Space Systems Fundamentals


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Space Systems Fundamentals

  1. 1. Professional Development Short Course On: Space Systems Fundamentals Instructor: Dr. Mike Gruntman ATI Course Schedule: ATI's Space Systems Fundamentals: 349 Berkshire Drive • Riva, Maryland 21140 888-501-2100 • 410-956-8805 Website: • Email:
  2. 2. Space Systems Fundamentals NEW! May 18-21, 2009 Albuquerque, New Mexico June 22-25, 2009 Beltsville, Maryland $1590 (9:00am - 4:30pm) quot;Register 3 or More & Receive $10000 each Summary Off The Course Tuition.quot; This four-day course provides an overview of the fundamentals of concepts and technologies of modern spacecraft systems design. Satellite system and mission design is an essentially interdisciplinary sport that combines engineering, science, and external Course Outline phenomena. We will concentrate on scientific and 1. Space Missions And Applications. Science, engineering foundations of spacecraft systems and exploration, commercial, national security. Customers. interactions among various subsystems. Examples 2. Space Environment And Spacecraft show how to quantitatively estimate various mission Interaction. Universe, galaxy, solar system. elements (such as velocity increments) and conditions Coordinate systems. Time. Solar cycle. Plasma. (equilibrium temperature) and how to size major Geomagnetic field. Atmosphere, ionosphere, spacecraft subsystems (propellant, antennas, magnetosphere. Atmospheric drag. Atomic oxygen. transmitters, solar arrays, batteries). Real examples Radiation belts and shielding. are used to permit an understanding of the systems 3. Orbital Mechanics And Mission Design. Motion selection and trade-off issues in the design process. in gravitational field. Elliptic orbit. Classical orbit The fundamentals of subsystem technologies provide elements. Two-line element format. Hohmann transfer. an indispensable basis for system engineering. The Delta-V requirements. Launch sites. Launch to basic nomenclature, vocabulary, and concepts will geostationary orbit. Orbit perturbations. Key orbits: make it possible to converse with understanding with geostationary, sun-synchronous, Molniya. subsystem specialists. 4. Space Mission Geometry. Satellite horizon, The course is designed for engineers and managers ground track, swath. Repeating orbits. who are involved in planning, designing, building, 5. Spacecraft And Mission Design Overview. launching, and operating space systems and Mission design basics. Life cycle of the mission. spacecraft subsystems and components. The Reviews. Requirements. Technology readiness levels. extensive set of course notes provide a concise Systems engineering. reference for understanding, designing, and operating 6. Mission Support. Ground stations. Deep modern spacecraft. The course will appeal to engineers Space Network (DSN). STDN. SGLS. Space Laser and managers of diverse background and varying Ranging (SLR). TDRSS. levels of experience. 7. Attitude Determination And Control. Spacecraft attitude. Angular momentum. Environmental Instructor disturbance torques. Attitude sensors. Attitude control techniques (configurations). Spin axis precession. Dr. Mike Gruntman is Professor of Astronautics at Reaction wheel analysis. the University of Southern California. He is a specialist 8. Spacecraft Propulsion. Propulsion in astronautics, space technology, sensors, and space requirements. Fundamentals of propulsion: thrust, physics. Gruntman participates in several theoretical specific impulse, total impulse. Rocket dynamics: and experimental programs in space science and rocket equation. Staging. Nozzles. Liquid propulsion space technology, including space missions. He systems. Solid propulsion systems. Thrust vector authored and co-authored more 200 publications in control. Electric propulsion. various areas of astronautics, space physics, and 9. Launch Systems. Launch issues. Atlas and instrumentation. Delta launch families. Acoustic environment. Launch system example: Delta II. What You Will Learn 10. Space Communications. Communications • Common space mission and spacecraft bus basics. Electromagnetic waves. Decibel language. configurations, requirements, and constraints. Antennas. Antenna gain. TWTA and SSA. Noise. Bit rate. Communication link design. Modulation • Common orbits. techniques. Bit error rate. • Fundamentals of spacecraft subsystems and their 11. Spacecraft Power Systems. Spacecraft power interactions. system elements. Orbital effects. Photovoltaic systems • How to calculate velocity increments for typical (solar cells and arrays). Radioisotope thermal orbital maneuvers. generators (RTG). Batteries. Sizing power systems. • How to calculate required amount of propellant. 