Professional Development Short Course On:
                       The Space Environment
                Implications for Sp...
The Space Environment –
                                           Implications for Spacecraft Design


                  ...
e
                                                                                         e




                         ...
COURSE OUTLINE
                                                             •     Plasma
•    Introduction
               ...
ABOUT THE INSTRUCTOR
• Dr. Alan Tribble
       – Over Twenty Years Experience in Space Environments and
         Effects
 ...
MOLECULAR CONTAMINATION

• Molecular Films On the Order of 1 m Thick
  May Be Deposited During On Orbit
  Operations




...
MOLECULAR REQUIREMENTS

                                      Affected                 Operational                  If Sin...
PARTICULATE CONTAMINATION

• Particulates on the Order of 1 m in Size May
  Be Deposited During Manufacturing,
  Assembly...
PARTICULATE REQUIREMENTS

    Element                                                   Operational     Required
    Affec...
THE ROCKET EQUATION - 1

• An Object of Dry Mass M, Moving With Velocity v,
  Can Change Its Velocity by Ejecting a Mass o...
PHYSICAL SPUTTERING
• Due to the Large Impact Speed of the Neutrals
  Some Surface Molecules May Be Dislodged Upon
  Impac...
AO MASS LOSS

• Mass Loss is Quantified by the Relation

                     dm  t REnvo dAdt
• The Erosion Rate is Giv...
SHUTTLE GLOW AND AURORA




                                                                Sampler
                      ...
THE LEO PLASMA ENVIRONMENT

                    Parameter                                 Value
                          ...
LEO GROUNDING RESULTS

   ELECTRON
  COLLECTION


 PLASMA
POTENTIAL
         ION
  COLLECTION




                      NE...
NOMINAL GEO CONDITIONS

                    Parameter                              Value
                                 ...
GEOMAGNETIC STORMS
                                                            SEVERE SPACECRAFT CHARGING
                ...
ESD ON SOLAR ARRAYS




                Solar Arrays That Are Placed in Plasma
                    Chambers Are Observed t...
DIELECTRIC BREAKDOWN DAMAGE




                                                             Sampler
                     ...
WHAT IS RADIATION?

• As an Energetic Particle Passes Through
  Matter it Will Create Atomic Displacements
  and/or Ionize...
FUNDAMENTAL FORCES

• Four Forces                                                           Electrical Force Always
      ...
STOPPING POWER




                                                               Sampler
                            Copy...
PHOTON CROSS SECTION


                                             0 .2
                                                 ...
ATMOSPHERIC NEUTRONS

      • The Neutron Flux is                                                                         ...
RADIATION IN SPACE

• Trapped Radiation Belts (Van Allen Belts)
     – Energetic Electrons and Protons That Are Trapped by...
VAN ALLEN BELTS




                       Displaying a Model of the Explorer 1 Spacecraft are (l-r):
 Dr. James Pickering...
INTENSITY OF THE BELTS


                                                                       OMNIDIRECTIONAL EQUATORIAL...
SPE COMPOSITION

                                        Large Solar Proton Event Spectra at 1 AU
                        ...
GCR COMPOSITION

                                                        Galactic Cosmic Ray Fluence, Solar Max (1981)

  ...
RADIATION DAMAGE THRESHOLDS

• In Many Materials, the Total Dose of
  Radiation is the Critical Issue in Determining
  Use...
GPS RADIATION ENVIRONMENT


                                               GPS Tra20,000 km @ 55 degrees - 55 De g
       ...
GPS RADIATION DOSE

                                     Altitude = 20,000 km
                                     Inclina...
DESIGN EXAMPLE: SOLAR ARRAY SIZING

• Solar Array Size is Driven by the Amount of Energy
  That Must be Produced
       – ...
SEE ILLUSTRATION


   Radiation
       (proton, ion, neutron, …)
                                                         ...
MITIGATION TECHNIQUES

• Shielding
       – Prevent the Radiation Environment From Reaching the Crew
         or Sensitive...
MEDIUM IMPACT CRATER




                                                                  Sampler
                       ...
COLUMBIA ACCIDENT INVESTIGATION

• Executive Summary
       – The Physical Cause of the Loss of Columbia and its Crew
    ...
METEOR SHOWERS
                                              •     Meteor Showers
•    Most MM’s Originate From
     Comet...
CUMULATIVE EFFECTS

• 5 Years Exposure in
  LEO Resulted in
  Noticeable Surface
  Damage to Many
  Panels on the Long
  D...
ED WHITE’S 1965 SPACE WALK




  Ed White’s Space Walk in 1965 Generated Some Orbital Debris When a
           Glove Float...
SHIELDING

• Whipple Shield
       – Outer Layers Fragment Impacting Particle
       – Inner Layers Catch Fragments




  ...
NASA INTERNET SITES

• Glenn Research Center                               • Jet Propulsion Laboratory
     – Space Enviro...
OTHER INTERNET SITES
• NOAA                                              • Space Environment Information
                 ...
SPACE ENVIRONMENT EFFECTS


                                                                                              ...
SYNERGISTIC EFFECTS
                                                 VACUUM                                               ...
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        Implications for Spacecraft Design

