMLAH PEMBELAJARAN PER SEMESTER Sem Year Face to face contact 2 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 2 0 0 12 0 0 0 0 22 1 2 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 4 2 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 3 6 5 Development of skull and jaw 1 6 Postnatal growth of skull 1 7 Post natal growth of maxilla 1 8 Post natal growth of mandible 1 9 Revision 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 10 Cuti Pertengahan Semester 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 6 11 6 1 1 2 11 5 2 0
  12. 12. Simulation (+1) Clinic (3h+1) Total Student Learning Time (SLT) PBL(6h+6) 1 0 0 0 0 0 1 2 2 0 0 0 0 0 0 8 1 2 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 4 1 2 2 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 1 2 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 5 5 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2 1 2 1 15 Saliva 1 PBL 1 1 3 2 19 20 Revision Minggu Ulangkaji 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 21 Peperiksaan Akhir 0 0 0 0 33 12 27 24 25 0 0 6 0 Professional Examination Practical Lab (3h+1) Continuous assessment Tutorial (1h+1) 0 0 Salivary Gland JUMLAH Posting (8 hrs x 5dys) (1h+1) Seminar/ Case Presentation (1h+3) Revision (on the timetable) Lectures (1h+2) 0 0 Seminar/Case Presentation 0 0 14 18 Written Assignment 0 0 1 1 Project Report 1 2 2 Occlusion Mastication Research 0 12 13 17 Posting (8 hrs x 5dys) 0 Clinic 0 Ward round 0 2 Simulation 0 1 Oral Changes due to aging Dental Abnormalities Oral Biology Day Directed Self Learning 0 Anatomy and histology of TMJ Practical Lab 2 11 16 Preparation for assessment Non face to face contact 2 Tutorial Topic Lectures 2.2 Wk Sem Year Face to face contact 8 1 1 8 4 6 4 0 0 0 66 132 JUMLAH JAM NOTIONAL YANG DIPERLUKAN UTK PELAJAR 0 3. 5 JUMLAH PEMBELAJARAN PER SEMESTER 10. 3. 0 2 0 0 12 4 5 284 12 9 48 0 0 0 0 JUMLAH KREDIT 12 3.5 284 7
  13. 13. 6. Details of Course Learning Outcomes and its relation to learning taxonomy, teaching-learning activities and assessment methods Course Learning Outcomes 1 Explain in detail the anatomical and histological structure and function of the tissues in the oral cavity and adjoining areas, namely the teeth, the supporting tissues, oral mucosa in different parts of the oral cavity, salivary glands and adjoining tissues and temporomandibular joint as well as normal nerve and vascular supply for teeth and periodontium. Indicator Relate basic structure and functions of the human body at organ, tissue, cellular and molecular levels to the practice of dentistry Domain Cognitive 1. Describe tooth morphology of a normal tooth 2. Differentiate between the primary and permanent dentitions 3. Read and used different dental formulas for example FDI 2 Digit system and Palmer's Notation for tooth identification 4. Describe general characteristics of each classification of teeth (incisor, canines, premolars, molars) Teaching and learning activities  Lecture  Practical  Tooth carving  Tooth drawing Methods of assessment SummativeTheory – Mini test, Final exam (MCQ/Essay/OSPE) SummativeTooth carving exercise SummativeTooth drawing exercise SummativeTheory – Mini test, Final exam (MCQ/Essay/OSPE)     Lecture Practical Tooth carving Tooth drawing   Lecture Practical SummativeTheory – Mini test, Final exam (MCQ/Essay/OSPE)     Lecture Practical Tooth carving Tooth drawing SummativeTheory – Mini test, Final exam (MCQ/Essay/OSPE) SummativeTooth carving exercise SummativeTooth drawing exercise 13
  14. 14. 6. Course Learning Outcomes Describe the structure and functions of oral tissues and its related structures 7. Identify the dental occlusion, jaw movements, dental arches and factors that influence their shapes, sizes and jaw relationship (classification) Teaching and learning activities  Lecture  Practical  Tutorial  Directed self learning  Lecture  Practical  PBL session  Tutorial  Directed self learning  Lecture  Practical  Tutorial  Directed self learning 1. Explain the origin of the cells that formed the tooth germs and stages of tooth formation     2. Explain the relationship between the craniofacial growths and the malformation which often occur Indicator Domain 5. 2 3 Relate basic structure and functions of the tissues in the oral cavity and adjoining areas at organ, tissue, cellular and molecular levels to the practice of dentistry. Describe the normal and abnormal development of these tissues in the oral cavity and adjoining areas. Explain cranio-facial form and relationships, including evidence of deviation from the norm. Explain different types of oral hard and soft tissues of tooth and its supporting structure Cognitive 3. Compare between normal oral tissues and its development anomaly 14          Lecture Practical Tutorial Directed self learning Lecture Practical Tutorial Directed self learning PBL session Lecture Practical Tutorial Directed self learning Methods of assessment SummativeTheory – Mini test, Final exam (MCQ/Essay/OSPE) SummativeTheory – Mini test, Final exam (MCQ/Essay/OSPE) SummativeTheory – Mini test, Final exam (MCQ/Essay/OSPE) SummativeTheory – Mini test, Final exam (MCQ/Essay/OSPE) SummativeTheory – Mini test, Final exam (MCQ/Essay/OSPE) SummativeTheory – Mini test, Final exam (MCQ/Essay/OSPE)
