ComputerComputer Hardware   Section - II      Stage II, ICMAP   1                       Stage II, ICMAP       2           ...
Motherboard                               MotherboardFlat circuit board that holdsthe computer circuitry  Central processi...
Microcomputer Processors                           Microcomputer ProcessorsIntel                                          ...
Types of Chips                                     Central Processing Unit - CPU     Intel makes a family of processors   ...
Arithmetic/Logic Unit –ALU          Control unit - CU                                                   ALU is digital cir...
Instruction Time                                             Execution TimeAlso called I-time             I-              ...
Other Performance Measures                                 Representing DataMillions of Instructions per Second (MIPS)    ...
CPU’s Word Size                                            …Memory                                                       S...
ASCII                                            EBCDICStands for “American Standard Code for          “Extended Binary Co...
Temporary Storage Areas                                   RegistersRegisters                                    High-speed...
Types of Registers                                Types of Registers                                                Instru...
Memory Addresses                                       Types of MemoryEach memory location has                            ...
RAM and ROM                   Random Access Memory-RAM                                                   Memory-Random Acc...
Random Access Memory-RAM                    Memory-                                                   Dynamic RAM      The...
Read-Only Memory       Read-                                                 Read-Only Memory                             ...
Cache Memory                                   Cache memoryA cache is a temporary storage area                  Very fast ...
The Bus                                  Classification of BusParallel electrical paths that transport data         Intern...
Expansion Slots and Boards                                                   Expansion Boards                             ...
Peripheral control interface (PCI)                                          Accelerated Graphics Port (AGP) Connects modem...
PC Cards                 PC CardUsed on laptops                                          Expansion bus for laptops  Hot sw...
Port                                          Types of PortIn computer hardware, a port serves as an               Serial ...
USB Port   Parallel Communications                                                USB- Universal Serial Bus               ...
Male Connector                                         Female Connector                                                 A ...
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Mis theory section ii(hardware)

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  1. 1. ComputerComputer Hardware Section - II Stage II, ICMAP 1 Stage II, ICMAP 2 The System Unit Houses the electronic components of the computer system Motherboard Storage devices Stage II, ICMAP 3 Stage II, ICMAP 4 1
  2. 2. Motherboard MotherboardFlat circuit board that holdsthe computer circuitry Central processing unit (microprocessor) is most microprocessor) important component Return Stage II, ICMAP 5 Stage II, ICMAP 6 Die of an Intel 80486DX2 microprocessor (actual Microprocessor size: 12×6.75 mm) in its packaging.Central processing unit etchedon silicon chipContain tens of millions of tinytransistorsKey components: Central processing unit Registers System clock Return Stage II, ICMAP 7 Stage II, ICMAP 8 2
  3. 3. Microcomputer Processors Microcomputer ProcessorsIntel Advanced Micro Devices (AMD) Leading manufacturer of processors Main competitor to Intel Intel 4004 was worlds first microprocessor Originally produced budget products IBM PC powered by Intel 8086 Current products outperform Intel Current processors Current processors • Centrino • Sempron • Itanium • Athlon FX 64 • Pentium IV • Athlon XP • Xeon Stage II, ICMAP 9 Stage II, ICMAP 10 Comparing Processors TransistorsSpeed of processor Electronic switches that may or may notSize of cache allow electric current to pass throughNumber of registers If current passes through, switch is on, representing a 1 bitBit size Otherwise, switch is off, representing a 0 bitSpeed of Front side bus Return Stage II, ICMAP 11 Stage II, ICMAP 12 3