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Space Environment

  1. 1. Professional Development Short Course On: The Space Environment Implications for Spacecraft Design Instructor: Dr. Alan C. Tribble http://www.ATIcourses.com/schedule.htm ATI Course Schedule: ATI's Space Based Radar: http://www.aticourses.com/space_environment.htm Copywrite Alan C. Tribble
  2. 2. The Space Environment – Implications for Spacecraft Design Summary Adverse interactions between the space environment and an orbiting spacecraft may lead to a degradation of spacecraft subsystem performance and possibly even loss of the spacecraft itself. This course presents an introduction to the space environment and its effect on spacecraft. Emphasis is placed on problem solving techniques and design guidelines that will provide the student with an understanding of how space environment effects may be minimized through proactive spacecraft design. Each student will receive a copy of the course text, a complete set of course notes, including copies of all viewgraphs used in the presentation, and a comprehensive bibliography. Instructor Dr. Alan C. Tribble has provided space environments effects analysis to more than one dozen NASA, DoD, and commercial February 2-3, 2009 programs, including the International Space Beltsville, Maryland Station, the Global Positioning System (GPS) satellites, and several surveillance spacecraft. $1095 He holds a Ph.D. in Physics from the (8:30am - 4:00pm) University of Iowa and has been twice a quot;Register 3 or More & Receive $10000 each Principal Investigator for the NASA Space Off The Course Tuition.quot; Environments and Effects Program. He is the author of four books, including the course text: The Space Environment - Implications for Space Design, and Course Outline over 20 additional technical publications. He is an Associate Fellow of the AIAA, a Senior Member of the IEEE, and was 1. Introduction. Spacecraft Subsystem Design, Orbital previously an Associate Editor of the Journal of Spacecraft Mechanics, The Solar-Planetary Relationship, Space and Rockets. Dr. Tribble recently won the 2008 AIAA James A. Weather. Van Allen Space Environments Award. He has taught a variety of classes at the University of Southern California, California 2. The Vacuum Environment. Basic Description – State University Long Beach, the University of Iowa, and has Pressure vs. Altitude, Solar UV Radiation. been teaching courses on space environments and effects 3. Vacuum Environment Effects. Solar UV since 1992. Degradation, Molecular Contamination, Particulate Contamination. 4. The Neutral Environment. Basic Atmospheric Who Should Attend: Physics, Elementary Kinetic Theory, Hydrostatic Engineers who need to know how to design systems with Equilibrium, Neutral Atmospheric Models. adequate performance margins, program managers who 5. Neutral Environment Effects. Aerodynamic Drag, oversee spacecraft survivability tasks, and scientists who need to understand how environmental interactions can affect Sputtering, Atomic Oxygen Attack, Spacecraft Glow. instrument performance. 6. The Plasma Environment. Basic Plasma Physics - Single Particle Motion, Debye Shielding, Plasma Oscillations. Review of the Course Text: 7. Plasma Environment Effects. Spacecraft “There is, to my knowledge, no other book that provides its Charging, Arc Discharging. intended readership with an comprehensive and authoritative, yet compact and accessible, coverage of the subject of 8. The Radiation Environment. Basic Radiation spacecraft environmental engineering.” – James A. Van Allen, Physics, Stopping Charged Particles, Stopping Energetic Regent Distinguished Professor, University of Iowa. Photons, Stopping Neutrons. 9. Radiation in Space. Trapped Radiation Belts, Solar Proton Events, Galactic Cosmic Rays, Hostile Environments. “I got exactly what I wanted from this 10. Radiation Environment Effects. Total Dose course – an overview of the spacecraft Effects - Solar Cell Degradation, Electronics Degradation; environment. The charts outlining the Single Event Effects - Upset, Latchup, Burnout; Dose Rate interactions and synergism were excellent. Effects. The list of references is extensive and 11. The Micrometeoroid and Orbital Debris will be consulted often.” Environment. Hypervelocity Impact Physics, Micrometeoroids, Orbital Debris. “Broad experience over many design 12. Additional Topics. Design Examples - The Long teams allowed for excellent examples of Duration Exposure Facility; Effects on Humans; Models applications of this information.” and Tools; Available Internet Resources. Register online at www.ATIcourses.com or call ATI at 888.501.2100 or 410.956.8805 Vol. 96 – 17
