ATI Professional Development Technical Training Short Course on Missile Autopilots

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ATI Professional Development Technical Training Short Course on Missile Autopilots

ATI Professional Development Technical Training Short Course on Missile Autopilots

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  • 1. Professional Development Short Course On: Missile Autopilots Instructor: Paul Jackson ATI Course Schedule: ATI's Missile Autopilots: 349 Berkshire Drive • Riva, Maryland 21140 888-501-2100 • 410-956-8805 Website: • Email:
  • 2. Missile Autopilots Summary This applications-oriented course provides a comprehensive overview of missile autopilots. The course begins with an overview of the missile equations of motion and aerodynamic models, followed by a review of linear system theory including frequency response and Bode plots, root locus, stability criteria, and compensator design. This introductory material is followed by detailed discussion of modern missile autopilot design topics including hardware and hardware modeling, November 17-20, 2008 autopilot design requirements, and autopilot design examples. The remainder of the course focuses on Columbia, Maryland 'real world' issues such as nonlinearities, gain scheduling, discretization, pitch-yaw-roll autopilot $1795 (8:30am - 4:00pm) design, and other advanced concepts. Examples "Register 3 or More & Receive $10000 each are included throughout the course. Off The Course Tuition." Instructors Paul Jackson is the supervisor of the Engineering and Development “We went from theory to Section of the Guidance and Control Group at the Applied Physics advanced design & analysis Laboratory (APL) and is the APL Lead techniques ... all with real world for Standard Missile-2 Guidance and Control. Since joining the staff of APL issues.” in 1988, he has worked as an analyst on missile guidance and control systems, particularly for the US Navy Tomahawk and Standard missiles. His early contributions came Course Outline as a member of the APL team that was among the first to demonstrate the application of modern robust 1. Overview of Missile Autopilots. Definitions, control techniques such as H-Infinity Control and Types of Autopilots, Example Applications Mu-Synthesis to the missile autopilot design 2. Equations of Motion. Coordinate Systems, problem. Subsequent experience includes the Transformations, Euler Angles, Force Equations, design, analysis, and simulation of missile autopilot Moment Equations, Aerodynamic Variables, and guidance algorithms and hardware. Mr. Linearization, Aerodynamics Jackson has presented papers at AIAA and the IEEE 3. Linear Systems. State Variables, Block conferences and is a former member of the AIAA Diagrams, Laplace Transforms, Transfer Functions, Guidance, Navigation and Control Technical Impulse Response, Step Response, Stability, Second Committee. Order Systems, Frequency Response, Root Locus, Nyquist Stability Theory 4. Feedback Control. Need for Feedback, Design What You Will Learn Criteria, Types of Feedback, Compensator Design via Root Locus, Compensator Design via Frequency • The underlying physics governing missile dynamics. Response • Theory and applications for autopilot design and optimization. 5. Autopilot Hardware. Actuators, Principles of the Gyro, Gyro Modeling, Principles of Accelerometers, • Autopilot requirements and design tradeoffs between Accelerometer Modeling performance and robustness. 6. Pitch Autopilot Design. Time Domain • Choosing autopilot implementation approaches. Requirements, Frequency Domain Requirements, • Applications to real-world missile systems. Acceleration Feedback, Acceleration and Rate • Fundamentals for autopilot design and analysis with Feedback, Pitch Over Autopilot, Three-Loop Autopilot emphasis on linear systems. 7. Implementation Issues. Body Modes, Actuator • Missile dynamics including aerodynamic modeling. Saturation, Integrator Windup, Gain Scheduling, • Feedback, feedback design criteria, types of Discretization feedback, compensator design. 8. Pitch-Yaw-Roll Autopilot Design. Classical • Autopilot hardware modeling including actuators, Approach, Skid-to-Turn, Bank-to-Turn, Design gyros, and accelerometers. Examples • Pitch Autopilot Design. 9. Advanced Concepts. Multivariable Stability • Pitch-Yaw-Roll Autopilot Design. Analysis, LQR Optimal Control, Modern Robust Control • Advanced Design and Analysis Techniques. Design Techniques Register online at or call ATI at 888.501.2100 or 410.956.8805 Vol. 94 – 31