12. Thermal Control. Environmental loads. • How to design communications link.. Blackbody concept. Planck and Stefan-Boltzmann • How to size solar arrays and batteries. laws. Passive thermal control. Coatings. Active thermal control. Heat pipes. • How to determine spacecraft temperature. 60 – Vol. 97 Register online at or call ATI at 888.501.2100 or 410.956.8805
  3. 3. Boost Your Skills 349 Berkshire Drive Riva, Maryland 21140 with On-Site Courses Telephone 1-888-501-2100 / (410) 965-8805 Tailored to Your Needs Fax (410) 956-5785 Email: The Applied Technology Institute specializes in training programs for technical professionals. Our courses keep you current in the state-of-the-art technology that is essential to keep your company on the cutting edge in today’s highly competitive marketplace. Since 1984, ATI has earned the trust of training departments nationwide, and has presented on-site training at the major Navy, Air Force and NASA centers, and for a large number of contractors. Our training increases effectiveness and productivity. Learn from the proven best. For a Free On-Site Quote Visit Us At: For Our Current Public Course Schedule Go To:
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  5. 5. Mike Gruntman Space Systems Fundamentals – Part 02. Universe. … Coordinate systems Coordinate Systems Coordinate systems play an exceptionally important role in exploration of space. They provide the means to describe complicated motions of celestial bodies and spacecraft. The most commonly used coordinate system in science and engineering is the Cartesian coordinate system formed by three orthogonal (perpendicular to each other) vectors x,y,z. The coordinate system that is used In the spherical coordinate system, one most often in space (and in describes a position of a point by a distance astronomy as well) is the from the center of coordinates and two angles spherical coordinate system. between the direction to the point and two coordinate-system-specific reference vectors. 2006 by Mike Gruntman 2006_06_MG_SSF_Part_02 13/20
  6. 6. Mike Gruntman Space Systems Fundamentals – Part 02. Universe. … Coordinate systems Coordinate Systems • Reference vectors reference vector selection determines the reference plane (normal to the vector) • Center associated with natural phenomena Depending on (provided by nature) application, the center of • rotation of the earth about its axis the coordinate system is defines the equatorial plane selected in such a way • motion of the earth around the sun as to simplify the defines the ecliptic plane description of particle (spacecraft) motion: assumed fixed in inertial space geocentric • in reality, precession heliocentric reference vectors are preferred to be perpendicular to each other planetocentric • how do we define the second center of galaxy vector? …. 2006 by Mike Gruntman 2006_06_MG_SSF_Part_02 14/20 Mike Gruntman Space Systems Fundamentals – Part 02. Universe. … Coordinate systems Ecliptic and Equatorial Planes • The plane, which contains the earth’s orbit around the sun, is called the ecliptic plane. Obviously, the sun is in this plane. The axis of the earth’s rotation around the sun (and correspondingly the ecliptic plane) is fixed in inertial space (except for small precession). • An angle between the orbital plane of a planet and the ecliptic plane is called the inclination of the orbital plane. The orbits of the planets are close to the ecliptic plane, except those of Mercury and especially Pluto. • The Earth rotates about its axis (which defines the South-North direction). This axis of rotation is fixed in inertial space (except for small precession) and its direction does not change as earth moves around the sun. • The axis of rotation is not perpendicular (normal) to the ecliptic plane; the angle between the axis of earth’s rotation and direction perpendicular to the ecliptic plane is 23.5 . This inclination of the axis is the most important factor “responsible” for the seasons. 2006 by Mike Gruntman 2006_06_MG_SSF_Part_02 15/20
