Fundamentals Of Rockets & Missiles


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Fundamentals Of Rockets & Missiles

  1. 1. Professional Development Short Course On: Fundamentals of Rockets & Missiles Instructor: Edward L. Keith ATI Course Schedule: ATI's Fundamentals Of Rockets & Missiles: 349 Berkshire Drive • Riva, Maryland 21140 888-501-2100 • 410-956-8805 Website: • Email:
  2. 2. Fundamentals of Rockets and Missiles March 11-13, 2009 Course Outline Laurel, Maryland 1. Introduction to Rockets and Missiles The Classifications of guided, and unguided, missile systems is introduced. The $1590 (8:30am - 4:00pm) practical uses of rocket systems as weapons of war, commerce and the peaceful exploration of space are examined. quot;Register 3 or More & Receive $10000 each 2. Rocket Propulsion made Simple. How rocket motors and Off The Course Tuition.quot; engines operate to achieve thrust. Including Nozzle Theory, are explained. The use of the rocket equation and related Mass Properties metrics are introduced. The flight environments and conditions of rocket vehicles are presented. Staging theory for rockets and missiles are explained. Non-traditional propulsion is addressed. 3. Introduction to Liquid Propellant Performance, Utility and Applications. Propellant performance issues of specific impulse, Bulk density and mixture ratio decisions are examined. Summary Storable propellants for use in space are described. Other propellant Properties, like cryogenic properties, stability, toxicity, This course provides an overview of rockets and missiles for government and industry officials with limited technical compatibility are explored. Mono-Propellants and single propellant systems are introduced. experience in rockets and missiles. The course provides a practical foundation of knowledge in rocket and missile issues 4. Introducing Solid Rocket Motor Technology. The and technologies. The seminar is designed for engineers, advantages and disadvantages of solid rocket motors are examined. Solid rocket motor materials, propellant grains and technical personnel, military specialist, decision makers and construction are described. Applications for solid rocket motors as managers of current and future projects needing a more weapons and as cost-effective space transportation systems are complete understanding of the complex issues of rocket and explored. Hybrid Rocket Systems are explored. missile technology The seminar provides a solid foundation in 5. Liquid Rocket System Technology. Rocket Engines, from the issues that must be decided in the use, operation and pressure fed to the three main pump-fed cycles, are examined. development of rocket systems of the future. You will learn a Engine cooling methods are explored. Other rocket engine and wide spectrum of problems, solutions and choices in the stage elements are described. Control of Liquid Rocket stage technology of rockets and missile used for military and civil steering is presented. Propellant Tanks, Pressurization systems purposes. and Cryogenic propellant Management are explained. Attendees will receive a complete set of printed notes. 6. Foreign vs. American Rocket Technology and Design. These notes will be an excellent future reference for current How the former Soviet aerospace system diverged from the trends in the state-of-the-art in rocket and missile technology American systems, where the Russians came out ahead, and what and decision making. we can learn from the differences. Contrasts between the Russian and American Design philosophy are observed to provide lessons for future design. Foreign competition from the end of the Cold War to the foreseeable future is explored. Instructor 7. Rockets in Spacecraft Propulsion. The difference Edward L. Keith is a multi-discipline Launch Vehicle System between launch vehicle booster systems, and that found on Engineer, specializing in integration of launch spacecraft, satellites and transfer stages, is examined The use of vehicle technology, design, modeling and storable and hypergolic propellants in space vehicles is explained. business strategies. He is currently an Operation of rocket systems in micro-gravity is studied. independent consultant, writer