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Applied Physical Oceanography And Modeling
Applied Physical Oceanography And Modeling
Applied Physical Oceanography And Modeling
Applied Physical Oceanography And Modeling
Applied Physical Oceanography And Modeling
Applied Physical Oceanography And Modeling
Applied Physical Oceanography And Modeling
Applied Physical Oceanography And Modeling
Applied Physical Oceanography And Modeling
Applied Physical Oceanography And Modeling
Applied Physical Oceanography And Modeling
Applied Physical Oceanography And Modeling
Applied Physical Oceanography And Modeling
Applied Physical Oceanography And Modeling
Applied Physical Oceanography And Modeling
Applied Physical Oceanography And Modeling
Applied Physical Oceanography And Modeling
Applied Physical Oceanography And Modeling
Applied Physical Oceanography And Modeling
Applied Physical Oceanography And Modeling
Applied Physical Oceanography And Modeling
Applied Physical Oceanography And Modeling
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Applied Physical Oceanography And Modeling

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This three-day course is designed for engineers, physicists, acousticians, climate scientists, and managers who wish to enhance their understanding of this discipline or become familiar with how the …

This three-day course is designed for engineers, physicists, acousticians, climate scientists, and managers who wish to enhance their understanding of this discipline or become familiar with how the ocean environment can affect their individual applications. Examples of remote sensing of the ocean, in situ ocean observing systems and actual examples from recent oceanographic cruises are given.

The students will be able to access educational Java applets to visualize waves and key acoustic phenomena: Click here to view

Other web-based resources include acoustic demonstration podcasts and iPod apps to conduct acoustic measurements. The student will also be armed with Internet resources for up-to-date information on sonar systems, undersea sound propagation models, and environmental databases. The student will leave with a clear understanding of how the ocean influences undersea sound propagation and scattering.

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  1. Professional Development Short Course On: Applied Physical Oceanography Instructor: Dr. Juan I. Arvelo ATI Course Schedule: http://www.ATIcourses.com/schedule.htm http://aticourses.com/applied_oceanography_modeling.htm Applied Physical Oceanography and Acoustics:
  2. e e at at lic l ia om lic up er .c up at D es D IM ot rs ot N om AT ou N o Ic o D .c • AT l • D l ia www.ATIcourses.com es te l• er rs a ia w. a ic at om er w ri ou pl M w ate .c at Ic u TI D es M M Boost Your Skills •A ot rs TI 349 Berkshire Drive I AT w. N ou A te Riva, Maryland 21140 AT with On-Site Courses w Do Ic te • .c ca Telephone 1-888-501-2100 / (410) 965-8805 te om es li ca l• om a rs up Tailored to Your Needs Fax (410) 956-5785 w .c lic ia w. li ou D Email: ATI@ATIcourses.com w up er es up AT Ic ot at w D rs D AT N M The Applied Technology Institute specializes in training programs for technical professionals. Our courses keep you ot ou ot o current in the state-of-the-art technology that is essential to keep your company on the cutting edge in today’s highly N I Ic N w. D AT competitive marketplace. Since 1984, ATI has earned the trust of training departments nationwide, and has presented o AT Do l• D on-site training at the major Navy, Air Force and NASA centers, and for a large number of contractors. Our training ia l• increases effectiveness and productivity. Learn from the proven best. w. • er w ial ia w at er w er For a Free On-Site Quote Visit Us At: http://www.ATIcourses.com/free_onsite_quote.asp IM at at IM AT IM For Our Current Public Course Schedule Go To: http://www.ATIcourses.com/schedule.htm w AT AT
