Introduction to Knowledge Management

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A very basic introduction to Knowledge Management for internal use.

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  • This is an introductory presentation prepared to give a first look at Knowledge Management. The intended audience need not have any background on the subject. The presentation is made for delivery mode only, and not as a self-service slide deck. This presentation will be followed up by greater depth into the subject as time progresses. This presentation can be used both in Yesser and within its Government Ecosystem.
  • This slide should start with the org structure, then talk about how the org structure varies from the actual flow of knowledge and people within the setup. Decisions are not easy to take.
  • This slide should start with the org structure, then talk about how the org structure varies from the actual flow of knowledge and people within the setup. Decisions are not easy to take.
  • Right brain is above creativity, innovation, imagination, thoughts, playfulness, experiences, feelings, mostly Tacit Knowledge. Knowledge generated & processed in the right brain is very difficult to communicate and is subjective (based on that individual only). The Left brain is about systems, processes, order, codification. The Knowledge created and processed is usually External (or Explicit) knowledge. This knowledge can be easily communicated but care has to be taken to learn the right set of principles.
  • Some Concepts catered by Knowledge Management.
  • Fundamental Concepts
  • Explicit (Codified) Knowledge: Knowledge which can be communicated, usually structured and processed analytically. Implicit (Personalized) Knowledge: Knowledge which cannot be communicated, usually ad-hoc and developed by experiences
  • Therefore, the foundation of Explicit and Implicit knowledge can be mapped onto Insights (Analytical, Communicable) and Experiences (Subjective, Personalized)
  • The Fundamental debate within the Knowledeg Management Commnuity: Whether there is a Best Practice for everything we do or not? How can we gain competitive advantage by following Best Practices? (which arguably everyone else is also trying to follow). If we Innovate and Succeed, does that become a best practice? How many cases of success through innovation does it take to become a best practice?
  • After two decades of evolution in modern day Knowledge Management, the current agreement is that Context is King. Knowledge cannot be identified, created, retained, and more importantly communicated and consumed without context. People only get to Know when they NEED to Know. In other words, Knowledge for the right people, at the right time using the right media. Second agreement on the evolution of Knowledge Management is on the agreement that Culture is the most important critical success factor. The goal of Knowledge Management is not to challenge the Culture but to bow the seeds for the right set of processes which ultimately improves the Culture (bring it to the desired state as per the Change Management Manifest).
  • Exploration is seeking new knowledge while exploitation is making effective use of existing knowledge. The fundamental balance in KM Programs is between Exploration vs Exploitation Strategies. Exploration deals with Knowledge Creation, Knowledge Discovery, Knowledge MappingWhileExploitation deals with Knowledge Collaboration, Sharing and Internalization (or bringing it to mainstream business processes)
  • Start from anywhere, but go in the directions specified by the arrows.
  • The problem with the term ‘Knowledge Management’ itself.
  • “Knowledge Management’ as a term is a misnomer, quite close to being a paradox 
  • CrhisCollison is frequently visiting the Arab World as a speaker on Knowledge Management.
  • The APQC among all communities on KM can arguably be considered the single best reference of collective body of knowledge on the subject itself. This book embodies the overall findings of the community of Knowledge Managers around the world and presents a very useful and straightforward roadmap to develop a KM Strategy.
  • We thought Information Systems, Software and Tools would help us achieve our goals in Knowledge Management. In the process we spent millions of dollars in vainNow the lesson is learned, and best practices are emerging…KM is a combination of people, process and only then technology.
  • IBM Connections (The Orange and Yellow) Logo is one of the premiere offerings in the domain of Social Business Software. Gartner ranks IBM as the clear number one leader in Knowledge Management through Social Media. Luis Suarez is the principal product manager behind IBM Connections.
  • One of the earliest breakthrough books in Knowledge Management was ‘Working Knowledge by Davenport and Prusak’. This book claims to be the continuation of it and gives some pointers on how to develop a roadmap for the KM Strategy.
  • Peter Drucker, coined the termed Knowledge Management in the late 60’s/early 70’s era.
  • There are many definitons on Knowledge Management and due to the rapid evolution of the field itself and varying schools of thoughts, the definitions and purpose can get confusing and misdirecting at times also. APQC’s definition comes close to being a neutral definition and one which is clear to understand with defined goals.