  • 3. Boost Your Skills 349 Berkshire Drive Riva, Maryland 21140 with On-Site Courses Telephone 1-888-501-2100 / (410) 965-8805 Tailored to Your Needs Fax (410) 956-5785 Email: The Applied Technology Institute specializes in training programs for technical professionals. Our courses keep you current in the state-of-the-art technology that is essential to keep your company on the cutting edge in today’s highly competitive marketplace. Since 1984, ATI has earned the trust of training departments nationwide, and has presented on-site training at the major Navy, Air Force and NASA centers, and for a large number of contractors. Our training increases effectiveness and productivity. Learn from the proven best. For a Free On-Site Quote Visit Us At: For Our Current Public Course Schedule Go To:
  • 4. Autopilot Definition An Autopilot is a System of Equations that Takes Commands and Missile State Measurements as Inputs and Computes a Control Command that Stabilizes the Missile and Forces the Missile State to Track the Command Command Autopilot Actuator Airframe Sensors The Combination of Autopilot, Actuator, Airframe, and Sensors is Sometimes Called the "Autopilot." Meaning Should be Clear from Context. © 1998 Paul Jackson 1/3
  • 5. Autopilot Components Autopilot Mathematical System of Equations Implemented Digital or Analog External Command and Measurements are Inputs Control Command is Output Actuator Mechanical Device that Effects a Variable Force and Moment on Airframe Fin, Nozzle, ... Airframe Missile Body Including Fixed Aerodynamic Surfaces Experiences Aerodynamic Lift and Moment Sensor Mechanical Device to Sense Missile Motion Accelerometer, Gyroscope, ... © 1998 Paul Jackson 1/4
  • 6. Example Applications Acceleration Autopilot Control Missile Acceleration Perpendicular to Airframe Interceptors Altitude Autopilot Control Missile Altitude Cruise Missiles Terrain Following Control Missile Clearance Relative to Terrain Cruise Missiles Pitchover Autopilot Control Missile Attitude Missile Boost Phase Others © 1998 Paul Jackson 1/5
  • 7. Day 1 Equations of Motion Linear Systems Frequency Response Aerodynamics Feedback Control © 1998 Paul Jackson 1/6
  • 8. Day 2 Nyquist Stability Criterion Root Locus Compensator Design Hardware Autopilot Design Requirements Acceleration Autopilot Three Loop Autopilot Roll Control © 1998 Paul Jackson 1/7
  • 9. Day 3 Altitude Control Pitch Over Autopilot Flexible Modes Gain Scheduling Discretization Hardware Nonlinearities Skid-to-Turn Autopilot Bank-to-Turn Autopilot © 1998 Paul Jackson 1/8
  • 10. Day 4 Airframe Design Trade Study Linear Quadratic Regulator Multivariable Stability H-Infinity Control © 1998 Paul Jackson 1/9
  • 11. Aerodynamic Stability Missile is Aerodynamically Stable at a Given Trim Condition if it Tends to Maintain its Trim Condition when Excited by External Disturbances Consider the Previous Plots. At the Trim Condition a Positive Perturbation to α Results in a Negative Moment on the Airframe that Tends to Restore the Airframe to the Trim Condition Conclusion: If the M vs. α Curve has a Negative (Positive) Slope at the Trim Condition, the Missile is Aerodynamically Stable (Unstable) Aerodynamic Stability also called Static Stability © 1998 Paul Jackson 1/10
  • 12. 3D Aerodynamic Poles 3D Model has Five States Angle-of-Attack, Sideslip, Pitch, Yaw, Roll Rate Two (Complex) Poles Associated with Pitch Dynamics are Called "Short Period (Weathercock)" Two (Complex) Poles Associated with Yaw Dynamics are Called "Dutch Roll" One Pole Associated with Roll Dynamics is Called "Roll Subsidence" Aerodynamic Coupling can Sometimes Obscure Relationship Between Poles and States © 1998 Paul Jackson 1/11
