Therefore, immigrants are not necessarily assimilating into the middle class but into these divided sectors of the economy: the professional class and the unskilled class.
A Little Background about School and Neighborhood Segregation in the US
18% of children live in poverty* but they tend to live in areas and go to schools where poor children are in the majority. *Federal poverty threshold = $19,350 for family of four in 2005; Orfield is using reduced or free lunch as the indicator of family poverty, which goes up to $22,290 for family of four (2005-2006) National Center for Children in Poverty, Columbia University, “Low-Income Children in the United States,” January 2006.
What is the effect of concentrated poverty on school achievement?
What happens when poor people are concentrated together?
Loss of private businesses: grocery stores, banks, etc
Loss of political power: environmental discrimination (waste processing facilities and chemical plants)
Lower property values: deteriorating buildings and and unsavory facilities (jails)
Loss of medical facilities and clinics
Loss of revenue for public schools
Massey, Douglas S. 1990. “American Apartheid: Segregation and the Making of the Underclass. American Journal of Sociology 96(2): 329-357
While the majority of poor people are white, they are less likely than poor African-Americans and Latinos to live in neighborhoods of concentrated poverty.
Racial discrimination combines with class segregation for African-Americans and Latinos to produce “hyper-segregation,” particularly in old industrial areas of the Midwest and Northeast.
Three-quarters of African-Americans live in highly segregated neighborhoods today, whereas 90-100% of other groups experience only moderate levels of segregation. Massey, Douglas S. and Mary J. Fischer. 2000. “How Segregation Concentrates Poverty.” Ethnic and Racial Studies 23(4): 670-691.
Why do many African-Americans live in neighborhoods of concentrated poverty and racial segregation?
“ Tracking [ability grouping by performance] promotes overall student achievement --- that is, that the academic needs of all students will be better met when they learn in groups with similar capabilities or prior levels of achievement.”
The Policy and Practice of Curriculum Inequality
Opportunities to Learn : instructional time and teaching quality
Classroom Climate : teacher/student/peer relations and intensity of student involvement in learning
1) How do these three areas, as described by Oakes, impact/relate to curriculum and instruction practices at your school cite? In your classroom? 2) What are the differences observed between classes in different tracks?