  • The aim of this slide is to differentiate between the clear goals of KM which are placed in People and Processes through one of the approaches to solution, that is Technology. Technology is a means to an end and not the end itself.
  • Also known as the Information Pyramid, Data Pyramid, Wisdom Pyramid and D-I-K-W Pyramid.
  • Also known as the Information Pyramid, Data Pyramid, Wisdom Pyramid and D-I-K-W Pyramid.
  • Also known as the Information Pyramid, Data Pyramid, Wisdom Pyramid and D-I-K-W Pyramid.
  • Also known as the Information Pyramid, Data Pyramid, Wisdom Pyramid and D-I-K-W Pyramid.
  • Also known as the Information Pyramid, Data Pyramid, Wisdom Pyramid and D-I-K-W Pyramid.
  • Also known as the Information Pyramid, Data Pyramid, Wisdom Pyramid and D-I-K-W Pyramid.
  • Based on the earlier definition of KM, the major activities are Grow, Flow and Create Value. From the cycle perspective, the order is Grow (Create) Flow (Identify, Collect, Review, Share, Access)  Create Value (USE). From a Roadmap Perspective, the order slightly changes….. Flow (What is already created) Create Value (Determine usage and gap analyses)  Grow (What is needed based on understand the value proposition from last stage)
  • Source: APQC
  • Source: APQC
  • Source: APQC
  • Source: APQC
  • Source: APQC
  • Source: APQC
  • Source: APQC
  • Source: APQC
  • Source: APQC
  • Source: APQC
  • Source: APQC
  • Source: APQC
  • Source: APQC
  • Source: APQC
  • Source: APQC
  • Source: Public Information on Portal
  • Source: Public Information on Portal
  • Source: Public Information on Portal
  • Linkedin GroupsKnowledge ManagersKMInstituteGurteen Knowledge CommunityWorld Intranet Challenge WICThe Braintrust Knowledge Management GroupKM Communities of PracticeLinkedin GroupsKM ForumsKM SocietiesConferences
  • www.km-me.com
  • Introduction to Knowledge Management

    1. 1. Introduction to Knowledge Management SPSI, Yesser www.linkedin.com/in/atifabdulrahman Atif Abdul-Rahman @atifshaikhKnowledge Manager www.knowledgeworks.wordpress.com ashaikh@yesser.gov.sa
    2. 2. Internal Memo: (Disclaimer)Dear Experts,KM is here to capture your brain,collect your experiences, createinsights and share it with ourworld to improve Yesser and raisethe Government Maturity
    3. 3. Internal Memo: (Disclaimer)Dear Experts,KM is here to CAPTURE YOURBRAIN, collect yourexperiences, create insights andshare it with our world to improveYesser and raise the GovernmentMaturity
    4. 4. Internal Memo: (Disclaimer)Dear Experts,KM is here to capture your brain,COLLECT YOUR EXPERIENCES, createinsights and share it with ourworld to improve Yesser and raisethe Government Maturity
    5. 5. Internal Memo: (Disclaimer)Dear Experts,KM is here to capture yourbrain, collect yourexperiences, CREATE INSIGHTS andshare it with our world to improveYesser and raise the GovernmentMaturity
    6. 6. Internal Memo: (Disclaimer)Dear Experts,KM is here to capture your brain,collect your experiences, createinsights and SHARE IT WITH OURWORLD to improve Yesser andimprove the Government Maturity
    7. 7. Internal Memo: (Disclaimer)Dear Experts,KM is here to capture your brain,collect your experiences, createinsights and share it with ourworld to IMPROVE YESSER andimprove the Government Maturity
    8. 8. Internal Memo: (Disclaimer)Dear Experts,KM is here to capture your brain,collect your experiences, createinsights and share it with ourworld to improve Yesser and RAISETHE GOVERNMENT MATURITY
    9. 9. THE HUMAN BRAIN
    10. 10. What the DOCTORS think the brain is…
    11. 11. What We Employees think the brain is…
    12. 12. KM Shows us The Actual Human Brain!