  15. 15. Course Learning Outcomes 4 5 Conduct clinical examination i.e. assess TMJ and associated structures, perform dental charting and relate the features of dental occlusion through study model Conduct assessment of developmental stage of each tooth in young patients in dental X rays. Indicator Perform clinical examinations, intraoral radiographic and other necessary investigations relevant to the practise of dentistry Perform clinical examinations, intraoral radiographic and other necessary Domain Psychomotor 1. Practice principles of tooth notation and identifying tooth surfaces and features on patient. 1. Practice principles of estimating age based on information from tooth developmental process 15 Teaching and learning activities  Clinical  Practical  To complete clinical exercise  Act as patient during ICD clinic with year 3  Perform dental charting to clinical partner  To examine TMJ and muscle of mastication of a clinical partner  To take impression of clinical partner  To produce a dental cast from impression  To mount upper and lower dental cast in occlusion  Practical  Lecture  Practical  To trace OPG of mixed dentition Methods of assessment Formative-Assessment during clinical session -Assessment of dental cast SummativeTheory – Mini test, Final exam (OSPE)
  16. 16. Course Learning Outcomes Indicator Domain Teaching and learning activities Methods of assessment investigations relevant to the practise of dentistry 6 7 Acquire information from scientific articles on oral biology topics. Develop learning aid in relation to oral biology Apply evidencebased approach in the practice of dentistry Use current information technology resources in contemporary dental practice. Demonstrate ability to acquire knowledge and scientific evidence Use current information technology resources in contemporary dental practice. Cognitive & Affective 1. Analyse various dental information in relation to specific issue in problem based learning. 2. Organise dental information to be discussed during Problem based learning. 1. Produce learning aid for Oral Biology topics    16 PBL session  To participate in ‘Oral Biology Day’ To produce learning aid Formative-Assessment on participation in PBL session Formative-Assessment on participation during Oral Biology Day
  17. 17. 4. LIST OF TOPICS IN ORAL BIOLOGY COURSE (Includes Lecture/demonstration topics – its contents and specific objectives) No Topics Contents 1. Tooth morphology – basic dental terminology   Introduction to Oral Biology Terminology for tooth morphology Tooth morphology (deciduous & permanent dentition)     Anterior teeth Premolar teeth Molar teeth Deciduous teeth Tooth development   Tooth development Root formation 2. 3 Specific Learning Outcomes - Students must be able to:  define and describe the various anatomical features of a normal tooth  list down the general characteristics of each classification of teeth (incisors, canines, premolars and molars)  define the different stages of dentition  use the FDI 2 digit system and Palmer’s system for tooth identification  recognize every individual deciduous and permanent teeth  list down the differences between deciduous and permanent teeth  explain the main anatomical features found on each tooth  list down the normal variations found on the teeth  explain the number and shape of roots of the teeth  describe the shape and size of the pulp cavities  distinguish between completely and partially formed root, fractured root and resorbed root  explain the origin of the cells that formed the tooth germs.  describe the stages of tooth development (bud, cap and bell stage)  explain about crown formation  recognize the enamel organ, dental papilla and dental follicle 17 Semester/ Hours 1/2 1/31 1/8
  18. 18. No Topics Contents Specific Learning Outcomes - Students must be able to:    4. Cementum  Cementum       5 Tooth structures  Enamel structure       18 and name the tooth structures they give rise to identify internal enamel epithelium, external enamel epithelium, stellate reticulum and stratum intermedium explain the importance of the term “epithelial-mesenchyme interactions” in tooth development. Describe the structure and function of the Hertwig Epithelial Root Sheath list down the chemical composition of cementum differentiate between extrinsic collagen fibers (Sharpey) and intrinsic fibers. describe the cellular and acellular cementum describe the cemento-enamel junction and cemento-dentine junction. list down the function of cementum describe the changes that happened to the cementum due to the increase in age. list down the chemical composition and physical properties of matured enamel. illustrate the arrangement of enamel prisms. describe the histological picture of prismatic enamel and non prismatic enamel. define the terms “decussation, Hunter-Schreger bands’ and “enamel gnarl” describe the incremental growth lines (cross striation, striae of retzius, neonatal lines) explain the developmental features seen in the enamel Semester/ Hours 1/2 1/18