  3. 3. e e at at lic l ia om lic up er .c up at D es D IM ot rs ot N om AT ou N o Ic o D .c • AT l • D l ia www.ATIcourses.com es te l• er rs a ia w. a ic at om er w ri ou pl M w ate .c at Ic u TI D es M M Boost Your Skills •A ot rs TI 349 Berkshire Drive I AT w. N ou A te Riva, Maryland 21140 AT with On-Site Courses w Do Ic te • .c ca Telephone 1-888-501-2100 / (410) 965-8805 te om es li ca l• om a rs up Tailored to Your Needs Fax (410) 956-5785 w .c lic ia w. li ou D Email: ATI@ATIcourses.com w up er es up AT Ic ot at wD rs D AT N M The Applied Technology Institute specializes in training programs for technical professionals. Our courses keep you ot ou ot o current in the state-of-the-art technology that is essential to keep your company on the cutting edge in today’s highly N I Ic N w. D AT competitive marketplace. Since 1984, ATI has earned the trust of training departments nationwide, and has presented o AT Do l• D on-site training at the major Navy, Air Force and NASA centers, and for a large number of contractors. Our training ia l• increases effectiveness and productivity. Learn from the proven best. w. • er w ial ia w at er w er For a Free On-Site Quote Visit Us At: http://www.ATIcourses.com/free_onsite_quote.asp IM at at IM AT IM For Our Current Public Course Schedule Go To: http://www.ATIcourses.com/schedule.htm w AT AT
  4. 4. COURSE OUTLINE • Plasma • Introduction – Environment – Why Study SEE? – Effects – The Earth’s Environment • Spacecraft Charging – The Solar Environment • Arc Discharging • Vacuum • Radiation – Environment – Environment – Effects – Effects • Solar UV Degradation • Total Dose • Dose Rate • Molecular Contamination • Single Event • Particulate Contamination • Micrometeoroid/Orbital Debris • Contamination Control – Environment • Neutral – Effects – Environment • Hypervelocity Impact Damage – Effects • Effects on Humans • Aerodynamic Drag • Conclusions • Sputtering • Atomic Oxygen Erosion • Spacecraft Glow Sampler Copyright Dr. Alan Tribble. Applied Technology 2009 Do Not Reproduce Without Permission. Institute (ATI) Slide #2 www.atribble.com www.aticourses.com
  5. 5. ABOUT THE INSTRUCTOR • Dr. Alan Tribble – Over Twenty Years Experience in Space Environments and Effects • Author of First Text on Space Environments & Effects • Principal Investigator for the NASA Space Environments & Effects Program • Associate Editor for the AIAA Journal of Spacecraft and Rockets • Instructor for Space Environments & Effects Courses Since 1992 – Winner of the 2008 AIAA James A. Van Allen Award • Presented to recognize outstanding contributions to space and planetary environment knowledge and interactions as applied to the advancement of aeronautics and astronautics. Sampler Copyright Dr. Alan Tribble. Applied Technology 2009 Do Not Reproduce Without Permission. Institute (ATI) Slide #3 www.atribble.com www.aticourses.com
  6. 6. MOLECULAR CONTAMINATION • Molecular Films On the Order of 1 m Thick May Be Deposited During On Orbit Operations Sampler Copyright Dr. Alan Tribble. Applied Technology 2009 Do Not Reproduce Without Permission. Institute (ATI) Slide #4 www.atribble.com www.aticourses.com
  7. 7. MOLECULAR REQUIREMENTS Affected Operational If Single If 5 Optical Element Parameter Criteria Surface Surfaces ~ 0.05 m ~ 0.004 m UV Sensora Signal Strength < 10% Absorption (0.2 - 0.3 m) (Level B) (~ Level A/20) ~ 0.015 ma Solar Arraysb Power Production < 2% Power Loss N/A (Level A) s/ Ratio s < 2.0 initial s ~ 0.2 m Thermal Control Surfaces N/A (Initial OSR s = 0.06) (Level H) ~ 0.2 m ~ 0.04 m Visible Sensor Signal Strength < 10% Absorption (0.35 - 0.90 m) (Level H) (Level D) ~ 1.5 m ~ 0.3 m IR Sensorc Signal Strength < 10% Absorption (1.0 - 2.0 m) (>> Level J) (~ Level J) a assumes nominal contaminant absorptance profile - highly absorptive in the UV b assumes darker, photochemically deposited contaminant absorptance profile c requires cryogenic surfaces that retain contaminants Sampler Copyright Dr. Alan Tribble. Applied Technology 2009 Do Not Reproduce Without Permission. Institute (ATI) Slide #5 www.atribble.com www.aticourses.com
