Professional Development Short Course On:                   Instrumentation for Test & Measurement                        ...
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Instrumentation for Test &      Measurement              Based on                 the    Sensor Technology Handbook
•A sample of the 572 slides     in the course
The Course• Based on the “Sensor Technology Handbook”  edited by Jon Wilson, published by  Newnes/Elsevier, copyright 2005...
Performance Characteristics• Transfer Function  – Curve of Output/Input• Sensitivity  – Slope of Transfer Function• Span o...
Performance Characteristics (2)• Nonlinearity (Linearity)  – Deviation of Transfer Function From Straight Line• Noise  – E...
Some Sensor Characteristics
Smart Sensors
The Measurement•   Expected Amplitude Range•   Expected Frequency Range•   Expected Environment•   Economic Constraints•  ...
The Data Sheet•   Filtering the Data Sheet•   What is Pertinent?•   Interpreting the Data Sheet•   Getting Clarification  ...
System Considerations•   Sensor Characteristics•   Interconnections•   Signal Conditioner Characteristics•   Data Acquisit...
Instrument Selection•   Sensor Environment•   Sensor Performance Characteristics•   Sensor Electrical Characteristics•   S...
Instrument Selection (2)•   Power Supply Environment•   Power Supply Performance•   Power Supply Size and Weight•   Amplif...
Quantifiable Measurements•   REQUIRE:•   What is the Measurand?•   What is the Environment?•   What Uncertainty (Accuracy)...
Sensor Resistances
Bridge Configurations
Minimizing Offset Errors
Noise Sources
DC Errors
ADC Types                        ADC’S FOR SIGNAL CONDITIONINGSuccessive Approximation• Resolutions to 16-bits• Minimal Th...
PE Amplifier Circuit
CCD Arrays
Technology Fundamentals•   Piezoelectric•   “Crystal” type•   Self-generating•   Piezoelectric materials    – Natural (mon...
IEPE Sensor System
MEMS PR Construction
MEMS VC Accelerometer
Selection Process•   Frequency range?•   Sensitivity or amplitude range?•   Environment, especially temperature?•   Size a...
Interfacing and Designs
Overview
Biosensor characteristics•   Sensitivity•   Selectivity•   Range•   Response time•   Reproducibility•   Detection limit•  ...
Transduction Mechanisms•   Amperometry•   Potentiometry•   Photometry•   PE materials•   Conductimetric•   Thermometric•  ...
Biosensor configurations
Mass Spectrometer Schematic
Mass Spectrometer
Inductive Sensors•   “Eddy current sensors”•   Require conductive targets•   Not affected by gap material•   Sensitive to ...
Selecting and Specifying•   Physical configuration•   Output, Range•   Offset, Standoff•   Sensitivity, Linearity, Resolut...
Comparing Capacitive and Inductive            Sensors
Latest Developments•   Little change in sensors•   Advances in electronics•   Miniaturization•   Embedded electronics•   D...
Inductive Sensor (LVDT)
Hall Effect Sensor
10. Flow and Level SensorsMass, volume, laminar, turbulent flow.Hydrostatic, ultrasonic, RF capacitance,  magnetostrictive...
Methods for Measuring Flow•   Thermal anemometers•   Differential pressure•   Vortex shedding•   Positive displacement•   ...
11. Force, Load & Weight Sensors      Piezoelectric & Strain Gage
Load Cell
12. Humidity SensorsCapacitive, resistive & thermal         conductivity
Selecting and Specifying•   Accuracy, Repeatability, Interchangeability•   Stability, Condensation recovery•   Contaminati...
Interfacing and Design• Output affected by temperature & RH• Temperature compensation required for best  accuracy• Industr...
Photosensors• Quantum detectors convert photons to  electrons• Thermal detectors absorb radiant energy and  measure temper...
IR Detector Spectral Responses
16. Pressure Sensors        Gauge       Absolute      Differential
Many technologies•   Silicon strain gages (Piezoresistive)•   Variable reluctance•   Variable capacitance•   Fiber optic• ...
Types of pressure measurement•   Gauge•   Differential•   Absolute•   Vacuum gauge•   All are actually differential, with ...
Latest & Future• Miniaturization• Higher temperatures• Sensor identification  – Smart sensors (IEEE1541)  – SAW tag• Wirel...
20. Temperature Sensors
Basic types• Contact: the sensor is in contact with the  medium or object being measured• Non-contact: interprets the radi...
21. Nanotechnology-Enabled          Sensors  Smaller than small; atomic level
More possibilities• Increasing integration of materials, devices  and systems• “nanotech takes the complexity out of the  ...
Nano-array of Cantilevers &       Electronics
Introduction to Wireless Sensor                 Networks•   Increase reliability of data gathering•   Reduce deployment co...
Industrial Application
You have enjoyed ATIs preview of    Instrumentation for Test & Measurement    Please post your comments and questions to o...