  3. Applied Physical Oceanography and Acoustics: Controlling Physics, Observations, Models and Naval Applications NEW! Course Outline May 18-20, 2010 1. Importance of Oceanography. Review oceanography's history, naval applications, and impact on Beltsville, Maryland climate. 2. Physics of The Ocean. Develop physical $1590 (8:30am - 4:00pm) understanding of the Navier-Stokes equations and their application for understanding and measuring the ocean. "Register 3 or More & Receive $10000 each 3. Energetics Of The Ocean and Climate Change. The Off The Course Tuition." source of all energy is the sun. We trace the incoming energy through the atmosphere and ocean and discuss its effect on Summary the climate. This three-day course is designed for engineers, 4. Wind patterns, El Niño and La Niña. The major wind physicists, acousticians, climate scientists, and managers patterns of earth define not only the vegetation on land, but who wish to enhance their understanding of this discipline drive the major currents of the ocean. Perturbations to their or become familiar with how the ocean environment can normal circulation, such as an El Niño event, can have global affect their individual applications. Examples of remote impacts. sensing of the ocean, in situ ocean observing systems and 5. Satellite Observations, Altimetry, Earth's Geoid and actual examples from recent oceanographic cruises are Ocean Modeling. The role of satellite observations are given. discussed with a special emphasis on altimetric measurements. 6. Inertial Currents, Ekman Transport, Western Instructors Boundaries. Observed ocean dynamics are explained. Dr. David L. Porter is a Principal Senior Oceanographer Analytical solutions to the Navier-Stokes equations are at the Johns Hopkins University Applied Physics discussed. Laboratory (JHUAPL). Dr. Porter has been at JHUAPL for 7. Ocean Currents, Modeling and Observation. twenty-two years and before that he was an Observations of the major ocean currents are compared to model results of those currents. The ocean models are driven oceanographer for ten years at the National Oceanic and by satellite altimetric observations. Atmospheric Administration. Dr. Porter's specialties are oceanographic remote sensing using space borne 8. Mixing, Salt Fingers, Ocean Tracers and Langmuir Circulation. Small scale processes in the ocean have a large altimeters and in situ observations. He has authored effect on the ocean's structure and the dispersal of important scores of publications in the field of ocean remote chemicals, such as CO2. sensing, tidal observations, and internal waves as well as 9. Wind Generated Waves, Ocean Swell and Their a book on oceanography. Dr. Porter holds a BS in Prediction. Ocean waves, their physics and analysis by physics from University of MD, a MS in physical directional wave spectra are discussed along with present oceanography from MIT and a PhD in geophysical fluid modeling of the global wave field employing Wave Watch III. dynamics from the Catholic University of America. 10. Tsunami Waves. The generation and propagation of Dr. Juan I. Arvelo is a Principal Senior Acoustician at tsunami waves are discussed with a description of the present JHUAPL. He earned a PhD degree in physics from the monitoring system. Catholic University of America. He served nine years at 11. Internal Waves and Synthetic Aperture Radar the Naval Surface Warfare Center and five years at Alliant (SAR) Sensing of Internal Waves. The density stratification Techsystems, Inc. He has 27 years of theoretical and in the ocean allows the generation of internal waves. The practical experience in government, industry, and physics of the waves and their manifestation at the surface by academic institutions on acoustic sensor design and sonar SAR is discussed. performance evaluation, experimental design and 12. Tides, Observations, Predictions and Quality conduct, acoustic signal processing, data analysis and Control. Tidal observations play a critical role in commerce interpretation. Dr. Arvelo is an active member of the and warfare. The history of tidal observations, their role in commerce, the physics of tides and their prediction are Acoustical Society of America (ASA) where he holds discussed. various positions including associate editor of the 13. Bays, Estuaries and Inland Seas. The inland waters Proceedings On Meetings in Acoustics (POMA) and of the continents present dynamics that are controlled not only technical chair of the 159th joint ASA/INCE conference in by the physics of the flow, but also by the bathymetry and the Baltimore. shape of the coastlines. 14. The Future of Oceanography. Applications to global What You Will Learn climate assessment, new technologies and modeling are • The physical structure of the ocean and its major discussed. currents. 15. Underwater Acoustics. Review of ocean effects on • The controlling physics of waves, including internal sound propagation & scattering. waves. 