Ocean Optics: Fundamentals & Naval Applications                                          Instructor:                      ...
www.ATIcourses.comBoost Your Skills                                             349 Berkshire Drive                       ...
My Background in Ocean Optics            (some dates are approximate)1988-1996: Environmental Specialist for Active Optics...
My Background in Ocean Optics            (some dates are approximate)1994 to 1997: Project Manager & PI for bio-optical mo...
Various Naval Applications of Ocean Optics•    Mine Warfare:             - Sonar systems are typically used to find Mine-l...
Airborne Mine Countermeasures (AMCM)•    The MH-60S, fitted with Airborne Mine Countermeasures (AMCM) made its     first f...
Airborne Laser Mine Detection System              (ALMDS)             Operations Desert Storm and Desert Shield           ...
Airborne Mine Neutralization System (AMNS) • Raytheon is receiving $14.7M for seven more   AMNS systems • Ref: info by Jef...
EOID Sensor SystemsThe EOID laser line scan technology uses a diode-pumped Nd: YAG laser that provides 500 mWof power for ...
Example of How Optical Values Affect Imagery Ref: Smart,J.H., “Optical Climatologies for US Navy Missions,” Mine Warfare, ...
Airborne Mine Neutralization System                (AMNS):uses “Archerfish” UUV controlled via fiber-optic link to helo; U...
Conceptual View of How uses “Archerfish”                                           Safe standoff ~xxyds (horizontal)      ...
“To acquire the target, Archerfish activates its short range sonar and video link,transmitting sonar imagery and video pic...
AN/ASQ-235 Airborne Mine Neutralization System (AMNS)CSTRS w/ AMNS                   Jettison Testing                     ...
Steps to Target Neutralization                                                                        Reported Location   ...
Testing Highlights• High Current at Carderock CWC (Nov-Dec  05)   – 77 Runs at various water speeds up to     Maximum   – ...
Special Operations (SPECOP) Forces• Possible Concerns:         -Detection of underwater light sources used by SPECOP force...
ASW Applications:Daytime Passive Optical Detection
Example of Hull Detectability from Airborne                           Observer                               November Yell...
Example of Hull Detectability from                 Airborne ObserverSrc: http://www.militaryphotos.net/forums/showthread.p...
Passive Optical Hull Detection        • Problem:               – Submarines operating                 at shallow depths in...
Passive Optical Hull & Surface Wake                              Detection   Visual Detection         Submarines operating...
Factors Affecting Visual Detection                                                                    Sun Angle           ...
Factors Affecting Detectability•   Primary environmental factors influencing optical hull detection     – Water clarity   ...
Example of Underwater VisibilitySrc: http://www.militaryphotos.net/forums/showthread.php?164653-Submerged-submarines
Diver visibility range & attenuation                               ln CL                 From Radiative Transfer Theory, v...
Other Possible ASW Applications:Nighttime Passive Optical Detection due          to Bioluminescence
Bioluminescence:            Why Should the Navy Care?• Complements acoustics - does not replace it• Prevalent in the acous...
Factors AffectingBioluminescence Detectability                        Signature Intensity                          • Platf...
Summary of Concept Demo          on US Submarine• Photometer successfully collected  Bioluminescence intensity while a USS...
What is Bioluminescence:      An optical parameter• Emission of light by living organisms• Turbulence initiated chemical r...
UNCLASSIFIEDWhat causes theseorganisms to glow?              Bioluminescent organisms can be              mechanically sti...
UNCLASSIFIED         Does it matter? Those cells are so small.The luminescence of a singledinoflagellate is readily visibl...
BioluminescenceYou don’t have to be a large target to be vulnerable todetection by bioluminescence.Figures show low light ...
Optical Clarity• The clarity of the water depends on multiple factors  and varies depending on depth, location, currents, ...
Yellow Sea, East China Sea, & Philippine Sea: Historical Optical Clarity                       Vertical (left) & Horizonta...
South China Sea and Philippine Sea                    Historical Optical Clarity/Vertical Visibility                      ...