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Instrumentation for Test & Measurement Professional Development Technical Training Short Course Sampler

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This three day course, based on the 690-page Sensor Technology Handbook, published by Elsevier in 2005 and edited by the instructor, is designed for engineers, technicians and managers who want to increase their knowledge of sensors and signal conditioning. It balances breadth and depth in a practical presentation for those who design sensor systems and work with sensors of all types. Each topic includes technology fundamentals, selection criteria, applicable standards, interfacing and system designs & discussion of future developments.

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Transcript of "Instrumentation for Test & Measurement Professional Development Technical Training Short Course Sampler"

  1. 1. Professional Development Short Course On: Instrumentation for Test & Measurement Instructor: Jon WilsonATI Course Schedule: http://www.ATIcourses.com/schedule.htm http://www.aticourses.com/Instrumentation_For_Test_Measurement.htmATIs Instrumentation for Test & Measurement:
  2. 2. e e at at lic l ia om lic up er .c up at D es D IM ot rs ot N om AT ou N o Ic o D .c • AT l • D l ia www.ATIcourses.com es te l• er rs a ia w. a ic at om er w ri ou pl M w ate .c at Ic u TI D es M MBoost Your Skills •A ot rs TI 349 Berkshire Drive IAT w. N ou A te Riva, Maryland 21140 ATwith On-Site Courses w Do Ic te • .c ca Telephone 1-888-501-2100 / (410) 965-8805 te om es li ca l• om a rs upTailored to Your Needs Fax (410) 956-5785 w .c lic ia w. li ou D Email: ATI@ATIcourses.com w up er es up AT Ic ot at w D rs D AT N MThe Applied Technology Institute specializes in training programs for technical professionals. Our courses keep you ot ou ot ocurrent in the state-of-the-art technology that is essential to keep your company on the cutting edge in today’s highly N I Ic N w. D ATcompetitive marketplace. Since 1984, ATI has earned the trust of training departments nationwide, and has presented o AT Do l• Don-site training at the major Navy, Air Force and NASA centers, and for a large number of contractors. Our training ia l•increases effectiveness and productivity. Learn from the proven best. w. • er w ial ia w at er w erFor a Free On-Site Quote Visit Us At: http://www.ATIcourses.com/free_onsite_quote.asp IM at at IM AT IMFor Our Current Public Course Schedule Go To: http://www.ATIcourses.com/schedule.htm w AT AT
  3. 3. Instrumentation for Test & Measurement Based on the Sensor Technology Handbook
  4. 4. •A sample of the 572 slides in the course
  5. 5. The Course• Based on the “Sensor Technology Handbook” edited by Jon Wilson, published by Newnes/Elsevier, copyright 2005, 691 pages plus CD.• Some slides contain figure numbers. They refer to the book figures.• This course covers only the highlights of the book.• For discount order form, contact instructor.
  6. 6. Performance Characteristics• Transfer Function – Curve of Output/Input• Sensitivity – Slope of Transfer Function• Span or Dynamic Range – Usable Range of Inputs• Accuracy or Uncertainty – Largest Expected Error• Hysteresis – Output Difference, Increasing & Decreasing
  7. 7. Performance Characteristics (2)• Nonlinearity (Linearity) – Deviation of Transfer Function From Straight Line• Noise – Extraneous Output Added to Signal• Resolution – Minimum Detectable Signal Fluctuation • Related to Noise Spectrum• Bandwidth & Frequency Response – Usable Frequency Range & Variation of Sensitivity
  8. 8. Some Sensor Characteristics
  9. 9. Smart Sensors
  10. 10. The Measurement• Expected Amplitude Range• Expected Frequency Range• Expected Environment• Economic Constraints• Installation Constraints• Available Instrumentation
  11. 11. The Data Sheet• Filtering the Data Sheet• What is Pertinent?• Interpreting the Data Sheet• Getting Clarification – Literature – Experts & Consultants – Manufacturers
  12. 12. System Considerations• Sensor Characteristics• Interconnections• Signal Conditioner Characteristics• Data Acquisition Characteristics• Readout Characteristics• Data Validation• Analysis and Interpretation
  13. 13. Instrument Selection• Sensor Environment• Sensor Performance Characteristics• Sensor Electrical Characteristics• Sensor Size and Weight• Sensor Mounting• Cable Environment• Cable Performance Characteristics• Cable Mechanical Characteristics
  14. 14. Instrument Selection (2)• Power Supply Environment• Power Supply Performance• Power Supply Size and Weight• Amplifier Environment• Amplifier Performance• Amplifier Size and Weight
  15. 15. Quantifiable Measurements• REQUIRE:• What is the Measurand?• What is the Environment?• What Uncertainty (Accuracy) is Required?• Whole System Calibrated & Traceable?• Appropriate Sensor is Necessary, But Not Sufficient.