and teacher of 8. Rockets Launch Sites and Operations. Launch Locations rocket system technology. He is experienced in the USA and Russia are examined for the reason the locations have been chosen. The considerations taken in the selection of in launch vehicle operations, design, testing, launch sites are explored. The operations of launch sites in a more business analysis, risk reduction, modeling, efficient manner, is examined for future systems. safety and reliability. He also has 13-years of government 9. Rockets as Commercial Ventures. Launch Vehicles as experience including five years working launch operations at American commercial ventures are examined, including the Vandenberg AFB. Mr. Keith has written over 20 technical motivation for commercialization. The Commercial Launch Vehicle papers on various aspects of low cost space transportation market is explored. over the last two decades. 10. Useful Orbits and Trajectories Made Simple. The student is introduced to simplified and abbreviated orbital mechanics. Orbital changes using Delta-V to alter an orbit, and the use of transfer orbits, are explored. Special orbits like Who Should Attend geostationary, sun synchronous and Molnya are presented. • Aerospace Industry Managers. Ballistic Missile trajectories and re-entry penetration is examined. • Government Regulators, Administrators and 11. Reliability and Safety of Rocket Systems. Introduction to sponsors of rocket or missile projects. the issues of safety and reliability of rocket and missile systems is presented. The hazards of rocket operations, and mitigation of the • Engineers of all disciplines supporting rocket and problems, are explored. The theories and realistic practices of missile projects. understanding failures within rocket systems, and strategies to • Contractors or investors involved in missile improve reliability, is discussed. development. 12. Expendable Launch Vehicle Theory, Performance and Uses. The theory of Expendable Launch Vehicle (ELV) dominance • Military Professionals. over alternative Reusable Launch Vehicles (RLV) is explored. The controversy over simplification of liquid systems as a cost effective strategy is addressed. What You Will Learn 13. Reusable Launch Vehicle Theory and Performance. The student is provided with an appreciation and understanding of • Fundamentals of rocket and missile systems. why Reusable Launch Vehicles have had difficulty replacing • The spectrum of rocket uses and technologies. expendable launch vehicles. Classification of reusable launch vehicle stages is introduced. The extra elements required to bring • Differences in technology between foreign and stages safely back to the starting line is explored. Strategies to domestic rocket systems. make better RLV systems are presented. • Fundamentals and uses of solid and liquid rocket 14. The Direction of Technology. A final open discussion systems. regarding the direction of rocket technology, science, usage and • Differences between systems built as weapons and regulations of rockets and missiles is conducted to close out the class study. those built for commerce. Register online at or call ATI at 888.501.2100 or 410.956.8805 Vol. 95 – 21
  3. 3. Boost Your Skills 349 Berkshire Drive Riva, Maryland 21140 with On-Site Courses Telephone 1-888-501-2100 / (410) 965-8805 Tailored to Your Needs Fax (410) 956-5785 Email: The Applied Technology Institute specializes in training programs for technical professionals. Our courses keep you current in the state-of-the-art technology that is essential to keep your company on the cutting edge in today’s highly competitive marketplace. Since 1984, ATI has earned the trust of training departments nationwide, and has presented on-site training at the major Navy, Air Force and NASA centers, and for a large number of contractors. Our training increases effectiveness and productivity. Learn from the proven best. For a Free On-Site Quote Visit Us At: For Our Current Public Course Schedule Go To:
  4. 4. Fundamentals of Rockets and Missiles Class Sampler This is an introductory class in rocket systems used as launch vehicles and as weapons. Basic rocketry principles are introduced to provide a foundation of the principals of solid and liquid rockets. Existing systems are discussed to understand why the systems evolved to their present state. © 2004, Edward L. Keith Fundamentals of Rockets and Missiles Sampler ATI Sample-1