Other Possible Applications:Bathymetry Mapping in Shallow Coastal Waters
Bathymetry from Ocean Color  •   Knowledge of ocean bathymetry is important for navigation & for      scientific studies o...
Bathymetry from Ocean ColorFig. 1 (a) Depth of {he Great Bahamas Bank retrieved from the E70P02 bathymetry database. (b) S...
Bathymetry from Ocean Color
To learn more please attend this ATI course    Please post your comments and questions to our blog:        http://www.atic...
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Ocean Optics: Fundamentals & Naval Applications Technical Training Short Course Sampler

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This 2-day course is de¬signed for scientists, engi¬neers, and managers who wish to learn the fundamentals of ocean optics and how they are used to predict detectability of submerged objects such as swimmers or submarines. Examples will be provided on how much optical conditions vary by depth, by geographic location and season, and by wavelength. Examples from the in situ online databases and from satellite climatologies will be provided.

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Ocean Optics: Fundamentals & Naval Applications Technical Training Short Course Sampler

  1. 1. Ocean Optics: Fundamentals & Naval Applications Instructor: Jeffrey H. SmartATI Course Schedule: http://www.ATIcourses.com/schedule.htmATIs Ocean Optics: http://www.aticourses.com/Ocean_Optics_Fundamentals_Naval_Applications.htm
  2. 2. www.ATIcourses.comBoost Your Skills 349 Berkshire Drive Riva, Maryland 21140with On-Site Courses Telephone 1-888-501-2100 / (410) 965-8805Tailored to Your Needs Fax (410) 956-5785 Email: ATI@ATIcourses.comThe Applied Technology Institute specializes in training programs for technical professionals. Our courses keep youcurrent in the state-of-the-art technology that is essential to keep your company on the cutting edge in today’s highlycompetitive marketplace. Since 1984, ATI has earned the trust of training departments nationwide, and has presentedon-site training at the major Navy, Air Force and NASA centers, and for a large number of contractors. Our trainingincreases effectiveness and productivity. Learn from the proven best.For a Free On-Site Quote Visit Us At: http://www.ATIcourses.com/free_onsite_quote.aspFor Our Current Public Course Schedule Go To: http://www.ATIcourses.com/schedule.htm
  3. 3. My Background in Ocean Optics (some dates are approximate)1988-1996: Environmental Specialist for Active Optics Project• Acquire and learn how to use multi-spectral radiance/irradiance sensor system, opticalbackscatter sensors, and beam transmissometers• Develop software to provide analysis products such as optical attenuation profiles vs.wavelength• Test experimental systems to “measure” nighttime “K”• Participated in 5 major sea tests plus numerous smaller sea tests• Write environmental summary reports on temporal & spatial variability1992-1994: Environmental Specialist for MIW Program• Deploy multi-spectral radiance /irradiance sensor system, optical backscatter sensors,and beam transmissometers in shallow coastal sites off Panama City & off Ocean City,Md• Write environmental summary reports on short-term temporal variability (< 1 week) atfixed sites
  4. 4. My Background in Ocean Optics (some dates are approximate)1994 to 1997: Project Manager & PI for bio-optical monitoring system• Analyze & document results for sensors• Analyzed data from associated platforms1996-2010: Environmental Specialist for active optics program1995 to present: Proj Mgr/PI for ONR World-wide Ocean Optics Database (WOOD)2001-2003: Littoral Warfare Advanced Development (LWAD)• Project Scientist in the Yellow Sea supporting hyper-spectral optics system• Environmental expert for several sea tests, including exercise in East China Sea