  • 13. Acceleration Feedback Summary Lead Compensation Ineffective Because Compensation Zero is Too Close or Right of Dominant Closed Loop Poles Cancellation Ineffective Because of Poor Disturbance Rejection Properties Using Complex Zeros to Pull Airframe Poles to Left (Combination of Above Strategies) Could Still Suffer from Same Problems © 1998 Paul Jackson 1/12
  • 14. Response to Disturbance Pitch Rate Response to Angular Acceleration Impulse Disturbance (e.g. Pitch Moment due to Change in Sideslip, Wind Gust) 60 40 Body Rate Feedback q deg/sec 20 Quickly Damps Out 0 Disturbance Inputs -20 -40 0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1 © 1998 Paul Jackson 1/13
  • 15. Flexible Mode Modeling Flexible Mode Dynamics Modeled in Parallel to Rigid Body Dynamics for All Harmonics of Interest Flex Body δ Rigid Acc. Body Gyro Flex Body © 1998 Paul Jackson 1/14
  • 16. Acceleration Command Following 35 30 25 Acceleration (g) 20 15 10 5 0 -5 0 2 4 6 8 10 Time (sec) Gain Scheduled Autopilot Tracks the Command © 1998 Paul Jackson 1/15
  • 17. Delp/Dely Compensated Response in addition to pitch/yaw, alpha/beta compensation 1.5 0.1 1 0 Nz (g) Ny (g) 0.5 -0.1 0 -0.2 -0.5 -0.3 0 0.5 1 1 compensated p (deg/sec) 0.5 Control Cross Coupling Compensation Effectively Eliminates Roll Transient 0 -0.5 0 0.5 1 © 1998 Paul Jackson 1/16
  • 18. Acceleration Response 15 40 x- aft cp, o - forward cp 10 30 Nz (g) 5 Unmarked - Desired Model 20 0 10 -5 0 0 0.5 1 1 1.5 2 30 16 25 14 20 12 15 10 10 8 2 2.5 3 3 3.5 4 Acceleration Response Nearly Matches Desired Model Stable Airframe Slightly Slower © 1998 Paul Jackson 1/17
  • 19. Dynamics Model T = 5800 lb δ L = 7 ft cg θ J=2800 ft-lb-sec^2 TL θ= δ Inertial Reference J Assumes Small Angle for TVC Deflection No Aerodynamic Induced Moment Subsonic, Slender Body Assume Fixed CG Typically Shifts as Rocket Motor Burns Might Have to Gain Schedule © 1998 Paul Jackson 1/18
  • 20. Boost Your Skills with On-Site Courses Tailored to Your Needs The Applied Technology Institute specializes in training programs for technical professionals. Our courses keep you current in the state-of-the-art technology that is essential to keep your company on the cutting edge in today’s highly competitive marketplace. For 20 years, we have earned the trust of training departments nationwide, and have presented on-site training at the major Navy, Air Force and NASA centers, and for a large number of contractors. Our training increases effectiveness and productivity. Learn from the proven best. ATI’s on-site courses offer these cost-effective advantages: • You design, control, and schedule the course. • Since the program involves only your personnel, confidentiality is maintained. You can freely discuss company issues and programs. Classified programs can also be arranged. • Your employees may attend all or only the most relevant part of the course. • Our instructors are the best in the business, averaging 25 to 35 years of practical, real- world experience. Carefully selected for both technical expertise and teaching ability, they provide information that is practical and ready to use immediately. • Our on-site programs can save your facility 30% to 50%, plus additional savings by eliminating employee travel time and expenses. • The ATI Satisfaction Guarantee: You must be completely satisfied with our program. We suggest you look at ATI course descriptions in this catalog and on the ATI website. Visit and bookmark ATI’s website at for descriptions of all of our courses in these areas: • Communications & Computer Programming • Radar/EW/Combat Systems • Signal Processing & Information Technology • Sonar & Acoustic Engineering • Spacecraft & Satellite Engineering I suggest that you read through these course descriptions and then call me personally, Jim Jenkins, at (410) 531-6034, and I’ll explain what we can do for you, what it will cost, and what you can expect in results and future capabilities. Our training helps you and your organization remain competitive in this changing world. Register online at or call ATI at 888.501.2100 or 410.531.6034