  5. 5. Terminology and Conventions Rocket Vehicles Weapons Propulsion Rocket Missile Surface to Surface Sounding Launch ICBM SAM Rocket Vehicle IRBM ABM SRBM Surface to Air Reusable Expendable Air to Air Launch Launch SLBM Vehicle Vehicle CM * AAM Cruise Missile * Non Rocket Upper Space- Transfer ASM Air to Surface Stage Craft Stage © 2003, Edward L. Keith Fundamentals of Rockets and Missiles Sampler ATI Sample-2
  6. 6. Rocket Engine and Nozzle • A combustion chamber (or motor case) is the device to burn a fuel and oxidizer [or decompose a mono-propellant] to create hot, high-pressure gas with high thermal energy • A throat and nozzle is a device to accelerate hot gas, causing the thermal energy of that gas to be converted into kinetic energy of high-velocity gas P3 Pressure at Exit Plane • De Laval nozzle (Supersonic gas) T1 (Chamber Temperature) P1 (Chamber Pressure) CHAMBER P2 Pressure at Throat Plane NOZZLE (Sonic Velocity) Fundamentals of Rockets and Missiles Sampler © 2002, Edward L. Keith ATI Sample-3
  7. 7. Why Exhaust Gasses are Fuel-Rich • The performance (specific Impulse) of a rocket engine is dependant on the temperature and molecular weight of the combustion gasses Isp = k T/ MW • The highest performance through higher temperature has limits in chemical energy, and engine cooling capacity • There are, however, strategies that reduce gas molecular weight with only small sacrifice in temperature – Fuel rich gasses like H2 [MW=2] and CO [MW=28]) are significantly lighter than H2O [MW=18] and CO2 [MW=44] • The mixture ratio is selected to leave partially burned fuel (H2, CO, etc.) in the exhaust for increased performance • The bright flame from rockets is afterburning Fundamentals of Rockets and Missiles Sampler © 2002, Edward L. Keith ATI Sample-4
  8. 8. Introducing the Rocket Equation * • Rocket Equation is essential for evaluation of any rocket system • Solves the Ideal Velocity Change (Delta-V or V) given the rocket engine efficiency (specific impulse or Isp) and the ratio of the mass at ignition to the mass at burnout Ln (10) = 2.3 Ln (4) = 1.386 V = Isp * g * ln (M/m) Ln (2) = 0.693 • Where: – Delta-V is velocity (f/s [English] – g is acceleration of gravity (32.2 f/sec2) – “ln” is the natural logarithm function – M is the initial Mass (Big M) – m is the final mass (Little M) * 1897 “The Tsiolkovsky Rocket Equation” Fundamentals of Rockets and Missiles Sampler © 2002, Edward L. Keith ATI Sample-5
  9. 9. Staging Theory & the Rocket Equation • The term “Rocket Trains’ describing staging theory was described by Tsiolkovsky * (1857-1935) – Higher velocity with more payload and less sensitivity – Single Stage V = Isp * g * ln (M/m) • For M/m = 2 and Isp = 300, V = 6,696 f/s • For M/m = 4 and Isp = 300, V = 13,392 f/s • For M/m = 6 and Isp = 300, V = 17,308 f/s • For M/m = 8 and Isp = 300, V = 20,087 f/s • For M/m = 10 and Isp = 300, V = 22,243 f/s • For M/m = 22.33 and Isp = 300, V = 30,003 f/s • Remember, it takes about 30,000 f/s to achieve LEO and m is both dry rocket structure and usable payload * 1929 “The Space Rocket Trains” by Tsiolkovsky Fundamentals of Rockets and Missiles Sampler © 2002, Edward L. Keith ATI Sample-6
  10. 10. Extending the Rule to Engine T/W • The two-thirds root rule can be extended to a key rocket engine parameter – Thrust to weight ratio (T/W) • Rule (conjecture) is based on adjusted volume flow rate – Adjusted to the performance of that flow T/W1 = T/W2 x (BD2/BD1) 0.6667 x (Isp2/Isp1) • The correction seems to work, and again is explained by the Volume to Surface area ratio TW1 = TW2 * ( Isp2/Isp1 ) * (BD2/BD1) 0.667 The algorithm may be conjecture, but it seems to fit reality better than any other rule. ATI © 2002, Edward L. Keith Fundamentals of Rockets and Missiles Sampler Sample-7
