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Space Environment & It's Effects On Space Systems course sampler
 

Space Environment & It's Effects On Space Systems course sampler

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This class on the space environment and its effects on space systems is for technical and management personnel who wish to gain an understanding of the important issues that must be addressed in the ...

This class on the space environment and its effects on space systems is for technical and management personnel who wish to gain an understanding of the important issues that must be addressed in the development of space instrumentation, subsystems, and systems. The goal is to assist students to achieve their professional potential by endowing them with an understanding of the fundamentals of the space environment and its effects. The class is designed for participants who expect to either, plan, design, build, integrate, test, launch, operate or manage payloads, subsystems, launch vehicles, spacecraft, or ground systems.
Each participant will receive a copy of the reference textbook: Pisacane, VL. The Space Environment and its Effects on Space Systems. AIAA Education Series, 2008.

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    Space Environment & It's Effects On Space Systems course sampler Space Environment & It's Effects On Space Systems course sampler Presentation Transcript

    • Space Environment & Its Effects On Space Systems Instructor: V. L. PisacaneATI Schedule: http://www.ATIcourses.com/schedule.htm http://www.aticourses.com/Space_Environment_And_Effects_On_Space_Systems.htmATIs Space Environment:
    • www.ATIcourses.comBoost Your Skills 349 Berkshire Drive Riva, Maryland 21140with On-Site Courses Telephone 1-888-501-2100 / (410) 965-8805Tailored to Your Needs Fax (410) 956-5785 Email: ATI@ATIcourses.comThe Applied Technology Institute specializes in training programs for technical professionals. Our courses keep youcurrent in the state-of-the-art technology that is essential to keep your company on the cutting edge in today’s highlycompetitive marketplace. Since 1984, ATI has earned the trust of training departments nationwide, and has presentedon-site training at the major Navy, Air Force and NASA centers, and for a large number of contractors. Our trainingincreases effectiveness and productivity. Learn from the proven best.For a Free On-Site Quote Visit Us At: http://www.ATIcourses.com/free_onsite_quote.aspFor Our Current Public Course Schedule Go To: http://www.ATIcourses.com/schedule.htm
    • Chapter 7 Neutral Environment SPACE ENVIRONMENT AND ITS EFFECTS ON SPACE SYSTEMS Chapter 7 Neutral Environment by V. L. PisacaneSpace Environment and its Effects on Space Systems ©VLPisacane,2012
    • Chapter 7 Neutral TOPICS Environment  Introduction  Earth Atmosphere  Atmospheric Models  Planetary Atmospheres  Propagation  Atomic Oxygen  Aerodynamic Forces  EffusionSpace Environment and its Effects on Space Systems 7–2 ©VLPisacane,2012
    • Chapter 7 INTRODUCTION 1/2 Neutral Environment  An atmosphere is the layer of gas that surrounds a celestial body  The planets were formed with atmospheres primarily of hydrogen and helium  On the terrestrial planets (Mercury, Venus, Earth, and Mars) the thermal velocities of the atmosphere due to the solar wind was greater than the escape velocity of the gravitational field so the lighter constituents were loss  Mercury has essentially no atmosphere while the other terrestrial planets have retained the heavier molecular constituents such as carbon dioxide, nitrogen, oxygen, ozone, and argon  The outer or gaseous planets (Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus, and Neptune) being farther from the Sun and more massive were able to retain much of their the lighter molecular constituents such as hydrogen and heliumSpace Environment and its Effects on Space Systems 7–3 ©VLPisacane,2012