  4. 4. Types of Chips Central Processing Unit - CPU Intel makes a family of processors CPU consists of electronic circuits that Pentium III and Pentium4 processors in most PCs Celeron processor sold for low-cost PCs low- interpret and execute program instructions Xeon and Itanium for high-end workstations and high- and communicate with the input, output network servers and storage device. Other processors Cyrix and AMD make Intel-compatible Intel- CPU is a highly complex, extensive set of microprocessors PowerPC chips used primarily in Macintosh electronic circuitry that executes stored computers program instruction. Compaq’s Alpha microprocessor used in high-end high- servers Stage II, ICMAP 13 Stage II, ICMAP 14 Central Processing Unit - CPU Central Processing Unit - CPU CPU consists of two parts. 1. Control unit-CU unit- 2. Arithmetic/logical unit -ALU Secondary Storage Device Control Unit: Primary storage deviceInput device Output device How does the input know that it is the time for it to feed data into the storage unit? How does the ALU know, what should be done CU ALU with the data once it is received ? How could the final result be sent to the output Central Processing Unit-CPU device ? Stage II, ICMAP 15 Stage II, ICMAP 16 4
  5. 5. Arithmetic/Logic Unit –ALU Control unit - CU ALU is digital circuit that perform arithmetic operation like(+, -, X, /) and logical operation like All this is possible due to the control unit of (OR, AND, NOT, <, > etc) the computer system. ALU performs these operations at very high The control unit-CU contains circuitry that unit- speed. uses electrical signals to direct the entire ALU consists of number of registers and adders. computer system to carry out, or execute Registers are a number of small, high-speed high- store program instruction. memory. They hold various types of information The CU does not execute program such as data, instructions, addresses and the instruction; rather, it directs other parts of intermediate results of calculations the system to do so. An adder is a digital circuit that performs addition of numbers. In modern computers adders reside in the ALU. Stage II, ICMAP 17 Stage II, ICMAP 18How the CPU Executes Instructions The Machine Cycle Four steps performed for each instruction The time required to Fetch retrieve, execute, and store an operation Decode Execute Components Instruction time Storage Execution time Each CPU has its own instruction set System clock those instructions that CPU can understand synchronizes and execute operations Stage II, ICMAP 19 Stage II, ICMAP 20 5
  6. 6. Instruction Time Execution TimeAlso called I-time I- Control unit moves data from memory toControl unit gets instruction from memory registers in ALUand puts it into a register ALU executes instruction on the dataControl unit decodes instruction and Control unit stores result of operation indetermines the memory location of needed memory or in a registerdata Return Return Stage II, ICMAP 21 Stage II, ICMAP 22 Pipelining Microprocessor SpeedsFeeds a new instruction into CPU at each step Measure of system clock speedof the machine cycle How many electronic pulses the clock Instruction 2 fetched when instruction 1 is being produces per second decoded, rather than waiting until cycle is complete Usually expressed in gigahertz (GHz) • Billions of machine cycles per second • Some old PCs measured in megahertz (MHz) Comparison of clock speed only meaningful between identical microprocessors Return Stage II, ICMAP 23 Stage II, ICMAP 24 6
  7. 7. Other Performance Measures Representing DataMillions of Instructions per Second (MIPS) Bit High-speed personal computers can perform High- Byte (8-bits) (8- over 500 MIPS Word (16-bits) (16- Typically a more accurate measure of performance than clock speed Dword (32-bits) (32-Megaflop: one million floating-point floating- Quad Word /Paragraph (64-bits) (64-operations Measures ability of computer to perform complex mathematical operations Stage II, ICMAP 25 Stage II, ICMAP 26 Bit ByteShort for binary digit A group of 8 bits Two possible values: 0 and 1 Each byte has 256 (28) possible values Can never be empty For text, stores one characterBasic unit for storing data Can be letter, digit, or special character 0 means off, 1 means on Memory and storage devices measured in number of bytes Return Return Stage II, ICMAP 27 Stage II, ICMAP 28 7
  8. 8. CPU’s Word Size …Memory Storage capacity of memory is measured in bytes.The number of bits the CPU processes as A Collection of 8 bits is called byte.a unit 8 bits=1 Byte Equal to the width of accumulator register 1 KB=1024 Bytes (210) Typically a whole number of bytes 1 MB=1KB * 1024 (220) 1 GB= 1 MB * 1024 (230) The larger the word, the more powerful the 1 TB = 1 GB * 1024 (240) computer 1 PB = I TB *1024 (250) Personal computers typically 32 or 64 bits in Types of memory are length Random Access Memory-RAM Memory- Return Read Only Memory-ROM Memory- Stage II, ICMAP 29 Stage II, ICMAP 30 Data Representation Coding SchemesComputers understand two Provide a common way of representing athings: on and off character of dataData represented in binary form Needed so computers can exchange data Binary (base 2) number system Contains only two digits, 0 and 1 Common Schemes • Corresponds to two states, on and off ASCII EBCDIC Unicode Stage II, ICMAP 31 Stage II, ICMAP 32 8