  16. 16. Sensor Resistances
  17. 17. Bridge Configurations
  18. 18. Minimizing Offset Errors
  19. 19. Noise Sources
  20. 20. DC Errors
  21. 21. ADC Types ADC’S FOR SIGNAL CONDITIONINGSuccessive Approximation• Resolutions to 16-bits• Minimal Throughput Delay Time• Used in Multiplexed Data Acquisition SystemsSigma-Delta• Resolutions to 24-bits• Excellent Differential Linearity• Internal Digital Filter, Excellent AC Line Rejection• Long Throughput Delay Time• Difficult to Multiplex Inputs Due to Digital Filter Settling TimeHigh Speed Architectures:• Flash Converter• Subranging or Pipelined
  22. 22. PE Amplifier Circuit
  23. 23. CCD Arrays
  24. 24. Technology Fundamentals• Piezoelectric• “Crystal” type• Self-generating• Piezoelectric materials – Natural (monocrystalline) – Piezoceramic (polycrystalline)
  25. 25. IEPE Sensor System
  26. 26. MEMS PR Construction
  27. 27. MEMS VC Accelerometer
  28. 28. Selection Process• Frequency range?• Sensitivity or amplitude range?• Environment, especially temperature?• Size and mass restraints?• Mounting configuration?• Consult manufacturer’s application engineers?
  29. 29. Interfacing and Designs
  30. 30. Overview
  31. 31. Biosensor characteristics• Sensitivity• Selectivity• Range• Response time• Reproducibility• Detection limit• Life time• Stability
  32. 32. Transduction Mechanisms• Amperometry• Potentiometry• Photometry• PE materials• Conductimetric• Thermometric• Enzyme thermistor• FET transducer
  33. 33. Biosensor configurations
  34. 34. Mass Spectrometer Schematic
  35. 35. Mass Spectrometer
  36. 36. Inductive Sensors• “Eddy current sensors”• Require conductive targets• Not affected by gap material• Sensitive to target material• Nanometer resolutions• > 80 kHz• Minimum target thickness requirement
  37. 37. Selecting and Specifying• Physical configuration• Output, Range• Offset, Standoff• Sensitivity, Linearity, Resolution• Bandwidth• Thermal errors• Accuracy
  38. 38. Comparing Capacitive and Inductive Sensors
  39. 39. Latest Developments• Little change in sensors• Advances in electronics• Miniaturization• Embedded electronics• Digital interface
  40. 40. Inductive Sensor (LVDT)
  41. 41. Hall Effect Sensor
  42. 42. 10. Flow and Level SensorsMass, volume, laminar, turbulent flow.Hydrostatic, ultrasonic, RF capacitance, magnetostrictive, microwave level.
  43. 43. Methods for Measuring Flow• Thermal anemometers• Differential pressure• Vortex shedding• Positive displacement• Turbine-based• Mass (Coriolis)• Electromagnetic• Ultrasonic• Laser
  44. 44. 11. Force, Load & Weight Sensors Piezoelectric & Strain Gage
  45. 45. Load Cell
  46. 46. 12. Humidity SensorsCapacitive, resistive & thermal conductivity
  47. 47. Selecting and Specifying• Accuracy, Repeatability, Interchangeability• Stability, Condensation recovery• Contamination resistance, Size & packaging• Cost effectiveness, replacement cost• Calibration• Complexity of signal conditioning
  48. 48. Interfacing and Design• Output affected by temperature & RH• Temperature compensation required for best accuracy• Industrial grade sensors incorporate RTD on the ceramic substrate• RHIC output depends on supply voltage, RH and temperature
  49. 49. Photosensors• Quantum detectors convert photons to electrons• Thermal detectors absorb radiant energy and measure temperature change
  50. 50. IR Detector Spectral Responses
  51. 51. 16. Pressure Sensors Gauge Absolute Differential
  52. 52. Many technologies• Silicon strain gages (Piezoresistive)• Variable reluctance• Variable capacitance• Fiber optic• Piezoelectric• (Every company that makes any kind of sensor makes pressure sensors)
  53. 53. Types of pressure measurement• Gauge• Differential• Absolute• Vacuum gauge• All are actually differential, with different references
  54. 54. Latest & Future• Miniaturization• Higher temperatures• Sensor identification – Smart sensors (IEEE1541) – SAW tag• Wireless
  55. 55. 20. Temperature Sensors
  56. 56. Basic types• Contact: the sensor is in contact with the medium or object being measured• Non-contact: interprets the radiant energy of a heat source in the form of infrared radiation – Useful on non-reflective solids and liquids – Not useful with gases because of their transparency
  57. 57. 21. Nanotechnology-Enabled Sensors Smaller than small; atomic level
  58. 58. More possibilities• Increasing integration of materials, devices and systems• “nanotech takes the complexity out of the system and puts it into the material”• Single molecule detection• Nanotech data storage 10^12 bits/sq. in.• High volume production of tiny, low-power smart sensors
  59. 59. Nano-array of Cantilevers & Electronics
  60. 60. Introduction to Wireless Sensor Networks• Increase reliability of data gathering• Reduce deployment costs• Minimize long term maintenance costs• Reduce cabling and connector costs• Ideal system is networked and scalable – Low power, smart, programmable, fast data rate, reliable, accurate, stable• Integrated sensor, electronics, communication
  61. 61. Industrial Application
  62. 62. You have enjoyed ATIs preview of Instrumentation for Test & Measurement Please post your comments and questions to our blog: http://www.aticourses.com/blog Sign-up for ATIs monthly Course Schedule Updates :http://www.aticourses.com/email_signup_page.html
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