    • Chapter 7 INTRODUCTION 2/2 Neutral Environment  Over time, the atmospheres of the terrestrial planets evolved, primarily by release of trapped volatiles by outgassing through bombardment of the surface by particulates and volcanic actions  As the distance from the center of a planet increases, the atmospheric pressure and density decrease approaching the interplanetary environment without a sharp discontinuity  In the case of the Earth, 50% of the mass of the atmosphere is below 5 km altitude and 75% is below 11 km  Planetary atmospheres absorb energy from the Sun, redistribute atmospheric constituents, and together with any electrical and magnetic forces present produce the planet’s climateSpace Environment and its Effects on Space Systems 7–4 ©VLPisacane,2012
    • EARTH ATMOSPHERE Chapter 7 Neutral Lower Atmosphere 1/2 Environment  Earth atmosphere divided into 5 distinct layers  Troposphere – Extend 9 km at poles to 17 km at equator – Heated by Earth so temperature decreases – Temperature decrease ~6.5 K/km – Contains 90% of the total atmosphere mass – Upper boundary is tropopause  Stratosphere – Extends from tropopause to ~ 50 km – Temp increases by UV absorption in Ozone layer – 99% of total mass in Stratosphere and Troposphere – Upper boundary is stratopause  Mesosphere – Extends from stratopause to 80-85 km – Temperature decreases with altitude – Most meteoroids burn up in Mesosphere – Constituents in an excited state from solar radiation causing ionosphere http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Atmosphere_of_Earth – Upper boundary is mesopauseSpace Environment and its Effects on Space Systems 7–5 ©VLPisacane,2012
    • EARTH ATMOSPHERE Chapter 7 Neutral Lower Atmosphere 2/2 Environment  Thermosphere – Extends from mesopause to 200-300 km – Temperature increases to 1800 K – Small change in solar activity can cause large change in temperature – Upper boundary is thermopause or exobase  Exosphere – Extends from thermopause/exobase upwards – Sometimes considered outer layer of thermosphere – Temperature is essentially constant – Density so low particles travel ballistic paths and may escape http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Atmosphere_of_EarthSpace Environment and its Effects on Space Systems 7–6 ©VLPisacane,2012
    • EARTH ATMOSPHERE Chapter 7 Neutral Upper Atmosphere Environment  Thermosphere extends from 80-85 km to altitude where temperature is constant typically 200-500 km  Exosphere extends from thermopause to outer space Thermopause  In lower thermosphere temperatures rise rapidly with altitude  Above 200 300 km temperature remains relatively constant  Temperature varies significantly between day and night and between the minimum and maximum solar activity Thermopause http://www.windows2universe.org/earth/Atmosph ere/thermosphere_temperature.html&edu=highSpace Environment and its Effects on Space Systems 7–7 ©VLPisacane,2012
    • EARTH ATMOSPHERE Chapter 7 Neutral Homosphere and Heterosphere Environment  It is possible to stratified the atmosphere by composition into two regions: the homosphere and the heterosphere separated by the turbopause or homopause  Turbopause/homeopause ~80-100 km  Homosphere is the well-mixed region of the atmosphere lying below the turbopause that has constant constituents  Heterosphere is the region above the homopause or turbopause with significantly variation in composition as a function of altitude  Hydrogen and helium, being lighter, are found in the upper heterosphere while nitrogen and oxygen, being heavier are found in the lower heterosphere Figure 7.6 Vertical structure of the atmosphere Source unknownSpace Environment and its Effects on Space Systems 7–8 ©VLPisacane,2012