  19. 19. No Topics Contents Specific Learning Outcomes - Students must be able to: (tuft, lamella, spindles).  Amelogenesis  Dentine structure  Dentinogenesis  describe the origin and the histological picture of the ameloblast.  list down the chemical composition of an immature enamel.  describe the secretory and maturation stages during enamel development.  explain the process involved in changing immature enamel to matured enamel.  illustrate the arrangement of crystals in the enamel prisms.  define and explain the terms “reduced enamel epithelium” and “post eruptive maturation”  describe the effect of excessive fluoride on the development of enamel.  list down the chemical composition and physical properties of dentine.  explain the types of dentine:  primary, secondary and tertiary dentine.  peritubular dentine, interglobular dentine.  sclerotic dentine, translucent dentine.  mantle dentine, predentine  dead tract  explain the incremental growth lines  explain the granular layer of tomes, hyaline layer of hopewell smith  explain dentine permeability and dentine sensitivity    19 explain the origin and structure of young odontoblast. list the chemical composition of dentine. describe the arrangement of collagen fibers in mantle Semester/ Hours
  20. 20. No Topics Contents Specific Learning Outcomes - Students must be able to:     6 Tooth movements Dental pulp  Periodontal ligaments dentine and circumpulpal dentine. define the matrix vesicle and its important in mineralization of dentine. differentiate predentine from mineralized dentine. define the important of predentine.  describe the histology of the dental pulp.  explain the innervation and vascularization of the dental pulp.  explain the importance of a healthy and living pulp.  describe the changes in the histology of pulp due to increase in age  explain the types, formation of pulp stones and its clinical importance.  describe the histology of the periodontal ligament and its function.  explain the arrangement of the collagen fibers (principle periodontal fibers)  describe the oxytalan fibers and its arrangement.  explain the innervation and blood supply to the periodontal ligament.  illustrate the effect of load on the position of the tooth using a graph.  explain the meaning of visco-elastic mechanism. 20 Semester/ Hours 1/11
  21. 21. No Topics Contents   7 Oral mucosa Eruption Mesial drift  Oral mucosa Specific Learning Outcomes - Students must be able to:  discuss the role of the collagen fibers and the fibroblast in the periodontium, the vascular and hydrostatic pressure during physiologic tooth movement.  describe the stages and process of eruption.  explain the tooth movement and how it is related to the three phases of tooth eruption  describe the theory of eruption.  define the terms “reduced enamel epithelium, epithelial attachment, gingival crevice, canal gubernaculums”  list down factors causing exfoliation of the deciduous teeth.  discuss the process of mesial drift.  explain the factors causing mesial drift.  define the term mucosa, sub mucosa, epithelium, lamina propria, and rete peg.  describe the three types of oral mucosa namely lining, masticatory and specialized mucosa.  differentiate the differences between the three types of mucosa and relate the structures and their functions  list down and explain the function of each cell found in the epithelial layer of the mucosa.  list down and explain the function of the cell, fibers, proteoglycans found in the lamina propria and the sub mucosa.  describe the nerve and blood supply to the mucosa.  describe briefly the features of the lingual mucosa ad vermillion zone of the lips. 21 Semester/ Hours 2/9
  22. 22. No Topics Contents  8 Craniofacial development and growth Dentogingival junction  Facial development  Development of the skulls and jaws Specific Learning Outcomes - Students must be able to:  illustrate the distribution and function of the taste buds found on the tongue.  describe briefly the effect of xerostomia on oral health.  define and describe the features of oral epithelium, crevicular epithelium and junctional epithelium.  state the normal depth of the gingival crevice.  describe the arrangement of the gingival fibers  explain the characteristics of junctional epithelium.  explain the formation and function of the basal lamina found between the tooth and the gingival.  discuss the factors that help to keep the gingiva close to the tooth.  explain the properties of gingival creviclar fluid.  define primary and secondary palate  describe the processes that formed the face.  explain how and when the primary and secondary palates are formed.  relate the formation of this area to the malformation that often occur.  identify each part of the chondrocranium: meckel’s cartilage, nasal capsule.  explain the differences between endochondral ossification and intramembranous ossification  identify the types of bones that develop by intramembranous ossification and those which develop by endochondral ossification 22 Semester/ Hours 2/23