  7. 7. Mike Gruntman Space Systems Fundamentals – Part 02. Universe. … Coordinate systems Vernal Equinox Vector 2006 by Mike Gruntman 2006_06_MG_SSF_Part_02 16/20 Mike Gruntman Space Systems Fundamentals – Part 02. Universe. … Coordinate systems Vernal Equinox Vector • The vernal equinox is a reference vector to establish longitude in both celestial and heliocentric systems of coordinates. • There are two equinoxes each year, in the spring and in the fall. At equinox, earth is located at the intersection line of the equatorial and ecliptic planes. The equinox in the spring (around March 21) is called the vernal equinox; the equinox in the fall – the autumnal equinox. • The direction from the center of mass of the Earth to the center of the sun at the vernal equinox is the reference vector (the vernal equinox vector) to determine longitude. • The vernal equinox was first established thousands of years ago. At that time the vernal equinox vector passed through constellation of Aries (The Ram). The astronomical sign of the Ram, , is still used for the vernal equinox vector although over the years the vector moved to Pisces (The Fishes). • The equinox vector precession rate is 0.014 degrees per year …. Why does it happen? 2006 by Mike Gruntman 2006_06_MG_SSF_Part_02 17/20
  8. 8. Mike Gruntman Space Systems Fundamentals – Part 02. Universe. … Coordinate systems Coordinate Systems • Geocentric Celestial For a spacecraft orbiting the Earth, it would be convenient to use the system of coordinate with the center at the Earth’s center and using the Earth’s equator as a reference plane. Such a coordinate system is called the geocentric system of coordinates (see figure). The equatorial plane is the reference plane and the X-axis is the vernal equinox vector. • Heliocentric For a spacecraft traveling from one planet to another, say from Earth to Jupiter, it would be convenient to place the center of the coordinate system at the Sun and use the ecliptic plane as a reference plane. Such a coordinate system is called the heliocentric system of coordinates. The equatorial plane is inclined at an angle 23.5 with respect to the ecliptic. • Galactic For determining position of stars belonging to our galaxy, it would be convenient to use the galactic plane as a reference plane. Such a coordinate system is called the galactic system of coordinates. • Space missions typically require use of various systems of coordinates 2006 by Mike Gruntman 2006_06_MG_SSF_Part_02 18/20 Mike Gruntman Space Systems Fundamentals – Part 02. Universe. … Coordinate systems Time Apparent Solar Time Mean solar time • One day is determined as an • This is the time that you have on your interval between two successive watch. high noons (two successive solar • It assumes a circular orbit of the Earth, transits across a local meridian). the spin axis normal to the ecliptic The problem is that all days are plane, no axis-wobbling, etc. slightly different because • A mean solar day is equal to exactly Earth’s orbit is not exactly 24 hours or 1440 minutes or circular 86,400 seconds Earth rotates around the Sun Universal Time Earth rotates about its axis • The mean solar time at Greenwich the spin axis is not normal to (England) is called the Universal Time the ecliptic plane (UT). Earth’s axis slightly wobbles • Scientific data obtained from • All these effects are small and spacecraft are very often time-tagged predictable. So it is possible to using the UT system. build a time scale based on the mean motion of the Earth relative the Sun, mean solar time. 2006 by Mike Gruntman 2006_06_MG_SSF_Part_02 19/20
  9. 9. Mike Gruntman Space Systems Fundamentals – Part 02. Universe. … Coordinate systems Sidereal Time • In this time scale, the motion of the Earth relative to the stars determines the time. A sidereal day is slightly different from the mean solar day. This difference is illustrated in figure. • A mean solar day = 1.0027379 mean sidereal day. • 1 sidereal day = 23 hr 56 min 4.09 sec • Spacecraft in geostationary orbit (GEO) 2006 by Mike Gruntman 2006_06_MG_SSF_Part_02 20/20