    • EARTH ATMOSPHERE Chapter 7 Neutral Composition Homosphere Environment  Lower atmosphere (< 80 km) constituents are constant due to turbulent mixing  Region from 0-~80 km is known as the homosphere Gas Volume Molecular Mass Nitrogen (N2) 780,840 ppmv (78.084%) 0.78084x2x14.007 = 21.8745 Oxygen (O2) 209,460 ppmv (20.946%) 0.20946x2x15.999 = 6.7023 Argon (Ar) 9,340 ppmv (0.9340%) 0.009340x39.948 = 0.3734 Carbon dioxide (CO2) 390 ppmv (0.039%) Total = 28.9502 ≈ 29 kg kmol-1 Neon (Ne) 18.18 ppmv (0.001818%) Helium (He) 5.24 ppmv (0.000524%) Methane (CH4) 1.79 ppmv (0.000179%) Krypton (Kr) 1.14 ppmv (0.000114%) Hydrogen (H2) 0.55 ppmv (0.000055%) Nitrous oxide (N2O) 0.3 ppmv (0.00003%) Carbon monoxide (CO) 0.1 ppmv (0.00001%) Xenon (Xe) 0.09 ppmv (9×10−6%) (0.000009%) Ozone (O3) 0.0 to 0.07 ppmv (0 to 7×10−6%) Nitrogen dioxide (NO2) 0.02 ppmv (2×10−6%) (0.000002%) Iodine (I2) 0.01 ppmv (1×10−6%) (0.000001%) Ammonia (NH3) Trace Not included in above dry atmosphere: Water vapor (H2O) ~0.40% over full atmosphere, typically 1%-4% at surfaceSpace Environment and its Effects on Space Systems 7–9 ©VLPisacane,2012
    • EARTH ATMOSPHERE Chapter 7 Neutral Composition of Heterosphere Environment Maximum solar activity Note: Different r scale length for each species Minimum solar activity Turbopause From Pisacane Ed Fundamental of space systems, Oxford Press, 2005 Source unknownSpace Environment and its Effects on Space Systems 7 – 10 ©VLPisacane,2012
    • EARTH ATMOSPHERE Chapter 7 Neutral Pressure and Density Equations Environment  Assume hydrostatic equilibrium   p  dh A  pA  rg(Adh)  0 dp dp  rg dh    dh   From the perfect gas law RT Mg pr dp  p dh M RT  Integration with H defined as the scale height RT p  p0 exp Mg  RT h  h0   p0 exp  h  h0     H Mg    H   Density follows as r pM p0M  exp Mg  RT h  h0   r0 exp  h  h0     RT RT    H  where T = temperature constant with height h, K g = acceleration of gravity assumed constant, m s-2 M = molecular mass, kg-kmol-1 ` p = pressure at height h po = pressure at height ho R = universal gas constant, J kmol-1 kg-1 r = density at height h ro = density at height h0 H ≡ RT/Mg, scale height h = heightSpace Environment and its Effects on Space Systems 7 – 11 ©VLPisacane,2012
    • EARTH ATMOSPHERE Chapter 7 Neutral Earth Scale Height Environment  Problem: Determine the scale height of the Earth’s atmosphere  Solution: Scale height is given by Eq. 7.47 as RT H Mg where at the surface of the Earth M = 29 kg kmol-1 T = 273.15 K (0oC) g = 9.8 0665 m s-2 R = 8314.472 J kmol-1 K-1  Consequently 8314.472  273.15 H  8.0 km 29  9.80665  Since temperature decreases fater than the decrease in g in the stratosphere the scale height decreases from the value at the Earth’s surface Source unknownSpace Environment and its Effects on Space Systems 7 – 12 ©VLPisacane,2012
    • EARTH ATMOSPHERE Chapter 7 Neutral Pressure and Density with Lapse Rate Environment  If the temperature as a function of altitude is approximated by T  T0  Lh  h0  the pressure and density is given by  Mg     L   RL  p  p0  1  h  h0   T   p0eh / H L0  0   Mg   1   L   RL  r  r0  1  h  h0   T   r0eh / H L0  0  where L = lapse rate, K m-1 T0 = temperature at height h0, K T = temperature at height h, K g = acceleration of gravity, m s-2 M = molecular mass, kg-kmol-1 ` p = pressure at height h po = pressure at height ho R = universal gas constant, J kmol-1 kg-1 r = density at height h ro = density at height h0 H ≡ RT/Mg, scale heightSpace Environment and its Effects on Space Systems 7 – 13 ©VLPisacane,2012
