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Session 9


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  • Transcript

    • 1. Separate but Equal?
    • 2. Agenda
      • School Reform Model Presentations
      • Share ASCD Articles
      • PPT: School and Neighborhood Segregation
      • Read and Discuss: “The Policy and Practice of Curriculum Inequality”
      • Socratic Discussion: “How the Question we Ask Most…”
      • Preparation for final
      • Updated Grades
    • 3. ASCD Article Share
      • How is the issue of curriculum and/or inequality/equality addressed in your article?
    • 4. Top Challenges in Education
      • School-Family-Community Partnerships
      • Diversity of race, language and income
      • Meeting the needs of diverse learners--Special Education
      • Working with NCLB
      • Adequate funding for education
      • Public Support of Public Education
    • 5. Emerging Divide: US Economy and Society
    • 6. Traditional Theory of Assimilation
      • The US economy/society allows equal opportunity for those who are poor to become wealthy through hard work and education.
      • Immigrants arrive poor and with less education than their US counterparts.
      • Through hard work and education of their children, their children attain middle-class status.
    • 7. Segmented Assimilation
      • The US is an increasingly divided economy/society by race and class.
      • Service-sector is fastest growing sector of the economy: highly skilled workers in the knowledge economy and many unskilled low-level jobs
      • Income disparities, and education as the key to one’s income/occupation.
      • It becomes harder to move between economic levels (Waters, p. 254-255).
    • 8. Segmented Assimilation
      • Therefore, immigrants are not necessarily assimilating into the middle class but into these divided sectors of the economy: the professional class and the unskilled class.
    • 9. A Little Background about School and Neighborhood Segregation in the US
    • 10. 18% of children live in poverty* but they tend to live in areas and go to schools where poor children are in the majority. *Federal poverty threshold = $19,350 for family of four in 2005; Orfield is using reduced or free lunch as the indicator of family poverty, which goes up to $22,290 for family of four (2005-2006) National Center for Children in Poverty, Columbia University, “Low-Income Children in the United States,” January 2006.
    • 11. What is the effect of concentrated poverty on school achievement?
    • 12. School Achievement
      • Loss of successful role models: Adults that a child sees are unemployed or working low-paying jobs
      • Loss of access to networks to get jobs
      • Loss of tax resources to support high-quality schools
    • 13. One factor is neighborhood segregation, by class and race. Schools reflect that segregation, but do not create it.
    • 14. Neighborhoods
      • Provide and determine:
      • Education
      • Recreational facilities
      • Insurance rates
      • Employment
      • Transportation
      • Safety
      • Health
      • Tax base for government services
    • 15. What happens when poor people are concentrated together?
      • Loss of private businesses: grocery stores, banks, etc
      • Loss of political power: environmental discrimination (waste processing facilities and chemical plants)
      • Lower property values: deteriorating buildings and and unsavory facilities (jails)
      • Loss of medical facilities and clinics
      • Loss of revenue for public schools
      • Massey, Douglas S. 1990. “American Apartheid: Segregation and the Making of the Underclass. American Journal of Sociology 96(2): 329-357
    • 16. While the majority of poor people are white, they are less likely than poor African-Americans and Latinos to live in neighborhoods of concentrated poverty.
    • 17. Racial discrimination combines with class segregation for African-Americans and Latinos to produce “hyper-segregation,” particularly in old industrial areas of the Midwest and Northeast.
    • 18. Three-quarters of African-Americans live in highly segregated neighborhoods today, whereas 90-100% of other groups experience only moderate levels of segregation. Massey, Douglas S. and Mary J. Fischer. 2000. “How Segregation Concentrates Poverty.” Ethnic and Racial Studies 23(4): 670-691.
    • 19. Why do many African-Americans live in neighborhoods of concentrated poverty and racial segregation?
    • 20. Racial Discrimination
      • Individual prejudice and feelings of comfort/discomfort
      • Discrimination in real estate and banking industries
      • Government policies increasing racial and class-based housing segregation
    • 21. 1992 Detroit Survey on Neighborhood Preference
      • Neighborhood that is 20% black: One-third of whites uncomfortable and unwilling to live there.