  8. 8. PARTICULATE CONTAMINATION • Particulates on the Order of 1 m in Size May Be Deposited During Manufacturing, Assembly, Test, or Launch Sampler Copyright Dr. Alan Tribble. Applied Technology 2009 Do Not Reproduce Without Permission. Institute (ATI) Slide #6 www.atribble.com www.aticourses.com
  9. 9. PARTICULATE REQUIREMENTS Element Operational Required Affected Parameter Criteria Cleanliness IR Sensor Signal to Noise Ratio SNR > 8.0 200 s ~ 0.05 Thermal Control Absorption 350  ~ 0.05 Surfaces Emittance 450  ~ 1.0 650 Solar Arrays Power Production < 1% Power Loss 520 These Values Should Be Used For Comparison Only Sampler Copyright Dr. Alan Tribble. Applied Technology 2009 Do Not Reproduce Without Permission. Institute (ATI) Slide #7 www.atribble.com www.aticourses.com
  10. 10. THE ROCKET EQUATION - 1 • An Object of Dry Mass M, Moving With Velocity v, Can Change Its Velocity by Ejecting a Mass of Fuel m at velocity v'. v v + v v' M+m M m INITIAL FINAL • From Conservation of Momentum ( M  m)v  M (v  v)  mv  v' Sampler Copyright Dr. Alan Tribble. Applied Technology 2009 Do Not Reproduce Without Permission. Institute (ATI) Slide #8 www.atribble.com www.aticourses.com
  11. 11. PHYSICAL SPUTTERING • Due to the Large Impact Speed of the Neutrals Some Surface Molecules May Be Dislodged Upon Impact • The Reaction is Highly Dependent Upon Impact Energy and Surface Material Properties IMPACTING NEUTRAL REFLECTED NEUTRAL SPUTTERED MOLECULE Sampler Copyright Dr. Alan Tribble. Applied Technology 2009 Do Not Reproduce Without Permission. Institute (ATI) Slide #9 www.atribble.com www.aticourses.com
  12. 12. AO MASS LOSS • Mass Loss is Quantified by the Relation dm  t REnvo dAdt • The Erosion Rate is Given by dx  REnvo dt • Where RE is the Experimentally Determined Reaction Efficiency Sampler Copyright Dr. Alan Tribble. Applied Technology 2009 Do Not Reproduce Without Permission. Institute (ATI) Slide #10 www.atribble.com www.aticourses.com
  13. 13. SHUTTLE GLOW AND AURORA Sampler Copyright Dr. Alan Tribble. Applied Technology 2009 Do Not Reproduce Without Permission. Institute (ATI) Slide #11 www.atribble.com www.aticourses.com
  14. 14. THE LEO PLASMA ENVIRONMENT Parameter Value 1 x 1011 m-3 Plasma Density Plasma Temperature 1000 K (0.13 eV) Debye Length 1 cm Electron Gyroradius 1 cm Ion Gyroradius 3m Electron Thermal Speed 200 km/s Orbital Velocity 8 km/s Ion Thermal Speed 1 km/s Electron Plasma Frequency 2.8 MHz Ion Plasma Frequency 16.6 kHz Sampler Copyright Dr. Alan Tribble. Applied Technology 2009 Do Not Reproduce Without Permission. Institute (ATI) Slide #12 www.atribble.com www.aticourses.com
  15. 15. LEO GROUNDING RESULTS ELECTRON COLLECTION PLASMA POTENTIAL ION COLLECTION NEGATIVE POSITIVE FLOATING GROUND GROUND GROUND STRUCTURES STRUCTURES STRUCTURES ~ 90% OF ARRAY A FEW VOLTS A FEW VOLTS VOLTAGE POSITIVE NEGATIVE NEGATIVE Sampler Copyright Dr. Alan Tribble. Applied Technology 2009 Do Not Reproduce Without Permission. Institute (ATI) Slide #13 www.atribble.com www.aticourses.com
  16. 16. NOMINAL GEO CONDITIONS Parameter Value 1 x 106 m-3 Plasma Density Plasma Temperature 1,000,000 K (130 eV) Debye Length 2m Electron Gyroradius 7.5 km Ion Gyroradius 3m Electron Thermal Speed 6,000 km/s Ion Thermal Speed 30 km/s Orbital Velocity 3 km/s Electron Plasma Frequency 900 Hz Ion Plasma Frequency 50 Hz Sampler Copyright Dr. Alan Tribble. Applied Technology 2009 Do Not Reproduce Without Permission. Institute (ATI) Slide #14 www.atribble.com www.aticourses.com
  17. 17. GEOMAGNETIC STORMS SEVERE SPACECRAFT CHARGING MIDNIGHT - 6 AM ENERGETIC Magnetopause ELECTRONS Compressed to < 10 RE VIEW v B FROM x TOP ENERGETIC PROTONS Earth’s Magnetic HOT PLASMA Solar Field PUSHED EARTHWARD Wind Lines Compressed Sun’s Earth’s Magnetic Magnetic Field Field Dominant Dominant Sampler Copyright Dr. Alan Tribble. Applied Technology 2009 Do Not Reproduce Without Permission. Institute (ATI) Slide #15 www.atribble.com www.aticourses.com
  18. 18. ESD ON SOLAR ARRAYS Solar Arrays That Are Placed in Plasma Chambers Are Observed to Arc. Sampler Copyright Dr. Alan Tribble. Applied Technology 2009 Do Not Reproduce Without Permission. Institute (ATI) Slide #16 www.atribble.com www.aticourses.com