  23. 23. No Topics Contents Specific Learning Outcomes - Students must be able to:      Postnatal growths of the skull and jaws      Postnatal growth of maxilla and mandible         23 explain the time and the initial point where the maxilla and mandible start to develop. describe the function and the fate of meckel’s cartilage. describe where the secondary cartilages can be found in the mandible. discuss the prenatal development of maxilla and mandible. describe the features of the skull at birth recognize the three areas on the skull that grows at different rates: neurocranium, base of the skull and viscerocranium explain the terms suture and synchondrosis and describe how they are formed explain briefly the postnatal growth of the neurocranium and the skull explain briefly the development of mandible and maxilla describe the features of maxilla and mandible at birth explain how the maxillary complex and the mandible moves downwards and forwards during infancy describe the areas on the maxilla where apposition and resorption of bone take place. explain the importance of the midpalatal suture growth in the growth of the maxilla explain the importance of the cartilage of the condylar cartilage in the growth of the maxilla describe the areas on the mandible where apposition and resorption of bone take place growth of jaws in relation to tooth eruption. Semester/ Hours
  24. 24. No Topics 9 Contents Specific Learning Outcomes - Students must be able to: o Temporomandibular joint Anatomy and histology of TMJ        10 Occlusion  Occlusion       11 Mastication  Mastication      24 describe the anatomical structures of the joint describe the embryology of the joint explain the articulating surfaces of the bones identify: capsule, synovial membrane, ligament and articulating disc describe the nerve and blood supply to the joint describe the muscles and the movements that take place in the joint explain how dislocation of the joint can occur describe the dental arches and the factors that influence their shape and size define the terms: catenary curve, compensating curve, contact areas, overjet, overbite explain the relationship between the upper and lower teeth define the term occlusion, normal occlusion explain the relationship between the upper and the lower teeth in normal occlusion. discuss the importance of compensating curve and curve of spee in a functional dentition. explain the movement of the mandible during mastication describe the characteristics of the cycle of mastication describe the lateral excursion of the mandible explain the incisal and occlusal phases of the cycle of mastication explain the types of reflexes: jaw reflex, jaw opening reflex and unloading reflex. Semester/ Hours 2/4 1/4
  25. 25. No Topics Contents 12   Salivary gland Salivary gland Saliva Specific Learning Outcomes - Students must be able to:        13 Oral changes  Oral changes due to aging      Dental abnormalities     25 classify the salivary glands according to the type of acinar cells, the location where they are found describe the histology of the salivary glands describe the embryology of the major glands explain the formation of saliva bicarbonate. describe functions of the secretory cells and ductal system explain the composition of saliva and discuss briefly the importance of the constituent to oral health. discuss the changes which might happen to the glands with increasing age of the individuals explain the dental pellicle describe the changes seen on the tooth structures, oral mucosa, periodontal ligament related to aging explain the changes seen in the histology of the hard and soft tissues of the teeth and the surrounding structures as age increases to recognize these changes as being non pathological with increase in age. discuss dental anomalies of the number of teeth and related syndromes (hyperdontia, hypodontia) describe twinning and differentiate between fusion, gemination and concrescence. discuss dental anomalies of size (microdontia, macrodontia and twinning) and their management. state details of dental anomalies of size and shape (dens invaginatus, dens evaginatus, taurodontism) and their management. Semester/ Hours 2/2 2/5
  26. 26. No Topics Contents Specific Learning Outcomes - Students must be able to:    26 describe dental anomalies of structure related to enamel (amelogenesis imperfecta, hypoplasia) and their management. list information about dental anomalies of structure related to dentin (dentinogenesis imperfecta, dentin dysplasia, odontodysplasia) and their management. discuss dental anomalies of structure related to cementum Semester/ Hours
  27. 27. 5. LIST OF DEMONSTRATIONS AND SIMULATION EXERCISES (1 simulation session = 3 hours) No Demonstration & simulation topics Learning objectives - Able to: Tooth morphology:  Collection of extracted teeth from clinic  Frasaco teeth  Oversize teeth  Tooth drawing 1.  Recognise and appreciate tooth morphology and variation associated Demo sessions (hours) Practical sessions (hours) 6 2.   3. Tooth carving    To be able to develop basic understanding of important terminology to describe teeth. To be able to recognize each tooth class and every individual deciduous and permanent teeth. To be able to identify, describe and reproduce in drawings the morphology of all deciduous and permanent teeth. To be able to develop basic understanding of important terminology to describe teeth. To be able to recognize each tooth class and every individual deciduous and permanent teeth. To be able to replicate the anatomy of individual teeth in wax for future application in clinical dentistry. 27 (To be submitted by the end of Semester 1) (To be submitted by the end of Semester