  5. 5. Various Naval Applications of Ocean Optics• Mine Warfare: - Sonar systems are typically used to find Mine-like Objects - Electro-Optical Identification (EOID) sensors are used to classify those objects - Examples of EOID systems*: - Areté Associates Streak Tube Imaging LIDAR (STIL) system - Northrop Grumman Laser Line Scan (LLS) system - Raytheon LLS system• Special Operations Forces – Detectability of SEAL Delivery Vehicles – Detectability of submerged divers• Underwater Communications – Optical properties of water directly impacts range & quality of transmission• Port Security & Anti-Submarine Warfare (ASW) – Passive Detectability – Active (e.g. Laser) Detectability• Other Possible Application: Bathymetry Mapping * Ref: “Electro-optic Identification Research Program,” James S. Taylor, Jr. and Mary C. Hulgan, Fifth International Symposium on Technology and Mine Problem, 22-25 Apr 2002, Monterey, CA
  6. 6. Airborne Mine Countermeasures (AMCM)• The MH-60S, fitted with Airborne Mine Countermeasures (AMCM) made its first flight in July 2003.• Lockheed Martin Systems Integration… is integrator for the MH-60S mine countermeasures systems which includes: – Raytheon Airborne Mine Neutralization System (AMNS) with BAE Systems Archerfish expendable underwater vehicle that destroys the mines; – Northrop Grumman Rapid Airborne Mine Clearance System (RAMICS), a non-towed mine neutralization system that will clear near-surface and surface-moored mines using a Kaman Aerospace laser target sensor and a 30mm mk44 gun; – Raytheon AN/AQS-20A towed sonar with mine identification system which entered production in September 2005; – Northrop Grumman airborne laser mine detection system, AN/AES-1 ALMDS,• AN/AES-1 ALMDS detects and classifies floating and near-surface moored mines, using pulsed laser light. The ALMDS pod is mechanically attached to the MH-60S with a standard Bomb Rack Unit 14 (BRU-14) mount. Ref: http://www.naval-technology.com/projects/mh_60s/
  7. 7. Airborne Laser Mine Detection System (ALMDS) Operations Desert Storm and Desert Shield demonstrated the need for minehunting systems as an integral element of deployed forces. …Navy began developing …five airborne mine countermeasure systems to negate the identified threat. One of the systems, the Airborne Laser Mine Detection System (ALMDS), is a mine countermeasure that is intended to detect, classify, and localize floating and near-surface moored sea mines. The Navy will deploy the ALMDS on MH-60S helicopters to provide organic airborne mine defense for Carrier Battle Groups (Carrier Groups), and Amphibious Ready Groups (Amphibious Groups).…Areté Associates is contracted with Northrop Grumman to provide the STIL* sensor for the ALMDS system. The STIL sensor detects sea surface and near sea surface volume mines that the AN/AQS-20X system is not designed to detect. * STIL = StreakTube Imaging Lidar
  8. 8. Airborne Mine Neutralization System (AMNS) • Raytheon is receiving $14.7M for seven more AMNS systems • Ref: info by Jeff Steelman via email from George Pollitt, 9-23-10 …. The airborne mine neutralization system will explosively neutralize bottom and moored mines using an expendable mine neutralize device. The system will be deployed from the MH-60 helicopter as part of the littoral combat ship mine countermeasures mission module.
  9. 9. EOID Sensor SystemsThe EOID laser line scan technology uses a diode-pumped Nd: YAG laser that provides 500 mWof power for the Raytheon system and 160 mW for the Northrop Grumman system, bothoperating at 532 nm wavelength. The Raytheon system was a research and developmentsensor maintained and operated by CSS while the Northrop Grumman system was sized to fitinto the AN/AQS-14A(V1) towed body. The laser illuminates a small spot, which is synchronouslyscanned by a photomultiplier receiver to build up a raster-scanned image. The laser scansdownward through a 70-degree field-of-view (FOV). Figure 1 represents the EOID scanningscheme for target identification. Variability in c 532 nm Best  Middle Worst 0 /m 1.0 /m
  10. 10. Example of How Optical Values Affect Imagery Ref: Smart,J.H., “Optical Climatologies for US Navy Missions,” Mine Warfare, April 2002
  11. 11. Airborne Mine Neutralization System (AMNS):uses “Archerfish” UUV controlled via fiber-optic link to helo; UUV has sonar & optical sensors