    • EARTH ATMOSPHERE Chapter 7 Neutral Lapse Rate Environment  Several lapse Rates are employed  Dry Adiabatic Lapse rate (DALR) 10 K km-1 – Adiabatic process ─ no transfer of heat or mass across the boundaries – Temperature changes within air parcel only caused by increases or decreases of internal molecular activity – Dry air parcel rising cools at rate of 10 k km-1 – Dry air parcel sinking cools at rate of 10 k km-1  Saturated Adiabatic Lapse Rate (SALR) 5.5 K km-1 – Rising air parcel containing water vapor will cool at dry adiabatic lapse rate until it reaches condensation temperature, or dew point – Condensation releases latent heat in parcel and thus cooling rate of the parcel reduces – SALR depends on temperature and pressure but in middle troposphere is between 5 and 6 K km-1  Environmental Adiabatic Lapse Rate (EALR) 6.5 K km-1 – Actual lapse rate is function of actual temperature – Standard model temperature gives ~ 6.5 K km-1 http://www.ux1.eiu.edu/~cfjps/1400/atmos_struct.htmlSpace Environment and its Effects on Space Systems 7 – 14 ©VLPisacane,2012
    • ATMOSPHERIC MODELS Chapter 7 Neutral Selected Available Models Environment  US Standard Atmosphere  Harris–Priester Model  Jacchia Reference Atmosphere 1977  Atmospheric Handbook  COSPAR international Reference Atmosphere (CIRA) Model  Mass-Spectrometer-Incoherent-Scatter (MSIS)-90 Model  NRL Mass-Spectrometer-Incoherent-Scatter Empirical (MSISE)-00 Model Just a few of the models that are availableSpace Environment and its Effects on Space Systems 7 – 15 ©VLPisacane,2012
    • Chapter 7 ATMOSPHERIC MODELS Neutral Model Input Parameters Environment Source unknownSpace Environment and its Effects on Space Systems 7 – 16 ©VLPisacane,2012
    • ATMOSPHERIC MODELS Chapter 7 Neutral U. S. Standard Atmosphere Environment  The standard atmosphere gives the average pressure, temperature, and air density as a function of altitudes  It is a piece-wise continuous with 7 regions – Sea level pressure = 101,325 N/m2 (1 bar = 100,000 N/m2) – Sea level temperature = 288.15 K – Sea level density =1.225 kg/m3 – M = molecular mass of air = 28.9644 kg kmol-1 – Geometric height, z, actual physical height above mean sea level – Geopotential height, h, where g0h = ∫gdz = potential energy, g0=9.8 m s-2 in MKSSpace Environment and its Effects on Space Systems 7 – 17 ©VLPisacane,2012
    • Chapter 7 ATMOSPHERIC MODELS Neutral Environment Jacchia Reference Atmosphere Model  Jacchia Reference Atmospheres were published in 1970, 1971, and 1977  Density, temperature, and composition are given for altitudes 90 ─ 2500 km  Effects include – season – latitude – local time (diurnal bulge) – solar activity – geomagnetic activity – atmospheric rotation – atmospheric tides – Earth oblateness on altitude – semi-annual and seasonal-latitudinal effects  Model are based mostly on satellite drag data  Assuming diffusive equilibrium, the atmospheric profiles are defined by the exospheric temperature  Outputs – Temperature, – Mean molecular mass – Density – Number densities of the major gas constituents (N2, O, O2, Ar, He, and H)Space Environment and its Effects on Space Systems 7 – 18 ©VLPisacane,2012
    • ATMOSPHERIC MODELS Chapter 7 Neutral COSPAR international Reference Atmosphere CIRA-86 Model Environment Source unknownSpace Environment and its Effects on Space Systems 7 – 19 ©VLPisacane,2012
    • ATMOSPHERIC MODELS Chapter 7 Neutral NRL-MSISE Reference Atmosphere Environment INPUTS OUTPUTS  Mass-Spectrometer- Year, day, UT sec He number density Incoherent-Scatter models: Altitude O number density – MSIS-86 Geodetic latitude O2 number density – MSISE-90 Geodetic longitude N number density Local apparent solar time N2 number density – NRLMSISE-00 F10.7 81 day average Ar number density F10.7 prior day daily value H number density  NRLMSISE-00 represents AP magnetic index day Anomalous oxygen improvements over the number density earlier MSISE-90 model by AP magnetic index 3 h before current Total mass density time including additional drag AP magnetic index 6 h before current and accelerometer data time Exospheric temperature from spacecraft AP magnetic index 9 h before current Temperature at altitude time  Inputs and outputs of the AP magnetic index average of eight 3 hours indices from 12 to 33 h before NRLMSISE-00 model are current time given AP magnetic index average of eight 3 hours indices from 36 to 57 h before current timeSpace Environment and its Effects on Space Systems 7 – 20 ©VLPisacane,2012