  19. 19. DIELECTRIC BREAKDOWN DAMAGE Sampler Copyright Dr. Alan Tribble. Applied Technology 2009 Do Not Reproduce Without Permission. Institute (ATI) Slide #17 www.atribble.com www.aticourses.com
  20. 20. WHAT IS RADIATION? • As an Energetic Particle Passes Through Matter it Will Create Atomic Displacements and/or Ionize Atoms in the Material • As a Result the Material Properties Will be Altered • Radiation Can be Thought of as Anything That Deposits Energy in a Material – Charged Particles (Electrons, Protons) – Uncharged Particles (Neutrons) – Photons (Gamma Rays, X-Rays) Sampler Copyright Dr. Alan Tribble. Applied Technology 2009 Do Not Reproduce Without Permission. Institute (ATI) Slide #18 www.atribble.com www.aticourses.com
  21. 21. FUNDAMENTAL FORCES • Four Forces Electrical Force Always – Strong Nuclear Dominates Outside the Nucleus • Important Near the Nucleus – Weak Nuclear • Important Near the Nucleus – Electrical • Very Significant for Particles That are Charged – Gravitational • Only Important for Very Large Masses Nuclear Forces Only Dominates Near the Nucleus Sampler Copyright Dr. Alan Tribble. Applied Technology 2009 Do Not Reproduce Without Permission. Institute (ATI) Slide #19 www.atribble.com www.aticourses.com
  22. 22. STOPPING POWER Sampler Copyright Dr. Alan Tribble. Applied Technology 2009 Do Not Reproduce Without Permission. Institute (ATI) Slide #20 www.atribble.com www.aticourses.com
  23. 23. PHOTON CROSS SECTION 0 .2 Compton 0 .1 8 Pair Production 0 .1 6 Absorption Coefficient (cm^2/g) Photoelectric 0 .1 4 Total 0 .1 2 Cross Section 0 .1 (cm2/g) 0 .0 8 0 .0 6 0 .0 4 0 .0 2 0 0 -1 100 101 102 10.1 1 10 100 Photon Energy (MeV) Sampler Copyright Dr. Alan Tribble. Applied Technology 2009 Do Not Reproduce Without Permission. Institute (ATI) Slide #21 www.atribble.com www.aticourses.com
  24. 24. ATMOSPHERIC NEUTRONS • The Neutron Flux is Neutron Flux vs Altitude a Function of Altitude 1.4 1.2 Flux (n / cm^2 s) and Latitude 1 0.8 0.6 • The Worst Location 0.4 0.2 is a Polar Route at 0 0 20 40 60 80 100 Altitude (Thousand Feet) About 55,000 Feet Neutron Flux vs Latitude 1.6 1.4 Flux (n / cm^2 s) 1.2 1 0.8 0.6 0.4 0.2 0 Normand, E., and Baker, T. J., “Altitude and Latitude Variations in 0 20 40 60 80 100 Avionics SEU and Atmospheric Neutron Flux,” IEEE Tns. Nuc. Latitude (Deg.) Sci., Vol. 40, No. 6, pp. 1484 - 1490, December 1993. Sampler Copyright Dr. Alan Tribble. Applied Technology 2009 Do Not Reproduce Without Permission. Institute (ATI) Slide #22 www.atribble.com www.aticourses.com
  25. 25. RADIATION IN SPACE • Trapped Radiation Belts (Van Allen Belts) – Energetic Electrons and Protons That Are Trapped by the Earth’s Magnetic Field • Solar Particle Events (SPE’s) – Energetic Particles, Mostly Protons, Emitted During Solar Flares • Galactic Cosmic Rays (GCR’s) – Energetic Nuclei Originating Outside the Solar System • Hostile Radiation Environments – Nuclear Weapons in Space • Nuclear Power Systems – Radioisotope Thermoelectric Generators (RTG’s) Sampler Copyright Dr. Alan Tribble. Applied Technology 2009 Do Not Reproduce Without Permission. Institute (ATI) Slide #23 www.atribble.com www.aticourses.com
  26. 26. VAN ALLEN BELTS Displaying a Model of the Explorer 1 Spacecraft are (l-r): Dr. James Pickering (JPL), Dr. James Van Allen (Univ. of Iowa), and Dr. Wehrner Von Braun (MSFC). Van Allen Published the First Data on the Trapped Radiation Belts, Which are Sometimes Called the Van Allen Belts. Sampler Copyright Dr. Alan Tribble. Applied Technology 2009 Do Not Reproduce Without Permission. Institute (ATI) Slide #24 www.atribble.com www.aticourses.com
  27. 27. INTENSITY OF THE BELTS OMNIDIRECTIONAL EQUATORIAL Flux Omnidirectional Equatorial FLUX 109 1.0 0 E+ 0 9 ELECTRONS PROTONS 8 10 1.0 0 E+ 0 8 0.1.1 MeV 0 MeV 107 1.0 0 E+ 0 7 Flux (per sq cm per s) 1.0 0 E+ 6 6 10 0 0 .1 MeV 0.1 MeV Flux1.0 0 E+ 5 5 10 0 -2 -1 (cm s ) 1.0 0 E+ 4 4 10 0 1 MeV 1 MeV 1.0 0 E+ 3 3 10 0 10 MeV 1 MeV 1 MeV 1.0 0 E+ 2 2 10 0 1 0 MeV 1.0 0 E+ 1 1 10 0 3 MeV 3 MeV 1.0 0 E+ 0 0 10 0 10 8 6 4 2 2 4 6 8 10 -1 0 -8 -6 -4 -2 0 2 10 Earth Radii Earth Radii Sampler Copyright Dr. Alan Tribble. Applied Technology 2009 Do Not Reproduce Without Permission. Institute (ATI) Slide #25 www.atribble.com www.aticourses.com