  12. 12. Conceptual View of How uses “Archerfish” Safe standoff ~xxyds (horizontal) •Daylight operations only Target Environment •<Xft by YftR AOU •<Xkt wind speed Hover •No false cues •<X sig wave height Altitude •mean period? FO for •Vert/horiz motion? (XXft) ACS/Video •Diam: XX – YY ft •<Xkt current and C2 ACS tracking of NTR by LHS Depth LHS for navigation Case Depth (XXft) 0-XX’ 3.5km of FO for ACS/Video and C2 Water Depth > XXft •NTR trajectory for re-acquire? •NTR trajectory for endgamge? •Re-acquire involves acoustic detection of case •Endgame could involve detection of mooring
  13. 13. “To acquire the target, Archerfish activates its short range sonar and video link,transmitting sonar imagery and video pictures back to its controller for inspectionand identification. The advanced maneuvering capabilities enable it to traverse thetarget to obtain images from a variety of angles providing the controller withdetailed identification information.Following confirmation of target, Archerfish is maneuvered in place where the mineis detonated…”http://www.baesystems.com/ProductsServices/bae_prod_2.html
  14. 14. AN/ASQ-235 Airborne Mine Neutralization System (AMNS)CSTRS w/ AMNS Jettison Testing LHS with Neutralizers Common Console Final Neutralize Approach Reacquire Common Neutralizer (Expendable & Exercise) Transit to Uncertainty Area Identify
  15. 15. Steps to Target Neutralization Reported Location Operational Standoff Launch & Transit 350m Actual Location1 Reacquisition Search Neutralize Target Area(RSA) 6 Safe Depth Valid Safe Standoff valid 4,5,6 Pilot Master ARM valid Neutralizer 3 SO ARM valid Track SO FIRE sent 4 Way Points 2 shown Water Current 1 Safe Standoff 250m Launch Point2 Reacquire MLO 3 Final Approach 4 Identify MLO 5 Maneuver to NeutralizeAchieve Safe Depth valid Safe Standoff validSafe Standoff valid Safe Standoff valid Safe Depth valid Safe Depth Valid Safe Standoff valid SO ARM sent ARM Timers complete Pilot Master ARM sent
  16. 16. Testing Highlights• High Current at Carderock CWC (Nov-Dec 05) – 77 Runs at various water speeds up to Maximum – Estimated Successful Prosecutions: 92%• At-Sea CT Testing (15 Dec 05 - 21 June 06) – Performed Successful Attack Runs against all Target Types in Shallow and Deep Target Fields. – 43 Missions Against Targets• MH-53 CT / DT Flight Tests (28 July – 15 Aug 06) – 26 Missions Against Targets – Total Average Ts (All Targets) = 7m 13s
  17. 17. Special Operations (SPECOP) Forces• Possible Concerns: -Detection of underwater light sources used by SPECOP forces: -Light sticks were developed by the U.S. Navy as an inconspicuous and easily shielded illumination tool for special operations forces dropped behind enemy lines. Besides their use as childrens toys, they are also used extensively as a navigation aid by divers searching in muddy water. The light sticks glow as a result of the energy released by a chemical reaction. Ref: http://www.articlesbase.com/education-articles/importance-of-chemiluminescence-and-bioluminescence- 2075376.html - Detection of bioluminescence from SEAL Delivery Vehicle or swimmers
  18. 18. ASW Applications:Daytime Passive Optical Detection
  19. 19. Example of Hull Detectability from Airborne Observer November Yellow Sea Chinese subSrc: unknown
  20. 20. Example of Hull Detectability from Airborne ObserverSrc: http://www.militaryphotos.net/forums/showthread.php?164653-Submerged-submarines 19
  21. 21. Passive Optical Hull Detection • Problem: – Submarines operating at shallow depths in clear littoral waters can be visible to an airborne observer • Mitigation Approach: – Install COTS optical sensors to monitor water clarity + detectability models = predict of vulnerability to visual detectionSrc: http://media.photobucket.com/image/photo%20of%20submerged%20submarine/cbleyte/submarine_submerged_visible.jpg 20
  22. 22. Passive Optical Hull & Surface Wake Detection Visual Detection Submarines operating at or near the surface are potentially vulnerable to visual detection. Anything that protrudes above the surface, such as a periscope, antenna, or mast will leave a significant wake if the submarine is moving at any speed over a few knots. And, since depth control and steerage is quite difficult at low speeds, it is not uncommon for submarines to be traveling at least 4 or 5 knots just below the surface. The periscope (for example) will create a wake, called "feather", which is quite visible, and will also leave a remnant of its passage, called a "scar". The scar is a long streak of foam or bubbles left behind after the object passes. The feather may be just a few meters, but the scar may be tens of meters long. Either may be visible for up to 10 miles, and are easily spotted by low flying aircraft in the vicinity. Periscopes and other protruding masts and antennas are also often painted in dark or camouflage colors to reduce their visibility. If the water is especially clear, the submarine hull or its shadow may be visible for a few hundred feet under water, but is usually not distinguishable unless the water is shallow with a light colored bottom (like white sand).Src: see notes page 21