  11. 11. Hydrazine – Top Mono-Propellant • Mono-propellant hydrazine decomposes to Ammonia, Nitrogen and Hydrogen – Catalyst “Shell 405” is generally accepted best material • The temperature and species of the decomposed Hydrazine is dependant on the catalyst and other factors – 2N2H4  2NH3 + N2 + H2 @1,880 F • Minimum Decomposition – N2H4  N2 + 2H2 @1,100 F – Maximum Decomposition – Hydrazine achieves about 235 seconds specific impulse in practical thrusters – High Density (1.01 g/cc) – Permanently storable © 2002, Edward L. Keith ATI Fundamentals of Rockets and Missiles Sampler Sample-8
  12. 12. Propellant Grains Can Be Tailored • Progressive Thrust • Regressive • Neutral Time Impulse Thrust Area under the Curve (Pound-Seconds) [Propellant Weight x Isp] Time Thrust • Thrust profile determined by Grain Geometry ATI © 2003, Edward L. Keith Fundamentals of Rockets and Missiles Sampler Time Sample-9
  13. 13. All Solid Rocket Motor Launch Vehicle • The Taurus (Right) is one of three all-solid rocket motor American launch vehicles • Stages two, three and four (left) are the same as are used for stages one, two and three on the Air-Launched Pegasus © 2003, Edward L. Keith Fundamentals of Rockets and Missiles Sampler ATI Sample-10
  14. 14. Relative Production Cost Relative Production Cost According to TRANSCOST 7.0 Model 200 Man-Years of Effort 150 Liquid Rocket Stage * 100 Solid Rocket Stage 50 0 0 500 1000 1500 2000 2500 3000 3500 Stage Mass (kg) * 20% Engine, 80% Stage © 2003, Edward L. Keith Fundamentals of Rockets and Missiles Sampler ATI Sample-11
  15. 15. Liquid Rockets are New Technology • Robert Goddard (below) was an early pioneer of liquid rocket propulsion – Gasoline and liquid oxygen – Pressure-fed – Unguided GN2 CV CV Reg. Gasoline LOX © 2003, Edward L. Keith Fundamentals of Rockets and Missiles Sampler ATI Sample-12
  16. 16. N-1 Soviet Moon Rocket Strategy • The Soviet N-1 Moon Rocket also shows typical Russian features – Stage 1 used 30 NK-33 engines – Stage 2 used 8 NK-43 engines – Similar to NK33 but higher expansion – Stage 3 used 4 NK-39 engines – Stage 4 used 1 1 NK-31 engines – Similar to NK-39 • Note that most Russian rockets (Soyuz, Proton, N-1) tend to be tapered, with a fatter base than the middle and upper sections – Aerodynamic stability increase for better control during passage through high winds aloft near max-q – Four failed flights (1969-1972) ATI © 2003, Edward L. Keith Fundamentals of Rockets and Missiles Sampler Sample-13
  17. 17. Current Space Shuttle RCS Fundamentals of Rockets and Missiles Sampler ATI Sample-14
  18. 18. Surface to Surface Missile Proliferation • 19 Countries with Scud Missiles – Belarus, Bulgaria, Czech Republic, Hungary, Poland, Romania, Russia, Slovakia, Ukraine, Egypt, Iran, Iraq, Libya, Syria, Yemen, Afghanistan, Kazkhastan, Tajikistan and North Korea • North Korean Taepo Dong is a Third World ICBM – Technology exported to Iran? • Which has an aggressive Nuclear Program Fundamentals of Rockets and Missiles Sampler Sample-15
  19. 19. Microcosm – Hardware Demonstration Scorpius® is a new generation of expendable launch vehicles intended to reduce the cost of launch to orbit by a factor of 5 to 10. The Scorpius® program is a total quot;clean-sheetquot; development using new technologies for pressure- fed, LOX/Jet-A propellants, all new low cost ablative engines, and GPS/INS guidance/control. Funding for the ongoing Scorpius program has been provided primarily by the Air Force, Ballistic Missile Defense Organization (BMDO), NASA, and Microcosm Scorpius –According to Microcosm internal R&D. Fundamentals of Rockets and Missiles Sampler ATI Sample-16
  20. 20. Soyuz Launch Vehicle • No space launch vehicle has flow to more than the Russian “Soyuz” family – Sputnik 1 (1957) – All Russian Manned Missions – A flight per week on average for 22 years Fundamentals of Rockets and Missiles Sampler Sample-17
  21. 21. Relationships Between Safety and Reliability • Safety and Reliability are closely related – If a system failure causes loss of property, injury or loss of life, it is a Safety Problem – If a system failure causes premature loss of the rocket, or causes the mission to fail, it is a Reliability Problem • Common denominator can be unexpected failures Safety Safety and Reliability Reliability Fundamentals of Rockets and Missiles Sampler ATI © 2002, Edward L. Keith Sample-18
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