  28. 28. SPE COMPOSITION Large Solar Proton Event Spectra at 1 AU Feb 1956 Integral Fluence, (protons / 1.00E+11 Nov 1960 Aug 1972 1.00E+10 Aug 1989 Sep 1989 cm^2) 1.00E+09 Oct 1989 1.00E+08 1.00E+07 1 10 100 1000 Kinetic Energy (MeV) Wilson, J. W., Cucinotta, F. A., Simonsen, L. C., Shinn, J. L., Thibeault, S. A., and Kim, M. Y., quot;Galactic and Cosmic Ray Shielding in Deep Spacequot;, NASA TP 3682, December 1997 Sampler Copyright Dr. Alan Tribble. Applied Technology 2009 Do Not Reproduce Without Permission. Institute (ATI) Slide #26 www.atribble.com www.aticourses.com
  29. 29. GCR COMPOSITION Galactic Cosmic Ray Fluence, Solar Max (1981) Z=1 1.00E+06 Z=2 1.00E+05 Annual Fluence, (particles / cm^2 - A MeV) Z: 3 - 10 Z: 11 - 20 1.00E+04 Z: 21 - 28 1.00E+03 1.00E+02 1.00E+01 1.00E+00 1.00E-01 1.00E-02 1.00E-03 1.00E-04 1.00E-05 1.00E-06 1.00E-01 1.00E+00 1.00E+01 1.00E+02 1.00E+03 1.00E+04 1.00E+05 1.00E+06 Kinetic Energy (A MeV) Wilson, J. W., Cucinotta, F. A., Simonsen, L. C., Shinn, J. L., Thibeault, S. A., and Kim, M. Y., quot;Galactic and Cosmic Ray Shielding in Deep Spacequot;, NASA TP 3682, December 1997 Sampler Copyright Dr. Alan Tribble. Applied Technology 2009 Do Not Reproduce Without Permission. Institute (ATI) Slide #27 www.atribble.com www.aticourses.com
  30. 30. RADIATION DAMAGE THRESHOLDS • In Many Materials, the Total Dose of Radiation is the Critical Issue in Determining Useful Lifetime Material Damage Threshold (RAD) 101 - 102 Biological Matter 102 - 104 Electronics 105 - 107 Lubricants, Hydraulic Fluid 106 - 108 Ceramics, Glasses 107 - 109 Polymeric Materials 109 - 1011 Structural Metals Sampler Copyright Dr. Alan Tribble. Applied Technology 2009 Do Not Reproduce Without Permission. Institute (ATI) Slide #28 www.atribble.com www.aticourses.com
  31. 31. GPS RADIATION ENVIRONMENT GPS Tra20,000 km @ 55 degrees - 55 De g ppe d Ra dia tion: 20,000 km 10 1 1.00E+01 Electrons - Solar Max. Protons 10 0 1.00E+00 Energy (MeV) Energy (MeV) Protons Electrons - Solar Min. Electrons - Solar Min 10 -1 1.00E-01 Electrons - Solar Max 1.00E-02 10 -2 1.00E+04 1.00E+05 1.00E+06 1.00E+07 1.00E+08 1.00E+09 1.00E+10 1.00E+11 1.00E+12 1.00E+13 10 4 10 5 10 6 10 7 10 8 10 9 10 10 10 11 10 12 10 13 Flue nce (# cm ^-2 day^-1) Fluence (cm -2 day -1) Sampler Copyright Dr. Alan Tribble. Applied Technology 2009 Do Not Reproduce Without Permission. Institute (ATI) Slide #29 www.atribble.com www.aticourses.com
  32. 32. GPS RADIATION DOSE Altitude = 20,000 km Inclination = 55 deg. Shielding = Full-Sphere 10000.00 To ta l 1000.00 Pro to n Ele c tro n Bre m s. 100.00 Dose (rad/day) 10.00 1.00 0.10 10 100 1000 Shie ld ing T kne ss (m ils - Al) hic Sampler Copyright Dr. Alan Tribble. Applied Technology 2009 Do Not Reproduce Without Permission. Institute (ATI) Slide #30 www.atribble.com www.aticourses.com
  33. 33. DESIGN EXAMPLE: SOLAR ARRAY SIZING • Solar Array Size is Driven by the Amount of Energy That Must be Produced – A = Solar Array Area (m2) – P = Power Required (W) P –  = Efficiency A S • Efficiency is Degraded by Radiation – BOL Value is Greater Than the EOL Value • Efficiency Loss is Minimized by Adding a Transparent Shield – Coverslide – S = Sun’s Power Output (1367 W/m2 at Earth Orbit) Sampler Copyright Dr. Alan Tribble. Applied Technology 2009 Do Not Reproduce Without Permission. Institute (ATI) Slide #31 www.atribble.com www.aticourses.com
  34. 34. SEE ILLUSTRATION Radiation (proton, ion, neutron, …) VIN Gate VDD VSS VOUT Source Drain Source p+ n+ n+ p+ p+ n+ n-well Upset occurs if channel current turned on p-type substrate Latchup occurs if parasitic current loop initiated Sampler Copyright Dr. Alan Tribble. Applied Technology 2009 Do Not Reproduce Without Permission. Institute (ATI) Slide #32 www.atribble.com www.aticourses.com
  35. 35. MITIGATION TECHNIQUES • Shielding – Prevent the Radiation Environment From Reaching the Crew or Sensitive Electronics • Not Effective on Very Energetic (GeV) Charged Particles • Parts Selection – Choose Parts or Materials That Can Withstand the Total Dose Environment Anticipated – Choose Parts That are Immune or Resistant to SEE • Fault Tolerance – Hardware • Redundancy, Majority Voting, … – Software • Error Detection and Correction (EDAC), Hamming Codes, … Sampler Copyright Dr. Alan Tribble. Applied Technology 2009 Do Not Reproduce Without Permission. Institute (ATI) Slide #33 www.atribble.com www.aticourses.com
