X describes a long-term trend in the history of computing hardware. Since the invention of the integrated circuit in 1958, the number of transistors that can be placed inexpensively on an integrated circuit has increased exponentially, doubling approximately every two years. Identify X.
While small test programs existed since the development of programmable computers, the tradition of using the phrase X as a test message was influenced by an example program in the seminal book The C Programming Language. What is the phrase X better known as?
“ The idea that X has appeared like a knight in shining armour to lead all customers out of a mire of technological chaos neatly ignores the fact that it was he who, by peddling second-rate technology, led them into it in the first place.” Who or what is X?