  9. 9. ASCII EBCDICStands for “American Standard Code for “Extended Binary Coded DecimalInformation Interchange” Interchange Code”Most widely used standard Used primarily on IBM and IBM-compatible IBM- mainframesUsed on virtually all personal computers Uses 8 bits to represent one characterUses 7-8 bits to represent one character 7- • 256 possible values 128-256 possible values 128- Return Stage II, ICMAP 33 Stage II, ICMAP 34 Unicode The CPU and MemoryDesigned to accommodate alphabets of CPU cannot process data from disk or input devicemore than 256 characters It must first reside in memoryUses 16 bits to represent one character Control unit retrieves data from disk and moves it into memory 65,536 possible values Items sent to ALU for processingRequires twice as much space to store Control unit sends items to ALU, then sends back todata memory after processing Data and instructions held in memory until sent to an output or storage device or program is shut down Return Stage II, ICMAP 35 Stage II, ICMAP 36 9
  10. 10. Temporary Storage Areas RegistersRegisters High-speed temporary storage areas High-Memory Storage locations located within the CPU Work under direction of control unit Accept, hold, and transfer instructions or data Keep track of where the next instruction to be executed or needed data is stored Return Stage II, ICMAP 37 Stage II, ICMAP 38 Registers Register They hold various types of informationRegisters are a number of small, volatile, such as data, instructions, addresses andhigh-speed memory.high- the intermediate results of calculations.Registers are temporary memory units that Registers work under the direction ofstore words. words. control unit-CU to accept, hold and unit- The registers are located in the transfer instructions or data and performprocessor, instead of in RAM. RAM. arithmetic or logical comparison at a verySo data can be accessed and stored high speed.faster. Stage II, ICMAP 39 Stage II, ICMAP 40 10
  11. 11. Types of Registers Types of Registers Instruction Register-IR: holds current Register-Memory Access Register-MAR: it holds Register- instruction which is being executed.the addresses of instruction being PC: Program Counter. Stores the addresscurrently accessed by the CPU. of the macro-instruction currently being macro-Memory Buffer Register-MBR: It holds Register- executed.the contents of data or instruction read (Macro-Intruction-An intruction stored in RAM) Macro- Intruction- RAM)from, or written in memory (RAM) Input/Output Register-I/O: this register is Register- I/O:Instruction Pointer Register-IPR: It Register-points to the memory location that hold the used to communicate with the I/O devices.instruction/data that is to be executed nextby the CPU Stage II, ICMAP 41 Stage II, ICMAP 42 Types of Registers Memory Stack Control Register: A stack Register: Memory is the part of computer that holds datarepresents a set of memory blocks . Data or instruction before and after the processing Memory is also called primary storage, primaryis stored in FILO order. memory, main storage or main memoryFlag Register: Flag register is used to Register: Often expressed as random-access memory (RAM) random-indicate occurrence of a certain condition Not part of the CPUduring and operation of the CPU Stores information only as long as the program is in operationAC Accumulator. Stores a previouslycalculated value or a value loaded fromthe main memory Stage II, ICMAP 43 Stage II, ICMAP 44 11
  12. 12. Memory Addresses Types of MemoryEach memory location has Semiconductor Memoryan address A unique number, much like RAM and ROM a mailbox Data in RAM has an address Flash Memory CPU reads data using the address Cache Memory CPU can read any addressMay contain only oneinstruction or piece of data When data is written back to memory, previous contents of that address are destroyed Stage II, ICMAP 45 Stage II, ICMAP 46 Semiconductor Memory CMOSUsed by most modern computers Reliable, inexpensive, and compact Stands for “Complementary Metal Oxide Volatile: requires continuous electric current Semiconductor” • If the current is interrupted, data is lost CMOS memory to hold the date, time, and Complementary Metal Oxide Semiconductor system setup parameters like disk drives, (CMOS) keyboard, mouse etc. • Retains information when power is shut down • Used to store information needed when the computer boots Stage II, ICMAP 47 Stage II, ICMAP 48 12
  13. 13. RAM and ROM Random Access Memory-RAM Memory-Random Access Memory (RAM) RAM is the most common type of memory foundRead-Only Memory (ROM)Read- in computers and other devices, such as devices, printers. printers. memory can be accessed randomly in an easy and fast manner, no matter where it is. Its contents are lost once the power is shut off. And therefore, it is also called volatile memory. Return Stage II, ICMAP 49 Stage II, ICMAP 50 RAM Random Access Memory Data can be Types: accessed randomly Static RAM (SRAM) Memory address 10 Dynamic RAM (DRAM) can be accessed as Packaged on circuit quickly as memory address 10,000,000 boards Single in-line memory in- modules (SIMMS) Dual in-line memory in- modules (DIMMS) Return Stage II, ICMAP 51 Stage II, ICMAP 52 13