    • ATMOSPHERIC MODELS Chapter 7 Neutral NRL-MSISE Sample Result ─ Lower Atmosphere Environment Source unknown Day = 172 UT(Sec) = 29000 Geodetic Latitude(Deg) = 60 Geodetic Longitude(Deg) = 120 Local Apparent Solar Time(Hrs) = 16 81 day Average of F10.7 Flux = 150 Daily F10.7 Flux for Previous Day = 150 AP=Magnetic Index (Daily) = 4Space Environment and its Effects on Space Systems 7 – 21 ©VLPisacane,2012
    • Chapter 7 ATMOSPHERIC MODELS Neutral MSIS-90e Density Distribution Environment Source unknownSpace Environment and its Effects on Space Systems 7 – 22 ©VLPisacane,2012
    • ATMOSPHERIC MODELS Chapter 7 Neutral NRLMSISE-00 Model Example 1 Environment  Model Average Density (cm-3) Average Front Flux (cm-2 s-1) 2.8822E+05 2.1229E+11 – NRLMSISE-00 Average Back Flux (cm-2 s-1) 1.5933E+04 – F10,7 prev day 70.0 10-22 W m-2 Hz-1 Front Fluence (cm-2) 6.6948E+18 – F10.7 81 day average 60.0 10-22 W m-2 Hz-1 Back Fluence (cm-2) 5.0246E+11 – Daily Ap 15.0  Conditions – Sun at equator – Sun in orbital plane  Orbit – Altitude: 1000 km circular – Inclination: polar – Epoch: 0h UT 21 Mar 2014 (Vernal Equinox) – Period: 1.75 h r – Rev per day: 13.72 1 revolutionSpace Environment and its Effects on Space Systems 7 – 23 ©VLPisacane,2012
    • ATMOSPHERIC MODELS Chapter 7 Neutral NRLMSISE-00 Model Example 2 Environment  Model Average Density (cm-3) Average Front Flux (cm-2 s-1) 2.6291E+05 1.9362E+11 – NRLMSISE-00 Average Back Flux (cm-2 s-1) 1.9209E+04 – F10,7 prev day 70.0 10-22 W m-2 Hz-1 Front Fluence (cm-2) 6.1061E+18 – F10.7 81 day average 60.0 10-22 W m-2 Hz-1 Back Fluence (cm-2) 6.0576E+11 – Daily Ap 15.0  Conditions – Sun at Tropic of Cancer, 23.44 deg North – Sun orthogonal to orbital plan  Orbit – Altitude: 1000 km circular – Inclination: polar – Epoch: 0h UT 21 June 2014 – Period: 1.75 h r – Rev per day 13.72Space Environment and its Effects on Space Systems 7 – 24 ©VLPisacane,2012
    • PLANETARY ATMOSPHERES Chapter 7 Neutral Planetary Scale Heights Environment  Recall h  h0  r  r0 exp     H  * Surface defined by pressure of 1 bar = 100 kPa where 1.01325 bar = 1 atm pressureSpace Environment and its Effects on Space Systems 7 – 25 ©VLPisacane,2012
    • PLANETARY ATMOSPHERES Chapter 7 Neutral Planetary Compositions Environment Planet Surface Pressure (bars) Surface temperature (K) Major Constituents 42% Oxygen 29% Sodium 22% Hydrogen Mercury 10-15 440 6% Helium 0,5% Potassium < 1% Trace elements 96.5% Carbon Dioxide Venus 92 737 3.5% Nitrogen Trace elements 78.08% Nitrogen 20.95% Oxygen Earth 1 288 0.9% Argon Trace elements 95% Carbon Dioxide 3% Nitrogen Mars .01 210 1 % Argon 1 % Oxygen <1% Trace elements 89.8% Hydrogen Jupiter Unknown 165 @ 1 bar 10.2% Helium Trace elements 96.3% Hydrogen Saturn Unknown 134 @ 1 bar 3.25% Helium Trace elements 82.5% Hydrogen Source: 15.2% Helium http://nssdc.gsfc.nasa.gov/pl Uranus Unknown 76 @ 1 bar 2.3% Methane anetary/factsheet/ Trace elements 1 bar = 100 kPa where 80.9% Hydrogen 19.0% Helium 1.01325 bar = 1 atm Neptune Unknown 72 @t 1 bar 1.5% Methane pressure Trace elementsSpace Environment and its Effects on Space Systems 7 – 26 ©VLPisacane,2012
    • To learn more please attend this ATI course Please post your comments and questions to our blog: http://www.aticourses.com/blog/ Sign-up for ATIs monthly Course Schedule Updates :http://www.aticourses.com/email_signup_page.html