  36. 36. MEDIUM IMPACT CRATER Sampler Copyright Dr. Alan Tribble. Applied Technology 2009 Do Not Reproduce Without Permission. Institute (ATI) Slide #34 www.atribble.com www.aticourses.com
  37. 37. COLUMBIA ACCIDENT INVESTIGATION • Executive Summary – The Physical Cause of the Loss of Columbia and its Crew Was a Breach in the Thermal Protection System on the Leading Edge of the Left Wing, Caused by a Piece of Insulating Foam Which Separated From the Left Bipod Ramp Section of the External Tank at 81.7 Seconds After Launch, and Struck the Wing in the Vicinity of the Lower Half of Reinforced Carbon-Carbon Panel Number 8. During Re- Entry This Breach in the Thermal Protection System Allowed Superheated Air to Penetrate Through the Leading Edge Insulation and Progressively Melt the Aluminum Structure of the Left Wing, Resulting in a Weakening of the Structure Until Increasing Aerodynamic Forces Caused Loss of Control, Failure of the Wing, and Breakup of the Orbiter. This Breakup Occurred in a Flight Regime in Which, Given the Current Design of the Orbiter, There was no Possibility for the Crew to Survive. • Columbia Accident Investigation Board, August 2003 Sampler Copyright Dr. Alan Tribble. Applied Technology 2009 Do Not Reproduce Without Permission. Institute (ATI) Slide #35 www.atribble.com www.aticourses.com
  38. 38. METEOR SHOWERS • Meteor Showers • Most MM’s Originate From Comets or Asteroids – Quantrantids • January 1 - 6 • Meteor 'Showers' Are Those – Lyrids Few Days of the Year When • April 19 - 24 Ground Observers May See – Eta Aquarids a >10 Fold Increase in MM • May 2 - 7 Flux for a Period of a Few – Delta Aquarids Days. • July 15 - August 15 – Perseids • With the Exception of Very • July 27 - August 17 Short Term Missions, i.e., – Orionids The Shuttle Orbiter, These • October 12 - 16 Short Term Variations Will – Taurids Not be Significant. • October 26 - November 25 • The Data That Follows is – Leonids • November 15 - 19 Based on a Yearly Average – Geminids for the Micrometeorite Flux. • December 7 - 15 Sampler Copyright Dr. Alan Tribble. Applied Technology 2009 Do Not Reproduce Without Permission. Institute (ATI) Slide #36 www.atribble.com www.aticourses.com
  39. 39. CUMULATIVE EFFECTS • 5 Years Exposure in LEO Resulted in Noticeable Surface Damage to Many Panels on the Long Duration Exposure Facility (LDEF) Sampler Copyright Dr. Alan Tribble. Applied Technology 2009 Do Not Reproduce Without Permission. Institute (ATI) Slide #37 www.atribble.com www.aticourses.com
  40. 40. ED WHITE’S 1965 SPACE WALK Ed White’s Space Walk in 1965 Generated Some Orbital Debris When a Glove Floated Out of the Open Hatch of the Capsule Sampler Copyright Dr. Alan Tribble. Applied Technology 2009 Do Not Reproduce Without Permission. Institute (ATI) Slide #38 www.atribble.com www.aticourses.com
  41. 41. SHIELDING • Whipple Shield – Outer Layers Fragment Impacting Particle – Inner Layers Catch Fragments Sampler Copyright Dr. Alan Tribble. Applied Technology 2009 Do Not Reproduce Without Permission. Institute (ATI) Slide #39 www.atribble.com www.aticourses.com
  42. 42. NASA INTERNET SITES • Glenn Research Center • Jet Propulsion Laboratory – Space Environments and – Radiation Effects Group Experiments Branch • http://parts.jpl.nasa.gov • http://www.grc.nasa.gov/WWW • Johnson Space Center /epbranch/ – Orbital Debris Program Office • Goddard Space Flight Center • http://orbitaldebris.jsc.nasa.gov – Radiation Effects and Analysis • Langley Research Center • http://radhome.gsfc.nasa.gov – Space Environments and – National Space Science Data Technology Archive System Center (NSSDC) (SETAS) • http://nssdc.gsfc.nasa.gov • http://setas-www.larc.nasa.gov/ – Community Coordinated • Marshall Space Flight Center Modeling Center (CCMC) – Space Environments and Effects • http://ccmc.gsfc.nasa.gov/mod Program elweb/ • http://see.msfc.nasa.gov Sampler Copyright Dr. Alan Tribble. Applied Technology 2009 Do Not Reproduce Without Permission. Institute (ATI) Slide #40 www.atribble.com www.aticourses.com