    13. 13. KM Shows us The Actual Human Brain!Knowledge Factors…
    14. 14. KM Shows us The Actual Human Brain!Knowledge Factors…Explicit vs. Implicit
    15. 15. KM Shows us The Actual Human Brain!Knowledge Factors…Explicit vs. ImplicitInsights and Experiences
    16. 16. KM Shows us The Actual Human Brain!Knowledge Factors…Explicit vs. ImplicitInsights and ExperiencesBest Practices (Group)vs. Innovation (Personal)
    17. 17. KM Shows us The Actual Human Brain!Knowledge Factors…Explicit vs. ImplicitInsights and ExperiencesBest Practices (Group)vs. Innovation (Personal)Context and Culture
    18. 18. KM Shows us The Actual Human Brain!Knowledge Factors…Explicit vs. ImplicitInsights and ExperiencesBest Practices (Group)vs. Innovation (Personal)Context and CultureExploration vs Exploitation
    19. 19. The SECI Model Fundamental Conceptual Model Nonaka and Takeuchi, 1995
    20. 20. Did you spot the problem?
    21. 21. Did you spot the problem?The Problem with Knowledge Management is…
    22. 22. Did you spot the problem? The Problem with Knowledge Management is… that Knowledge CANNOT be ‘Managed’!
    23. 23. “You cant manage knowledge, nobodycan. What you can do is to manage theenvironment in which knowledge canbecreated, discovered, captured, shared,distilled, validated, transferred, adopted, adapted and applied. “
    24. 24. Although you can’t managethe knowledge in people’shead, you can capture, enable,and transfer knowledge andbest practices.The new Edge in Knowledge,Carla O’Dell and Cindy Hubert,APQC.
    25. 25. • KM is not about Software, Information Systems or SharePoint!The mindset, “IF WE BUILD IT THEY WILL COME”has failed miserably!
    26. 26. ...the focus is pretty much around the subject of people...And, like we allknow, a successful KM strategy is one that combines into a perfectbalance a focus on the people, on the tools and on the processes –LuisSuarez, IBM
    27. 27. “A good knowledge managementsystem is not about capturing yoursmartest employees knowledge ina knowledge base or expertsystem. Even though that was theoriginal intent of the artificialintelligence community, thepossibility of that has now becomea joke.While considering components toleverage, count out technologyinvestments that solely focus oncodification of tacit knowledge."
    28. 28. You can’t manage knowledge. Knowledge isbetween two ears, and only between two ears” Peter Drucker. The Father of Knowledge Management
    29. 29. APQC defines Knowledge management as a systematic effortto enable information and knowledge to grow, flowand create value.The discipline is about creating and managing theprocesses to get the right knowledge to the right people atthe right time and help people share and act on information inorder to improve organizational performance. A Truly Crowd Sourced Definition from KM Practitioners Worldwide
    30. 30. People & Process Enabling Technology With Experience Connect People to People With Know-HowKM Program Just Enough Connect People to Knowledge Just in Time Assets Just for Them
    31. 31. The New Edge in Knowledge, Carla O’Dell & Cindy Hubert Tacit Facilitated sharing/transfer between units. Transfer of Best Practices Best Practices Transfer Teams Peer Assists Groups that share, learn Held together by common interest in Topic. Trade tools, templates, best practices CommunitiesKNOWLEDGE Solve business problems. Steward Knowledge Communities of Practice Networks Lessons Learned After Action Reviews Systematic tools to gather Self-Service Experience-based knowledge Portals Email/Discussion Boards And reapply to relevant situations. Expertise Locator Systems Search Enterprise 2.0 Tools Tools that allow users to self-serve Information and to locate people. Explicit Lower Higher HUMAN INTERACTION
    32. 32. The Knowledge Pyramid
    33. 33. The Knowledge Pyramid Data
    34. 34. The Knowledge Pyramid Information Data
    35. 35. The Knowledge Pyramid Knowledge Information Data
    36. 36. The Knowledge Pyramid Wisdom Knowledge Information Data
    37. 37. The Knowledge Pyramid• A collection of data is not information.• A collection of information is not knowledge.• A collection of knowledge is not wisdom.• A collection of wisdom is not truth.