      • Neighborhood where one-third of the residents are black: 59% of whites would be unwilling to live there, 44% would be uncomfortable, and 29% would seek to leave.
      • Neighborhood that is 50-50 black and white: becomes unacceptable to all but a small minority of whites.
    • 22. 1992 Detroit Survey on Neighborhood Preference
      • For African-Americans:
      • The most popular choice is a neighborhood that is half black and half white.
      • 87% willing to live in a neighborhood that is 20% black.
    • 23. Neighborhood Turnover
      • In a neighborhood that is 20% black, whites begin to not move in because they are uncomfortable, blacks move in because they comfortable with that balance.
      • The balance tips towards a mix of 70% white, 30% black, and now some whites begin to sell their houses in order to move out.
    • 24. Neighborhood Turnover
      • When the neighborhood is 50-50, blacks begin to move in because the neighborhood is ideal; the majority of whites want to sell their houses
      • Soon the neighborhood is entirely black
    • 25. Neighborhood Turnover
      • This is what happened in central cities during the 1980s and 1990s, in which white people for the most part abandoned cities and fled to the suburbs
      • However, now, the same thing is happening with the inner ring of suburbs so that segregation is maintained even in the suburbs
    • 26. Does neighborhood and school segregation apply to the students at your school? If so, to what extent?
    • 27. Agree/Disagree
      • “ Tracking [ability grouping by performance] promotes overall student achievement --- that is, that the academic needs of all students will be better met when they learn in groups with similar capabilities or prior levels of achievement.”
    • 28. The Policy and Practice of Curriculum Inequality
      • By Jeanie Oaks
      • September 1986
    • 29.
      • Access to Knowledge : high status vs. low status
      • Opportunities to Learn : instructional time and teaching quality
      • Classroom Climate : teacher/student/peer relations and intensity of student involvement in learning
      1) How do these three areas, as described by Oakes, impact/relate to curriculum and instruction practices at your school cite? In your classroom? 2) What are the differences observed between classes in different tracks?
    • 30. Socratic Discussion
      • “How the Question We ask Most about Race in Education is the very Question we Most Suppress” by Pollack.
    • 31. Last Class
      • Technology Group Presentation
      • WEB 2.0
      • Book share
      • Option 1: Take home final (due by Wednesday December 5th at 10:00pm)
      • Option 2: Take final at regularly scheduled date and time: FRIDAY DECEMBER 7, 2007
      • 4:00 TO 5:20.
    • 32. Preparation for Final and “Comps”
      • Make a list of major contributors to curriculum philosophy.
      • Summarize the positions of contributors and philosophies
      • Write down key quotes or phrases representative of the different perspectives/philosophies/ philosophers
    • 33. Major Philosophies studied in this course:
      • Education:
      • Essentialism (Bagley)
      • Progressivism (Dewy)
      • Existentialism (Apple)
      • Perennialism (Adler)
      • Sociological Theories: Role of Education
        • Durkheim (Functionalism)
        • Marx (Conflict Theory)
    • 34. Concepts of Importance
      • Aims of education (changing purposes over time--causes and effects)
      • Curriculum Criteria (historical perspectives--Hass and Parkay)
      • Equality and Access in Curriculum Design
      • School Reform: (What can be done? New research, trends affecting education, changing purposes of ed, historical perspectives)
    • 35. Helpful Articles to Review before “Comps.”
          • “ The Paideia Proposal,” by Mortimer Adler
          • “ The Case for Essentialism vs. The Case for Progressivism,” by Bagley and Kilpatrick
          • Schooling in America: Where are We Headed” by E.W. Eisner
          • “ Eighty Years of Curriculum Theory,” by Glen Hass
          • Who Should Plan Curriculum” by Glen Hass
          • “ Perspectives on Curriculum Criteria” by Forrest Parkay.
          • “ Accountability Systems: Implications of Requirements of the No Child Left Behind Act of 2001”
          • “ Keeping Track Part 1:The Policy and Practice of Curriculum Inequality” Jeanie Oakes
    • 36. Extra Credit Posts
      • Session 9: Post a response to one of the two articles assigned.
      • Session 10: Post your study guide for final!
      • 5pts each.