  43. 43. OTHER INTERNET SITES • NOAA • Space Environment Information System (SPENVIS) – Space Weather Prediction Center – interface to models of the space environment and its effects, • http://www.swpc.noaa.gov including the natural radiation • Space Weather belts, solar energetic particles, – Science News and Information cosmic rays, plasmas, gases, • http://www.spaceweather.com and quot;micro-particlesquot;. – Space Science Institute • www.spenvis.oma.be • http://www.spaceweathercente r.org/ • Instructor’s Web Site – Links to Site’s of Interest • http://www.atribble.com Sampler Copyright Dr. Alan Tribble. Applied Technology 2009 Do Not Reproduce Without Permission. Institute (ATI) Slide #41 www.atribble.com www.aticourses.com
  44. 44. SPACE ENVIRONMENT EFFECTS Space Environments and Effects VACUUM NEUTRAL RADIATION PLASMA MMOD Atomic Outgassing/ Aerodynamic Spacecraft Van Allen Galactic Solar Proton Solar UV Sputtering Oxygen Spacecraft Charging Impacts Contamination Drag Glow Belts Cosmic Rays Events Attack Total Dose Degradation; EMI Due To EMI From Arc Discharging Avionics Single Event Effects Impacts Noise Degradation of Sensor Degradation of Torques Due to Induced Attitude Determination & Induced Torques Source for Coatings Sensors Potentials Control Spacecraft Subsystems Sensors Destruction/ Reduction in Coverslide Reduction in Coverslide Degradation of Solar Cell Output Arcing on Solar Arrays Obscuration of Electrical Power Transmittance Transmittance Solar Cells Total Dose Degradation; Penetration of Environmental Control & Life Toxic Fumes EMI From Arc Discharging Single Event Effects Habitat Support Drag Makeup Rupture of Fuel Propulsion Pressurized Tanks Requirement Dielectric Breakdown on Penetration Structures Surfaces Total Dose Degradation; Degradation of Telemetry, Tracking, and EMI From Arc Discharging EMI due to impacts Single Event Effects Sensors Communications Change in Change in Absorptance / Change in Absorptance / Cold Surfaces May Experience Heating Absorptance / Thermal Control Emittance Emittance Emittance Sampler Copyright Dr. Alan Tribble. Applied Technology 2009 Do Not Reproduce Without Permission. Institute (ATI) Slide #42 www.atribble.com www.aticourses.com
  45. 45. SYNERGISTIC EFFECTS VACUUM NEUTRAL PLASMA RADIATION MMOD Ato m ic G a la c tic O u tg a ssin g / Ae ro d yn a m ic Sp a c e c ra ft Sp a c e c ra ft Va n Alle n So la r Pro to n So la r UV Sp u tte rin g O xyg e n C o sm ic Im p a c ts C o n ta m in a tio n Dra g G lo w C h a rg in g Be lts Eve n ts Atta c k Ra ys Ph o to c h e m ic a l So la r C yc le Ph o to e m issio n o f So la r C yc le A lte rs A tm o sp h e ric De n sity So la r UV De p o sitio n o f A lte rs O D VACUUM Ele c tro n s C o n ta m in a n ts De n sity O u tg a sse d O u tg a sse d O u tg a ssin g / Ma te ria l Ma y Ma te ria l Ma y C o n ta m in a tio n En h a n c e G lo w In c re a se Arc Ra te Ma y Re fle c t Re m o ve s O D Ae ro d yn a m ic C o n ta m in a n ts to Fro m Lo w e r Dra g S/ C O rb its Sp u tte re d Ma te ria l Ma y b e NEUTRAL Sp u tte rin g C o n ta m in a n t So u rc e A O Re sista n t AO Ma y C le a n AO Atta c k Ma y Ato m ic O xyg e n Ma te ria ls a re C o n ta m in a te d Alte r Su rfa c e Atta c k Su sc e p tib le to Su rfa c e s C o n d u c tivitie s G lo w Sp a c e c ra ft G lo w PLASMA C h a rg in g Charging May Sp a c e c ra ft Ma y Enhance C h a rg in g En h a n c e Contaminantion Rate Sp u tte rin g Va n Alle n Be lts RADIATION G a la c tic Ra d ia tio n Ma y Ra d ia tio n Ma y C o sm ic Ra ys Stim u la te In c re a se C h a rg in g O u tg a ssin g SPE's So la r Pro to n Su p p re ss Eve n ts G C R's Im p a c ts Ma y MMOD Im p a c ts Ma y Im p a c ts Ma y Exp o se Im p a c t Im p a c ts G e n e ra te Slig h tly Un d e rlyin g Va p o riza tio n Ma y C o n ta m in a n ts In c re a se Dra g Su rfa c e s to Stim u la te Arc in g Ero sio n Sampler Copyright Dr. Alan Tribble. Applied Technology 2009 Do Not Reproduce Without Permission. Institute (ATI) Slide #43 www.atribble.com www.aticourses.com
  46. 46. You have enjoyed an ATI's preview of The Space Environment Implications for Spacecraft Design Please post your comments and questions to our blog: http://www.aticourses.com/wordpress-2.7/weblog1/ Sign-up for ATI's monthly Course Schedule Updates : http://www.aticourses.com/email_signup_page.html
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