    38. 38. The Knowledge Pyramid Wisdom Knowledge Information Context Data
    39. 39. The Knowledge Pyramid Wisdom KnowledgeActionable Information Context Data
    40. 40. The Knowledge Pyramid Wisdom Usage KnowledgeActionable Information Context Data
    41. 41. For Example…
    42. 42. D-I-K-W: A Fake Scenario
    43. 43. D-I-K-W: A Fake Scenario
    44. 44. D-I-K-W: A Fake Scenario Data
    45. 45. D-I-K-W: A Fake Scenario
    46. 46. D-I-K-W: A Fake Scenario
    47. 47. D-I-K-W: A Fake Scenario
    48. 48. D-I-K-W: A Fake Scenario Information
    49. 49. Contextual and Trendy
    50. 50. Number of Accidents are reducing!Contextual and Trendy
    51. 51. Number of Accidents are reducing! But why increase now?Contextual and Trendy
    52. 52. Overwhelming Cause is Quality and Safety Related!Contextual and Trendy
    53. 53. Interestingly, most accidents happen at peak office commute hours Contextual and Trendy
    54. 54. Most Common Location of Accidents
    55. 55. • After further Analysis, Knowledge Workers find a Construction Project on the location• Creating a diversion which during office commute hours force drivers to come close to the construction area.• Resulting in construction accidents and thus increase in injuries….
    56. 56. • After further Analysis, Knowledge Workers find a Construction Project on the location• Creating a diversion which during office commute hours force drivers to come close to the construction area.• Resulting in construction accidents, increase in injuries….
    57. 57. • After further Analysis, Knowledge Workers find a Construction Project on the location• Creating a diversion which during office commute hours force drivers to come close to the construction area.• Resulting in construction accidents, increase in injuries…. = Knowledge
    58. 58. The Knowledge Workers Applied the following based on the KNOWLEDGE deduced….• Reduce the Work force on the construction area resulting in less clutter and safety breach of workers coming close to the road• Increase warning signs and place diversions to bring the vehicles to a distance from the construction scaffolding• Reduce work during peak office commute hours to maintain traffic authority KPIs.
    59. 59. The Knowledge Workers Applied the following based on the KNOWLEDGE deduced….• Reduce the Work force on the construction area resulting in less clutter and safety breach of workers coming close to the road• Increase warning signs and place diversions to bring the vehicles to a distance from the construction scaffolding• Reduce work during peak office commute hours to maintain traffic authority KPIs. = WISDOM
    60. 60. The KM Cycle Repeated Cycles will also Improve KM Maturity within the organizationThe New Edge in Knowledge,Carla O’Dell & Cindy Hubert
    61. 61. • International Integrated Energy Company• Third Largest Oil and Gas Company in the US• 30,000 Employees in 30 Countries• Known for Technological Expertise in Reservoir Management, 3D Seismic Technology
    62. 62. • International Integrated Energy Company• Third Largest Oil and Gas Company in the US• 30,000 Employees in 30 Countries• Known for Technological Expertise in Reservoir Management, 3D Seismic TechnologyVision: “A workplace where employees continuouslydeliver additional value through global collaboration andexpertise sharing.”