  28. 28.  4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. Introduction to Clinical Dentistry  Being a patient to year 3 students during their ICD clinic Dental charting  With partners, students will perform dental charting focusing on tooth numbering and morphology TMJ examination  With partners, students will perform TMJ examination and occlusion Dental occlusion  Mounting of upper and lower dental cast representing occlusion inside the mouth (individual task) Age estimation from radiographic interpretation  To trace OPG of mixed dentition Oral Biology Day 1) To be able to develop fine manual skills and wax handling skills during tooth carving.  Recognise communication between Year 3 students with their respective partners and clinical supervisor using the right dental terminology.  Practice principles of tooth notation and identifying tooth surfaces and features on patient.    Identify TMJ area and muscles of mastication Identify various types of TMJ movement Identify types of occlusion 6 3 0.5 2.5 3   Identify types of occlusion Analyse arrangement of dentition within and between arches  Identify the normal structures of the images in the radiograph  Identify various stages of tooth development and eruption  Assess age of patient  Produce learning aid for Oral Biology topics 28 3 6
  29. 29. 6. ASSESSMENT and EXAMINATION The final grade for the course will be derived from 2 components i.e. the continuous assessment marks (50%) and the marks from the final assessment at the First Professional Examination (50%) which will be held at the end of Year 1. Students must pass the continuous assessment (marks must be 25% and/or above) in order to sit for the final examination. No. 1 Assessment Continuous assessment 2 3 Percentage 24% 6% 20% 50% 100% First Professional examination Total 8 mini tests Tooth carving and drawing End of Semester 1 examination A. Marks for Continuous Assessment Mini test (allocated time 1 hour) Tooth morphology will be done in the form of OSPE (Objective structured practical examination) while for other topics it can be either MCQ or Essays or Short answer type essays or a mixture between MCQ with essays or short answer type essays. Format Allocated time: 1 hour MCQ + Essay MCQ Essay Total Number of questions Percentage 15 2 50% 50% 100% or MCQ only MCQ SEQ only SEQ 20 or 100% 4 or 100% OSPE: Allocated time : 2 minute per station OSPE 30 stations 100% End of Semester I examination Format Number of questions Allocated time: 1 hour 25 minutes MCQ 30 29 Percentage 40%
  30. 30. Essay 3 OSPE: Allocated time : 1 minute per station OSPE 25 stations Total 40% 20% 100% Tooth carving and tooth drawing: Tooth carving and tooth drawing exercises will contribute to 6% of the continuous assessment. 30
  31. 31. Criteria and standards for tooth carving exercise: Please refer to these while working on your wax carving and before handing it up Assessment criteria Excellent Very good Good (Mark = 8+) (Mark = 7 -7.9) (Mark = 6 – 6.9) SA PA LA SA PA LA SA PA LA Morphology of wax Margins closely adapted Margins closely adapted for Margins closely adapted for some pattern: for all preparations. majority of preparations. of preparations. Is the wax adapted to the margins of the preparation? Do La/Li or Bu/Li contour corresponds to expected shape of natural teeth? Do contact areas present and in correct location? Can you identify precisely what tooth it is and does it accurately occludes with opposing teeth? Waxing technique Homogenous wax, no impurities, deep, consistent colour, wax surface smooth and polished Model presentation Satisfactory (Mark = 5 -5.9) SA PA LA Margins closely adapted for a few preparations. Borderline (Mark = 4 – 4.9) SA PA LA Margins closely adapted in 1 or 2 preparations. Unsatisfactory (Mark = 3 – 3.9) SA PA LA Margins not closely adapted in any preparations. Anatomy of buccal/lingual surfaces does not represent morphology in any preparations. Anatomy of buccal/lingual surfaces accurately represents morphology for all preparations. Anatomy of buccal/lingual surfaces accurately represents morphology for majority of preparations. Anatomy of buccal/lingual surfaces accurately represents morphology for some of preparations. Anatomy of buccal/lingual surfaces accurately represents morphology in a few preparations. Anatomy of buccal/lingual surfaces accurately represents morphology in 1 or 2 preparations. Occlusal anatomy accurately represents morphology, and occludes for all preparations (for study model) Occlusal anatomy accurately represents morphology, and occludes for majority of preparations (for study model) Occlusal anatomy accurately represents morphology, and occludes for some preparations (for study model) Occlusal anatomy accurately represents morphology, and occlude in a few preparations (for study model) Occlusal anatomy accurately represents morphology, and occlude in 1 or 2 preparations (for study model) Marginal ridge heights match for majority of