16. Naval Applications. Description of the latest sensor, transducer, array and sonar technologies for applications from • How space borne altimeters work and their target detection, localization and classification to acoustic contribution to ocean modeling. communications and environmental surveys. • How ocean parameters influence acoustics. 17. Models and Databases. Description of key worldwide • Models and databases for predicting sonar environmental databases, sound propagation models, and performance. sonar simulation tools. 4 – Vol. 102 Register online at www.ATIcourses.com or call ATI at 888.501.2100 or 410.956.8805
  4. Objectives  One-Day Crash Course Coverage Of State-of- the-Art In Underwater Acoustics & Sonar Systems  Illustrations, Animations & Audiovisuals Heavily Used To Help “Visualize” Concepts  Furnish Literature Books, Technical Reports & Research Journals For In-Depth References  Hyperlinks To Internet Resources (e.g., Websites & Podcasts) For Up-To-Date Information
  5. Sound Absorption  Absorption vs. Attenuation (Careful!) Jensen, et. al., Jensen, et. al.,  Words Often Used Interchangeably Computational Computational Ocean Acoustics  Absorption Is One Attenuation Component Ocean Acoustics  Absorption Is Energy Lost To Heat  Attenuation In Architectural Acoustics Defined As Sum Of Energy Lost To Heat & Transmission  Attenuation In Underwater Sound Propagation Defined As Sum Of Energy Lost To Heat & Scattering  Units Often Used For Sound Propagation   = dB/nepers = m / 8.686 m 20 log e = 8.686  m = dB/m = / Transmitted m   k = dB/km = 1000 m 2 c 2 t k m  ff = dB/kHz-m = 8.686 / f(kHz) 1 c1 Scattered   = dB/ = 8.686   E inc  E refl  E tran  E scat  E abs r i Incident Reflected
  6. Sound Diffraction  Described by Van Huygen’s Principle Of Elementary Waves  Interface Points Reached By Sound Wave Act As Secondary Sources  Appears As Waves Bending Around Corners  Ray-Theory Can’t Account For Diffraction  Gaussian Ray-Bundle Formulation Combines Rays & Waves To Account For Diffraction At Higher Frequencies http://www.pa.op.dlr.de/acoustics/essay1/beugung_en.html
  7. Sound & Waves JAVA Applets  Oscillations and Waves   Ripple Tank (2-D Waves) Applet Ripple Tank (2-D Waves) Applet  Ripple tank simulation that demonstrates wave motion, interference, diffraction, refraction, Doppler effect, etc.  Ripple tank simulation that demonstrates wave motion, interference, diffraction, refraction, Doppler effect, etc.   2-D Waves Applet 2-D Waves Applet  Demonstration of wave motion in 2-D.  Demonstration of wave motion in 2-D.   3-D Waves Applet 3-D Waves Applet  Demonstration of wave motion in 3-D.  Demonstration of wave motion in 3-D.   Coupled Oscillations Applet Coupled Oscillations Applet  Demonstration of longitudinal wave motion in oscillators connected by springs.  Demonstration of longitudinal wave motion in oscillators connected by springs.   Dispersion Applet Dispersion Applet  Dispersion and group velocity.  Dispersion and group velocity.  Acoustics   Loaded String Applet Loaded String Applet  Simulation of wave motion of a string.  Simulation of wave motion of a string.   Rectangular Membrane Waves Applet Rectangular Membrane Waves Applet  Vibrational modes in a 2-d membrane.  Vibrational modes in a 2-d membrane.   Circular Membrane Waves Applet Circular Membrane Waves Applet  Vibrational modes in a 2-d circular membrane (drum head).  Vibrational modes in a 2-d circular membrane (drum head).   Bar Waves Applet Bar Waves Applet  Bending waves in a bar.  Bending waves in a bar.   Vowels Applet Vowels Applet  The acoustics of speech.  The acoustics of speech.   Box Modes Applet Box Modes Applet  Acoustic standing waves in a 3-d box.  Acoustic standing waves in a 3-d box.   Acoustic Interference Applet Acoustic Interference Applet  Generates audio interference between your speakers.  Generates audio interference between your speakers.
  8. Sound Speed Profile Measurement XBT = Expendable Bathythermograph XCTD = Expendable Conductivity/Temperature and Depth http://www.aoml.noaa.gov/goos/uot/xbt-what-is.php
  9. Ocean Waveguide May Be Divided Into Continental Shelf, Slope, & Basin Deep Sea Continental Shelf (Blue Waters) Continental Slope (Brown Waters) Dw< 200 m Sound Velocity Profile
  10. Sound Refraction Due To Variable Speed  Sound Speed Variability Causes Refraction  Depth Excess Required To Form Convergence Zones  Shadow Zones Are Filled With Interface-Reflected Energy Depth Excess