  23. 23. Factors Affecting Visual Detection Sun Angle Altitude, Look Angles, Dwell Time Clouds Haze Surface Clutter Target Depth Water Clarity Target Reflectance Water Reflectance Bottom Depth Bottom Reflectance
  24. 24. Factors Affecting Detectability• Primary environmental factors influencing optical hull detection – Water clarity – Sea state – Atmospheric conditions (especially cloud cover & fog) – Illumination• Primary operational factors influencing optical hull detection – Submarine depth – Hull contrast – Proximity/altitude/angle/training of observers – Period of exposure• Secondary factors – Bottom contrast
  25. 25. Example of Underwater VisibilitySrc: http://www.militaryphotos.net/forums/showthread.php?164653-Submerged-submarines
  26. 26. Diver visibility range & attenuation ln CL From Radiative Transfer Theory, visibility range ( m ), V = − • Priesendorfer (1976) c • Duntley (1963) CL contrast detection limit for human being c optical beam attenuation coefficient (m-1) 4.8V= [1.18c(650) + 0.081] Accuracy better than 10% Backscattering is NOT a good proxy for visibility Zaneveld and Pegau (2003)
  27. 27. Other Possible ASW Applications:Nighttime Passive Optical Detection due to Bioluminescence
  28. 28. Bioluminescence: Why Should the Navy Care?• Complements acoustics - does not replace it• Prevalent in the acoustically noisy littorals whereboats must operate shallow• Many initial submarine detections are by non-acoustics
  29. 29. Factors AffectingBioluminescence Detectability Signature Intensity • Platform Speed • Platform Depth • Bioluminescence Potential • Water Clarity
  30. 30. Summary of Concept Demo on US Submarine• Photometer successfully collected Bioluminescence intensity while a USS Submarine was underway• Could distinguish night/day Bioluminescence in signatures, even without validated time stamps• Could distinguish higher/lower Bioluminescence based on depth of Submarine
  31. 31. What is Bioluminescence: An optical parameter• Emission of light by living organisms• Turbulence initiated chemical reaction• Globally distributed phenomenon – est. 70% of marine organisms bioluminesce – measured from equator to Arctic pack ice• Blue-green in color which travels furthest in the ocean All images, Harbor Branch (E. Widder)
  32. 32. UNCLASSIFIEDWhat causes theseorganisms to glow? Bioluminescent organisms can be mechanically stimulated to produce light. Turbulence generated by a ship’s passage or even the movement of dolphins and fish is enough to create the glow. UNCLASSIFIED
  33. 33. UNCLASSIFIED Does it matter? Those cells are so small.The luminescence of a singledinoflagellate is readily visibleto the dark adapted human eye.Most dinoflagellates emit about6 e+8 photons in a flash lastingonly about 0.1 second.Much larger organisms such asjellyfish emit about 2 e+11photons per second forsometimes tens of seconds.
  34. 34. BioluminescenceYou don’t have to be a large target to be vulnerable todetection by bioluminescence.Figures show low light level camera detection of a 10 in.diameter sphere at different depths. Depth = 10 ft. Depth = 20 ft.
  35. 35. Optical Clarity• The clarity of the water depends on multiple factors and varies depending on depth, location, currents, outflow from rivers to name a few factors.• Objects may be vulnerable due to color and configuration. If the target has a high contrast against the background it is more likely to be spotted.• In clear, shallow areas where bottom reflectance is high (e.g., white sand, light colored coral), vertical (downward) detection of relatively dark objects will be enhanced due to contrast.