preparations. Marginal ridge heights match for some preparations. Marginal ridge heights match in a few preparations. Marginal ridge heights match for only 1 or 2 preparations. Contact area locations are correct in majority of preparations (for study model) Contact area locations are correct in some of preparations (for study model) Contact area locations are correct in a few preparations (for study model) Contact area locations are correct in 1 or 2 preparations (for study model) Some streaking evident in wax in most preparations Some streaking evident in wax in majority of preparations Wax surface very rough with deep indentations majority of preparations Models exhibit some damaged Marginal ridge heights match for all preparations. Contact area locations are correct in all preparations (for study model) Occlusal anatomy does not represent morphology, and do not occlude in any preparation (for study model) Marginal ridge heights do not match in any preparations. Contact area locations inaccurate in all preparations (for study model) Wax homogenous in all preparations Wax homogenous in majority of preparations Wax homogenous in some of preparations May exhibit excellent preps on one side of arch and poor on the other. Some streaking evident in wax in 1 or 2 preparations Wax surface smooth and polished in all preparations No damage to models Wax surface smooth and polished in majority of preparations Wax surface smooth and polished in some of preparations Wax surface smooth in majority of preparations No damage to models No damage to models Models exhibit some damaged Wax surface rough with shallow indentations in majority of preparations Models exhibit some damaged No wax extending beyond prepared margins. Minor wax extension beyond prepared margins. Minor wax extension beyond prepared margins in some preparations. Wax extension beyond prepared margins in many preparations. Wax extension beyond prepared margins for many preparations. Wax extension beyond prepared margins for all preparations. Models marked with some wax stains Models heavily coated with wax stains Models heavily coated with wax stains 31
  32. 32. Criteria and standards for tooth drawing exercise: Please refer to these while working on your tooth drawing and before handing it up Assessment criteria Excellent Very good Good Satisfactory (Mark = 8+) (Mark = 7 -7.9) (Mark = 6 – 6.9) (Mark = 5 -5.9) SA PA LA SA PA LA SA PA LA SA PA LA Morphology: All required drawing All required drawing submitted. All required drawing submitted. All required drawing submitted. Do all required drawing submitted. submitted? Buccal/Labial view, Palatal/lingual Buccal/Labial view, Palatal/lingual Buccal/Labial view, Palatal/lingual Buccal/Labial view, view, occlusal view, Mesial view view, occlusal view, Mesial view view, occlusal view, Mesial view Do all five aspects of Palatal/lingual view, and distal view present for all and distal view present for all and distal view present for all tooth present? occlusal view, Mesial view teeth. teeth. teeth. and distal view present for Does general shape of all teeth. The shape of majority of the teeth The shape of some of the teeth The shape of the teeth accurately each tooth conform to accurately represents accurately represents represents morphology for a few the correct morphology? The shape of all teeth morphology. morphology. of the drawings. accurately represents Is the ratio of crown-root morphology. Ratio of crown and root for Ratio of crown and root for some Ratio of crown and root for a few reasonable? majority of the teeth are of the teeth are accurately of the teeth are accurately Ratio of crown and root accurately represents correct represents correct morphology. represents correct morphology. are accurately represents morphology. correct morphology. SA Borderline (Mark = 4 – 4.9) PA LA All required drawing submitted. SA Unsatisfactory (Mark = 3 – 3.9) PA LA All required drawings were not submitted. Buccal/Labial view, Palatal/lingual view, occlusal view, Mesial view and distal view present for some of the teeth. The shape of the teeth accurately represents morphology for 1 or 2 of the drawings. Ratio of crown and root for 1 or 2 of the drawings are accurately represents correct morphology. Labeling Do all important features properly labeled? Have all the given questions answered? All dental features for all teeth are properly labeled. Majority of dental features for all teeth are properly labeled. All questions are answered. Some of the dental features for some of the teeth are properly labeled. Only a few of the dental features for some of the teeth are properly labeled. Only 1 or 2 of the dental features for some of the teeth are properly labeled. All questions are answered. Majority of questions are answered. Majority of questions are answered. Some of the questions are answered. No labeling present for each drawing. Questions are not answered. 32