    63. 63. Find ShareExpertise FAST Ask Colleagues Trust
    64. 64. Approaches:• Communities of Practice (120+)• Global Awards and Engagement• Knowledge Processes to Convert Discussions into Structured Knowledge Libraries• Semantic Analysis
    65. 65. Approaches:• Communities of Practice (120+)• Global Awards and Engagement• Knowledge Processes to Convert Discussions into Structured Knowledge Libraries• Semantic Analysis Goals Achieved: • Organizational Memory • New Employee Training • Intellectual Capital • Lessons Learned • Best Practices
    66. 66. GBS
    67. 67. • Business Insights and IT Solutions• One of the Largest IT Companies in the World• 370,000 Employees in 170 Countries (150,000 in GBS)• Known for Technology, Global Business Services, Innovation• GBS: Application Management, Consulting and Systems Integration• Thought Leader in Knowledge Management GBS
    68. 68. • Business Insights and IT Solutions• One of the Largest IT Companies in the World• 370,000 Employees in 170 Countries (150,000 in GBS)• Known for Technology, Global Business Services, Innovation• GBS: Application Management, Consulting and Systems Integration• Thought Leader in Knowledge ManagementVision: “Promoting a Knowledge Sharing Culture throughEffective Processes, Technical Infrastructure, BusinessResearch Services, Content Management andCommunities of Practice.” GBS
    69. 69. “In the past, we had KnowledgeView, which was content-rich andhad robust search and navigation capabilities.We’ve changed our whole approach, though, to a new Web 2.0based portal and behavior model that leverages user activity whilerequiring less formal infrastructure support.The whole working structure of our organization is now different.We feel we have greater capabilities, better user enablement, andlower overhead. The core of this new model is the Web 2.0technologies”– Bryant Clevenger, Global Knowledge Strategy Leader GBS
    70. 70. Highlights:• Topic Based Forums, 17,000+ Authors, $6 Million in Savings• Expertise Locator – 111,000+ Profiles, $5.5 Million in Savings GBS
    71. 71. Highlights:• Topic Based Forums, 17,000+ Authors, $6 Million in Savings• Expertise Locator – 111,000+ Profiles, $5.5 Million in Savings Goals Achieved: • Expertise Locator • Communities • Facilitated Transfer of Best Practices GBS
    72. 72. • Not for Profit Technology Company Serving the US Department of Defense• Non-Governmental Entity with top secret Government Defense Projects• Known for Technology, Aviation, Defense, and Enterprise Modernization• Carried more than 1,800 projects with the US Department of Defense.
    73. 73. • Not for Profit Technology Company Serving the US Department of Defense• Non-Governmental Entity with top secret Government Defense Projects• Known for Technology, Aviation, Defense, and Enterprise Modernization• Carried more than 1,800 projects with the US Department of Defense. • MII – MITRE Information Infrastructure • MITREPedia • MITRE Personal Pages • TWITRE • MOOGLE – MITRE Enterprise Search • ONOMI – Social Bookmarking • OneCommunity
    74. 74. “Everyone at MITRE is considered a Knowledge Worker. Wedon’t sell software, and we don’t compete in the softwareworld. We are in the business of knowledge, and we use ourknowledge to help the government improve its operationsand capabilities.”- Jean Tatalias, Director of Knowledge Services
    75. 75. • Management Consulting Firm• Top Government Advisor in many countries• Over 17,000 Employees in more than 45 countries• Knowledge Based Business
    76. 76. • Management Consulting Firm• Top Government Advisor in many countries• Over 17,000 Employees in more than 45 countries• Knowledge Based Business The McKinsey Knowledge Center (McKC) is the largest and the most diverse knowledge hub at McKinsey. We offer an unparalleled opportunity to develop distinctive knowledge and gain global exposure.
    77. 77. • Management Consulting Firm• Top Government Advisor in many countries• Over 17,000 Employees in more than 45 countries• Knowledge Based Business McKC Centers of Functional Industry Generalist Analytics Competence Practices Practices Research The McKinsey Knowledge Center (McKC) is the largest and the most diverse knowledge hub at McKinsey. We offer an unparalleled opportunity to develop distinctive knowledge and gain global exposure.
    78. 78. KM Societies:http://gurteen.com/http://www.kminstitute.org/cms/index.jsphttp://www.apqc.org/membership-knowledge-managementhttp://www.KMInstitute.orgAlso Try…
    79. 79. Do Take Time out to Visit www.km-me.com
    80. 80. Stay Tuned For• KM State of the Art in eGovernment• KM Initiative at Yesser (For Yesser and Beyond) Thank You!
    81. 81. Credits• The Knowledge Worker: http://www.makuchondigital.com/?p=147• http://blog.timesunion.com/holistichealth/files/2011/07/Peter-Drucker- Teaching-in-Classroom.jpg - Peter Drucker• http://www.rmcdocs.com/images/DiscussionForum.jpg• http://timothy-kline.com/thoughts/2009/05/30/man-vs-machine- rebellion-in-the-garden-of-eden/• http://www.robertharris.co.nz/education/all-about-coffee/the-beginnings• The New Edge in Knowledge, Carla O’Dell & Cindy Hubert• Knowledge Management Toolkit, Amrit Tiwana• Working Knowledge, Thomas Davenport & Prusak• Learning to Fly, Chris Collison et al.

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