  36. 36. Yellow Sea, East China Sea, & Philippine Sea: Historical Optical Clarity Vertical (left) & Horizontal (right) Visibility •Turbid in coastal areas, very clear offshore •Straits high spatial and temporal variability, with vertical visibilities from 5-30 ft. Values can be artificially low due to shallow bathymetry off the west coast of Taiwan. •Vertical visibility 40-80+ ft offshore •Vertical visibility 0-10 ft coastally •Summer rainy season, clearer waters in winter months 6-10 m 3-6 m 0-1 m 1-2 6-10 m m ~6-15 m•Most turbid of the 4 areas, most historical dataavailable•Dominated by tidal cycle, coastal waters very dirty•Vertical visibility 20-40+ ft in deeper waters•Vertical visibility 0-10 ft in all coastal areas ~15-30•Summer rainy season, clearer waters in winter months m
  37. 37. South China Sea and Philippine Sea Historical Optical Clarity/Vertical Visibility •Very clear waters in all of Philippine Sea •Vertical visibilities 30-80+ ft throughout •Minimal effects of tides and summer rainy season •More turbid pockets around Northern Philippine Islands, but generally very clear with little variability ~12-15 m•Least historical data available of 4 areas•Highly turbid along northern boundaries, muchclearer offshore•Vertical visibilities 40-60+ ft offshore in deep waters > 10 m•Vertical visibilities 0-20 ft coastally•Summer rainy season, clearer waters in wintermonths•Clear waters around Philippines and further south
  38. 38. Other Possible Applications:Bathymetry Mapping in Shallow Coastal Waters
  39. 39. Bathymetry from Ocean Color • Knowledge of ocean bathymetry is important for navigation & for scientific studies of the oceans volume, ecology, and circulation, all of which are related to Earths climate. • In coastal regions detailed bathymetric maps are critical for storm surge modeling, marine power plant planning, understanding of ecosystem connectivity, coastal management, and change analyses. • Because ocean areas are enormously large and ship surveys have limited coverage, adequate bathymetric data are still lacking throughout the global ocean. • Satellite altimetry can produce reasonable estimates of bathymetry for the deep ocean [Sandwell et al., 2003, 2006], but the spatial resolution is very coarse (∼6–9 kilometers) and can be highly inaccurate in shallow waters, where gravitational effects are small. • Depths retrieved from the ETOPO2 bathymetry database for the Great Bahama Bank are seriously in error when compared with ship surveys & no statistical correlation was found between the two • Determining a higher-spatial-resolution (e.g., 300-meter) bathymetry of this region with ship surveys would require ~ 4 years of nonstop effort.Ref: Lee, Z., et.al., "Global Shallow-Water Bathymetry From Satellite Ocean Color Data,” EOS, Transactions AmericanGeophysical Union, VOL. 91, NO. 46, P. 429, 2010, doi:10.1029/2010EO460002
  40. 40. Bathymetry from Ocean ColorFig. 1 (a) Depth of {he Great Bahamas Bank retrieved from the E70P02 bathymetry database. (b) Scatterplot between in situ depth and E70P02 bathymetry of matching locations (inset shows ETOP02bathymetry under 60 meters). (c) bottom depth derived from Medium Resolution Imaging Spectrometer(MER/S) measurements (14 December 2004) by the hyper-spectral optimization process exemplar (HOPE) approach. (d) like Figure I b, a scatter plot between in situdepth and M£RIS depths (rounded to nearest integer to match ETOPO2 format; blue indicates 14December 2004,green indicates 6 September 2008). The coefficient of determination (R2) represents alldata points (281) in the plot. Note the color scale difference in Figures 1a and Ic. Black pixels representland or deep waters.
  41. 41. Bathymetry from Ocean Color
  42. 42. To learn more please attend this ATI course Please post your comments and questions to our blog: http://www.aticourses.com/blog/ Sign-up for ATIs monthly Course Schedule Updates :http://www.aticourses.com/email_signup_page.html
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