  33. 33. B. Final Assessment in First Professional Examination i. General Structure This examination will be held at the end of Year 1 and it will cover all the lecture topics given in Year Year 1. The examination consists of 2 components, which is the written paper and OSPE. This examination will test your knowledge, understanding and the clinical application of the information that you have acquired throughout oral biology course. ii. Requirements There are two requirements that you must fulfill before you are allowed to sit for the First Professional Examination which are: a) Attendance of at least 80% for both lectures and clinics. b) Continuous assessment – must pass i.e. at least 25% of the overall marks. iii. Format of the First Professional Exam (50% of final mark) The examination comprise: a. One theory paper which consists essays (short and long) b. OSPE Format MCQ Essay OSPE Total Number of questions Written paper (allocated time: 3 hours) 40 4 OSPE: Allocated time : 1 minute per station 30 iv. Pass/Fail Viva 33 Percentage 40% 40% 20% 100%
  34. 34. a. Candidates with a final rounded mark of 45 to 49 inclusive will be required to attend a Pass/Fail viva voce examination. The viva will be approximately 15 minutes in duration, and will be conducted by at least 3 examiners i.e. one from each unit. b. No marks shall be awarded for the viva. The candidates will only be awarded either a ‘Pass’ or ‘Fail’. Candidates who are awarded a ‘Pass’ will have their final mark raised to 50, whilst the marks of candidates who are awarded a ‘Fail’ will not be amended. iv. Distinction Viva a. Candidates with a final rounded mark of 75 or above will be invited to attend for a Distinction viva voce examination. b. The viva will be approximately 15 minutes in duration, and will be conducted by at least 3 examiners i.e. one from each unit. c. No marks shall be awarded for the viva. Distinctions will be awarded at the discretion of the examiners on the basis of the performance in the viva. Successful candidates will be awarded a ‘Pass with Distinction’. v. Grading Following any pass/fail and distinction viva examinations, candidates will be awarded a grade as follows: A 80 and above A- 75 –79 B+ 70 –74 B 65 – 69 B- 60 – 64 C+ 55 – 59 C 50 – 54 C- 45 – 49 D 44 – 0 34
  35. 35. vi. Repeat Examination Any candidate who fails the First Professional Examination will be required to re-sit the examination, subject to any provisions and requirements of the programme regulations. The repeat examination format will be the same as that detailed above but with the following provisions: a. The accumulated continuous assessment marks will not contribute towards the final mark of this exam. The final mark will be determined solely by this examination. b. No pass/fail viva will be conducted for this examination. c. Candidates will not be eligible to attend for a Distinction viva. d. Students who fail this repeat exam will be required to repeat the year i.e. the 1st year. Formative assessment Throughout the course, students will undergo formative assessments that are designed to help in appreciating the effectiveness of their learning. This assessment does not count towards the final marks or grading, but the assessment is used to identify and monitor students who may need additional help with studies. This may include quizzes on iFolio, PBL presentation assessment, assignments, participation during practicals and others. 35
  36. 36. 7. Recommended Reading References 1. Antonio Nanci (2008) Ten Cate’s Oral Histology: Development, structure and function. 7th ed. Mosby Elsevier, St. Louis 2. Ash GM (1993) Wheeler’s dental anatomy, physiology and occlusion. 7th ed. WB Saunders, Philadelphia. 3. Ash MM and Nelson SL (2003) Dental anatomy, physiology and occlusion. 8th ed. WB Saunders, Philadelphia. 4. Bath- Balogh M and Fehrencah MJ (1997) Illustrated dental embryology, histology and anatomy. WB Saunders, Philadelphia. 5. Berkovitz BKB, Holland GR and Moxham BJ (1992) A colour atlas and textbook of oral anatomy, histology and embryology. Wolfe Medical Publications, London. 6. Berkovitz BKB, Moxham BJ and Holland GR (2002) Oral anatomy, embryology and histology. 3rd ed. Mosby, Edinburgh. 7. Brand RW and Isselhard DE (1998) Anatomy of orofacial structures. 6th ed Mosby, St Louis. 8. Carlsen O Dental morphology Munksgaard, Copenhagen. 9. Harty FJ and Ogston R (1987) Concise illustrated dental dictionary Wright, Bristol. 10. Jordan RE and Abrams L (1991) Kraus’ dental anatomy and occlusion. Mosby Year Book, St Louis. 36
  37. 37. 11. Okeson JP (2003) Management of Temporomandibular disorders and occlusion. 5th ed. Mosby, St Louis. 12. Ramfjord SP and Ash MM (1995) Occlusion. 4th ed. WB Saunders, Philadelphia. 13. Scott JH and Symons NB (1982) Introduction to dental anatomy. 9th ed. Churchill Livingstone, Edinburgh. 14. Thomson H (1990) Occlusion. 2nd ed. Wright, London. 15. Woelfel JB and Schneid RC (2002) Dental anatomy: its relevance to dentistry. 6th ed. Williams and Wilkins, Baltimore. 37