  14. 14. Random Access Memory-RAM Memory- Dynamic RAM There are two types or RAM1. Dynamic Random Access Memory-DRAM Memory- Must be continuously refreshed by CPU or2. Static Random Access Memory-SRAM Memory- it loses its contents DRAM SRAM Used for personal computer memory 1.Dynamic RAM needs to be Static RAM does not need Synchronous DRAM (SDRAM): faster type of refreshed thousands of times per to be refreshed DRAM used today second 2. which makes it slower which makes it faster Rambus DRAM (RDRAM): faster than SDRAM, will become more commonly used 3. Cheaper Expensive as price declines Return Stage II, ICMAP 53 Stage II, ICMAP 54 Static RAM Memory Modules-RAM Modules- Retains its contents with intervention from SIMM-single in-line memory module SIMM- in- CPU DIMM-Double in-line memory module DIMM- in- Faster and more expensive than DRAM Rambus in-line memory module in- Typically used for Level 2 cache Return Stage II, ICMAP 55 Stage II, ICMAP 56 14
  15. 15. Read-Only Memory Read- Read-Only Memory Read-Contains programs and data permanently When PC is turn ON, the boot routine isrecorded into memory at the factory activated from ROM Cannot be changed by user Basic Input Output System (BIOS) Not volatile: contents do not disappear when • Power On Self Test (POST) power is lost • Loading Operating System from Hard disk into RAMData on ROM can be changed using ROMburner. Return Stage II, ICMAP 57 Stage II, ICMAP 58 Types of ROM Flash Memory PROM (Programmable Read only Memory) Nonvolatile RAM EPROM (Erasable Programmable ROM) Used in cellular phones, digital cameras, and some handheld computers EEPROM (Electrically Erasable ProgrammableROM) Flash memory chips resemble credit cards Programmable ROM (PROM) chips Smaller than disk drive and require less Instructions on chip can be changed power Return Stage II, ICMAP 59 Stage II, ICMAP 60 15
  16. 16. Cache Memory Cache memoryA cache is a temporary storage area Very fast memorywhere frequently accessed data can be Holds common or recently used datastored for rapid access Speeds up computer processing Faster than RAM Most computers have several caches Used between RAM and processor. L1 holds recently used data Types of Cache Memory L2 holds upcoming data L1 Cache built-in into micro processor built- L3 holds possible upcoming data L2 Cache resides on mother board Stage II, ICMAP 61 Stage II, ICMAP 62 The BUS The BUSCollection of wires through which data istransmitted from one part of a computer toanother.The term bus usually refers to internal bus. This bus.is a bus that connects all the internal computercomponents to the CPU and main memory. memory.Theres also an expansion bus that enablesexpansion boards to access the CPU andmemory Stage II, ICMAP 63 Stage II, ICMAP 64 16
  17. 17. The Bus Classification of BusParallel electrical paths that transport data Internal Busesbetween the CPU and memory AddressTypically the same as CPU’s word sizeWith a larger bus size, CPU can: Data Transfer more data at a time Control • Makes computer faster External Buses( Add peripheral devices toBus width system) The number of electrical paths to carry data Measured in bits Expansion Board / Slots /Adapter CardsBus speed Port Measured in megahertz (MHz) Common expansion buses Stage II, ICMAP 65 Stage II, ICMAP 66 The BUS External BusesThe data bus transfers actual dataThe address bus transfers information Add peripheral devices to systemabout where the data should go. Expansion boardThe size of a bus, known as its width, is Portimportant because it determines howmuch data can be transmitted at one time.For example, a 16-bit bus can transmit 16 16-bits of data, whereas a 32-bit bus can 32-transmit 32 bits of data. Stage II, ICMAP 67 Stage II, ICMAP 68 17
  18. 18. Expansion Slots and Boards Expansion Boards Connect to expansion Allows users to configure the machine slots on motherboard Used to connect Slots allow the addition of new devices peripheral devices Devices are stored on cards Computer must be off before inserting Return Stage II, ICMAP 69 Stage II, ICMAP 70 Industry Standard ArchitectureCommon Expansion Buses and Ports (ISA)Industry Standard Architecture (ISA) bus Used for slow devices such as the mouse and modem External bus standardsPeripheral Component Interconnect (PSI) bus Local bus Used for faster devices such as hard disksAccelerated Graphics Port (AGP) Peripheral control interface Provides faster video performance Accelerated graphics portUniversal Serial Bus (USB) port Allows you to convert many devices in a series into the USB port Universal serial busIEEE 1394 bus IEEE 1394 (FireWire) A high-speed bus normally used to connect video equipment high-PC Card bus PC Card Used on laptops to plug in a credit-card sized device credit- Return Stage II, ICMAP 71 Stage II, ICMAP 72 18