  11. Monthly Variability In Brown Waters  Sound Speed Proportional To Temperature February August February August
  12. Transmission Loss Of Whale Vocalization North Pacific Blue Whale
  13. Gaussian Canyon: Nx2D vs. 3D PE TL Along Canyon F = 25 Hz, Ds = 30 m, Dr = 35 m, cb = 1700 m/s,  = 1.5 gm/cc,  = 0.1dB/ Arvelo & Rosenberg, JCA 9:17, 2001
  14. Active Sonar Detection Range Estimation  Once Acceptable Detection Values For Pd &Pfa Range Are Determined, Associated RD Is Used With Computed SNR To Infer Max. RD Detection Range  SE = SNR – RD > 0  SNR > RD
  15. Figure-Of-Merit (FOM)  Parameter Used To Estimate Detection Range From TL Curves Detection Detection  More Useful For Passive Than Range Range Active Sonars Due To Range- Cylindrical Dependence Of Interference FOM  Passive FOM  SE = FOM – TL > 0  FOM = SL-NL+AG+PG-RD FOM  TL < FOM  Active FOM  SE = FOM – (TL1+TL2) > 0 1 2 Spherical   FOM=SL-(NL+RL)+TS+AG+PG-RD  FOM > TL1 + TL2 1 2 http://www.fas.org/man/dod-101/navy/docs/fun/part08.htm
  16. Sonar Effects On Humans & Marine Mammals Must Also Be Assessed Careful With The Units! Don’t Compare Apples & Oranges! Marine Injury Criteria Behavioral Response Medium Mammals Peak Pressure 24-hr Dosage Peak Pressure 24-hr Dosage Cetaceans Water 230 dB//1uPa 198 dB//1uPa2-s 224 dB//1uPa 183 dB//1uPa2-s Pinnipeds Water 218 dB//1uPa 186 dB//1uPa2-s 212 dB//1uPa 171 dB//1uPa2-s Pinnipeds Air 149 dB//20uPa 144 dB//20uPa2-s 109 dB//20uPa 100 dB//20uPa2-s Southall, et. al., “Marine Mammal Noise Exposure Criteria: Initial Southall, et. al., “Marine Mammal Noise Exposure Criteria: Initial Scientific Recommendations,” Aquatic Mammals, 33(4), 2007 Scientific Recommendations,” Aquatic Mammals, 33(4), 2007 Human Exposure Is Broadband A-Weighted (Ear Response) Sound Level (dBA) Duration Per Day (hrs) OSHA NIOSH 16 85 8 90 6 92 4 95 88 3 97 2 100 1.5 102 1 105 94 0.5 110 97 0.25 115 100 0.125 120
  17. Oceanographic & Atmospheric Master Library (OAML) Propagation Models  ASTRAL 5.1  Range-Dependent Range-Averaged TL  20 Hz – 4 kHz OAML POC OAML POC  Colossus II 1.1 Walter Moskal Walter Moskal (228) 688-5160 (228) 688-5160  Range-Independent & Semi-Empirical moskalw@navo.navy.mil moskalw@navo.navy.mil  Shallow Waters (<400 m)  2-Layers Positive Sound Speed Gradient  100 Hz – 10 kHz  PE 5.4  Method 1: Split-Step Fourier Parabolic Equation  Method 2: Split-Step Pade Parabolic Equation (RAM)  Nautilus 1.0  Broadband Range-Dependent Normal Modes  Adiabatic Propagation (No Mode Coupling)
  18. OAML Environmental Databases  GDEM-V 3.0  Generalized Digital Env. Model Variable Resolution  DBDB-V 5.3  Digital Bathymetric Data Base Variable Resolution  LFBL 11.1  Low-Frequency Bottom Loss (F < 1 kHz)  HFBL 2.2  High-Frequency Bottom Loss (F = 3.5 kHz)  BST 2.0  Bottom Sediment Type (F > 10 kHz)  VSS 6.3  Volume Scattering Strength
  19. OAML Noise Models & Databases  Models  ANDES  Ambient Noise Directional Estimation System  Used Only To Generate Static Shipping Noise (SN)  DANM 1.1  Dynamic Ambient Noise Model  Plans To Use For Shipping Noise Database Upgrade  Incorporated HITS Vessel Motion Simulation (HVMS)  Databases  Shipping Noise (SN) 5.4  Generated With ANDES  Historical Temporal Shipping (HITS) 4.1  Yields Shipping Density For Fishing Boats, Merchant Ships, Tankers, Large Tankers & Supertankers  Wind & Residual Noise (WRN) 3.0  Surface Marine Gridded Climatology (SMGC) 2.0
  20. OAML & Other Sonar Models  OAML Sonar Models OAML POC OAML POC  ASPM 6.1.2 Walter Moskal Walter Moskal (228) 688-5160 (228) 688-5160  Acoustic System Performance Model moskalw@navo.navy.mil moskalw@navo.navy.mil  CASS 4.1  Comprehensive Acoustic Simulation System  Gaussian Ray Bundle (GRAB) Propagation Model  Other Sonar Models  NSWC (PC-IMAT, PC-SWAT, …)  NRL (BiRASP, BiKr, …)  APLUW (SST)  JHUAPL (APL-Sonar, HFPSM, HFASM, ARAMIS, …)  Adaptive Methods (GAMUT)
  21. Sonar Performance Prediction Model For Mobile Devices In Process… SignalScope SoundMeter SignalSuite http://www.faberacoustical.com/products/iphone/
  22. You have enjoyed ATI's preview of Applied Physical Oceanography and Acoustics Please post your comments and questions to our blog: http://www.aticourses.com/wordpress-2.7/weblog1/ Sign-up for ATI's monthly Course Schedule Updates : http://www.aticourses.com/email_signup_page.html

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