  38. 38. 8. Appendices Seminar Evaluation Form Student’s Name: Matrix No: Group: Date of class: Course Code/Name: Facilitator: Type of Learning Activities (Please  in the appropriate box) Tutorial PBL Case presentation Others. Pls state ___________________ Assessment of skills: Please  in the box for the skill(s) to be assessed  Knowledge – Able to 1 1. Exhibit accurate and elaborated breath and depth of understanding of concepts in the knowledge domain. 2. Explain how particular facts came to be. Demonstrates an appreciation of the limitations and temporary nature of conceptual knowledge in the discipline or field. 3. Generate and justify principles, protocols and hypotheses.  Communication skill – Able to 1. Balance listening and responding. Actively listen to others and responds appropriately, reflecting a personal understanding of the viewpoint expressed. 2. Communicate clearly, precisely and in a well-organised manner 3. Uses a varied vocabulary to convey ideas, using little ineffective repetition or limited diction, generally uses correct/appropriate word choice and discipline-specific terminology  Teamwork skill – Able to 1. Participate effectively as a team member i.e. share/contribute ideas to complete the assignment given. 2. Help team member to improve the work 3. Offer assistance to team members to defend ideas  Critical thinking and problem solving skills – Able to 1. Exhibit thorough and accurate understanding of concepts and processes and can analyze and apply them in new situations. 2. Break large ideas, situations or problems down into components and explain each using the theoretical ideas and concepts of the discipline. 3. Synthesize a number of concepts or factors into a larger idea. Can evaluate the salience & limitations of arguments 4. Uses principles and theories accurately to solve problems  Use of information technology – Able to 1. Seek out and locates required information independently. 2. Be selective and discriminates between sources of information. 3. Use academic conventions such as referencing and citation accurately, consistent and appropriate for the discipline. Supervisor’s signature 38 Please  for the level of achievement 2 3 4 5
  39. 39. Description of level: 1 - Not yet to desired standard or unsafe practice. Possibly a resubmit or a fail grade would be given; 2 Reached basic academic standards and capable of limited safe practice – passed; 3 - Has completely reached the standards expected; 4 - Have gone beyond the basic expected standards; 5 - Exhibit high levels of independence. Can engage in productive critical reflection 39
  40. 40. 9. Information about the department of clinical oral biology GENERAL INFORMATION Department of Clinical Oral Biology is one of the eight departments in the Faculty of Dentistry. Department administrative office and lecturers’ offices are located at First floor, Block L. Teaching and research laboratories are located at ground floor and first floor, Block Q. This department is responsible for the teaching of preclinical subjects involving first year and second year as well as Advanced Medical Course for postgraduate students. A. Department of Clinical Oral Biology staff 1. Dr Ahmad Tarmidi Sailan Head of Department/Year 1 coordinator/Lecturer 03‐92897451 tarmidi@dental.ukm.my 2. Dr. Nor Atika Md Ashar Oral Biology course coordinator/Lecturer atika.ashar@gmail.com 3. Dr Zamirah Zainal Abidin Year 2 coordinator/ Lecturer 03‐92897122 zamirah@dental.ukm.my 4. Dr Safar Sumit Bunyarit Anatomy course coordinator/Lecturer 03‐92897767 safar72@yahoo.com 5. Miss Leong Xin Fang Tutor 03- 92897707 6. Miss Nuramirah Azizan Tutor 03‐92897780 imaniyah_13@yahoo.com 7. Dr Azizah Ahmad Fauzi Lecturer (on study leave) 8. Mrs Mariati Abdul Rahman Lecturer (on study leave) 9. Mrs Zaleha Shafiei Lecturer (on study leave) 40
  41. 41. B. Supporting staff 1. Mrs. Wan Normanisah Wan Ngah Department secretary 013‐3337403 maniesa@yahoo.com 2. Mrs. Kiftiah Ahmed 03- 9289 7710 kift_56@yahoo.com 3. Mrs. Shahani Muhammad 03- 9289 8017 shahani_muhammad@yahoo.com 4. Mr. Mohd Hizam Othmman hizam_85@yahoo.com 5. Mrs. Norhaizan Abdul Ghafar ez_aries85@yahoo.com 6. Miss Nurulnuha Kamal Bahrain nurulnuhakamal@yahoo.com 7. Mr. Mohd Hafidz Md. Jailani peace19822003@yahoo.com 8. Mr. Mohd Faizul Reza Abdan Rahman jefdanial@yahoo.com 9. Mrs Natasya Nabila Sahrudin rain_biela88@yahoo.com 03-92897710 C. Oral Biology lecturers Name Dr. Nor Atika Md Ashar Dr. Safar Sumit Bunyarit Dr. Asma Alhusna Abang Abdullah Dr. Alizae Marny Fadzlin Syed Mohamed Contact Number (office) 03 – 9289 7773 03 – 9289 7767 Email address atika.ashar@gmail.com safar72@yahoo.com 03 – 9289 7734 asmaabdullah@yahoo.com 03 – 9289 7588 aliza@medic.ukm.my 41
  42. 42. D. Notice Boards Notice board is located at the corridor on the first floor, Block L. Please check this notice board periodically to keep yourself up-to-date with any changes involving the department. E. Venue: 1. Most lectures will be carried out in Dewan Kuliah 3 (DK3) or Dewan Kuliah 1 (DK1) 2. Tutorials will be carried out in PBM rooms, level 3, Block Q, Faculty of Dentistry or Multidisciplinary laboratories (MPD I & II) 3. Practical will be carried out in Multidisciplinary laboratories (MPD I & II) 4. Mini tests will be carried out at Multidisciplinary laboratories (MPD I & II) or Bilik Mesyuarat Utama (BMU), level 3, Block Q. If you have any enquiries or concerns about the course, do not hesitate to contact anyone of us. Students are also required to use iFolio platform (http://iFolio.ukm.my) to connect with friends and lecturers throughout the course. 42

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