  19. 19. Peripheral control interface (PCI) Accelerated Graphics Port (AGP) Connects modems and sound cards Found in most modern computers Connects video card to motherboard Extremely fast bus Found in all modern computers Stage II, ICMAP 73 Stage II, ICMAP 74 Universal Serial Bus (USB) FireWire Connects external devices IEEE 1384 Hot swappable Cameras and video equipment Allows up to 127 devices Hot swappable Cameras, printers, and scanners Port is very expensive Stage II, ICMAP 75 Stage II, ICMAP 76 19
  20. 20. PC Cards PC CardUsed on laptops Expansion bus for laptops Hot swappable PCMCIA Devices are the size of a credit card Hot swappable Small card size Three types, I, II and III Type II is most common Stage II, ICMAP 77 Stage II, ICMAP 78 Ports Standard Computer PortsExternal connectors to plug in peripheralssuch as printersTwo types of ports Serial: transmit data one bit at a time • Used for slow devices such as the mouse and keyboard Parallel: transmit groups of bits together side- side- by-side by- • Used for faster devices such as printers and scanners Return Stage II, ICMAP 79 Stage II, ICMAP 80 20
  21. 21. Port Types of PortIn computer hardware, a port serves as an Serial ports send and receive one bit at ainterface between the computer and other time via a single wire pair and used for slowcomputers or devices. speed devises e.g keyboard, mouse etc.Physically, a port is a specialized outlet on a pieceof equipment to which a plug or cable connects Parallel ports send multiple (8) bits at the same time over several sets of wires. Stage II, ICMAP 81 Stage II, ICMAP 82 Serial Communications Parallel Communications Stage II, ICMAP 83 Stage II, ICMAP 84 21
  22. 22. USB Port Parallel Communications USB- Universal Serial Bus USB- - USB is a "plug and play" interface between a computer and add-on devices such camera and microphone. add- - With USB, a device can be added to your computer without having to turn the computer off and therefore it is called “Hot swappable” Supports up to 127 devices - USB supports a data speed of 12 megabit per second. This speed will accommodate MPEG video cameras. Stage II, ICMAP 85 Stage II, ICMAP 86 USB Hub Universal Serial Bus (USB) Port Up to 127 devices can connect to the host, either directly or by way of USB hubs. Individual USB cables can run as long as 5 meters; with hubs, devices can be up to 30 meters (six cables worth) away from the host. USB 1 Released in September 1998 & slowA single USB port can be used to connect speedup to 127 peripheral devices, such as With USB 2(released in April 2000),the bus hasmice, modems, and keyboards a maximum data rate of 480 megabits per second and called “Hi-speed” “Hi- Stage II, ICMAP 87 Stage II, ICMAP 88 22
  23. 23. Male Connector Female Connector A female connector is a connector attached to a1.The part bearing one or more pins, or1.The wire, cable, or piece of hardware, having one or which fits inside the other more recessed holes with electrical terminals inside, ...2.A connector with pins that fit into the2.A sockets of a female connector. Stage II, ICMAP 89 Stage II, ICMAP 90 SCSI Our Pakistan Pakistan is the most connected country in South Asia , with the highest teledensity Small Computer System Interface · Pakistans communications costs are lower than any other country in the region · Pakistan has the worlds largest biometric database (NADRA); this system (not the data) is now Supports dozens of devices being provided to allied countries · Pakistan has the worlds largest WiMAX network · Pakistan has one of the worlds most aggressive Fibre-to-the- Home (FTTH) rollouts Fibre-to-the- External devices daisy chain · Pakistan has one of the highest rates of cellular connectivity growth in the world (According to growth PTA 2007s report the rate of growth in Pakistan s mobile sector is fourth highest in the world) sector · Pakistan was the winner of the 2007 GSM industry association award Fast hard drives and CD-ROMs CD- · · With WLL (CDMA), WiMAX, GSM and FTTH, Pakistan is pretty much leading the pack in leading terms of diversity and breadth of connectivity · The worlds youngest Microsoft Certified Professional is a Pakistani and so if the worlds youngest Cisco CCNA professional · Pakistani students excelled in MITs global software talent competition · Citations of Pakistani scientific publications are rising sharply · Over two dozen Pakistani scientists are working on the Large Hadron Collider; the grandest Collider; experiment in the history of Physics http://www.microsoft.com/SURFACE/videos.html http://www.microsoft.com/SURFACE/videos.html Stage II, ICMAP 91 Stage II, ICMAP 92 23

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