Session 9

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  • Session 9

    1. 1. Separate but Equal?
    2. 2. Agenda <ul><li>School Reform Model Presentations </li></ul><ul><li>Share ASCD Articles </li></ul><ul><li>PPT: School and Neighborhood Segregation </li></ul><ul><li>Read and Discuss: “The Policy and Practice of Curriculum Inequality” </li></ul><ul><li>Socratic Discussion: “How the Question we Ask Most…” </li></ul><ul><li>Preparation for final </li></ul><ul><li>Updated Grades </li></ul>
    3. 3. ASCD Article Share <ul><li>How is the issue of curriculum and/or inequality/equality addressed in your article? </li></ul>
    4. 4. Top Challenges in Education <ul><li>School-Family-Community Partnerships </li></ul><ul><li>Diversity of race, language and income </li></ul><ul><li>Meeting the needs of diverse learners--Special Education </li></ul><ul><li>Working with NCLB </li></ul><ul><li>Adequate funding for education </li></ul><ul><li>Public Support of Public Education </li></ul>
    5. 5. Emerging Divide: US Economy and Society
    6. 6. Traditional Theory of Assimilation <ul><li>The US economy/society allows equal opportunity for those who are poor to become wealthy through hard work and education. </li></ul><ul><li>Immigrants arrive poor and with less education than their US counterparts. </li></ul><ul><li>Through hard work and education of their children, their children attain middle-class status. </li></ul>
    7. 7. Segmented Assimilation <ul><li>The US is an increasingly divided economy/society by race and class. </li></ul><ul><li>Service-sector is fastest growing sector of the economy: highly skilled workers in the knowledge economy and many unskilled low-level jobs </li></ul><ul><li>Income disparities, and education as the key to one’s income/occupation. </li></ul><ul><li>It becomes harder to move between economic levels (Waters, p. 254-255). </li></ul>
    8. 8. Segmented Assimilation <ul><li>Therefore, immigrants are not necessarily assimilating into the middle class but into these divided sectors of the economy: the professional class and the unskilled class. </li></ul>
    9. 9. A Little Background about School and Neighborhood Segregation in the US
    10. 10. 18% of children live in poverty* but they tend to live in areas and go to schools where poor children are in the majority. *Federal poverty threshold = $19,350 for family of four in 2005; Orfield is using reduced or free lunch as the indicator of family poverty, which goes up to $22,290 for family of four (2005-2006) National Center for Children in Poverty, Columbia University, “Low-Income Children in the United States,” January 2006.
    11. 11. What is the effect of concentrated poverty on school achievement?
    12. 12. School Achievement <ul><li>Loss of successful role models: Adults that a child sees are unemployed or working low-paying jobs </li></ul><ul><li>Loss of access to networks to get jobs </li></ul><ul><li>Loss of tax resources to support high-quality schools </li></ul>
    13. 13. One factor is neighborhood segregation, by class and race. Schools reflect that segregation, but do not create it.
    14. 14. Neighborhoods <ul><li>Provide and determine: </li></ul><ul><li>Education </li></ul><ul><li>Recreational facilities </li></ul><ul><li>Insurance rates </li></ul><ul><li>Employment </li></ul><ul><li>Transportation </li></ul><ul><li>Safety </li></ul><ul><li>Health </li></ul><ul><li>Tax base for government services </li></ul>
    15. 15. What happens when poor people are concentrated together? <ul><li>Loss of private businesses: grocery stores, banks, etc </li></ul><ul><li>Loss of political power: environmental discrimination (waste processing facilities and chemical plants) </li></ul><ul><li>Lower property values: deteriorating buildings and and unsavory facilities (jails) </li></ul><ul><li>Loss of medical facilities and clinics </li></ul><ul><li>Loss of revenue for public schools </li></ul><ul><li>Massey, Douglas S. 1990. “American Apartheid: Segregation and the Making of the Underclass. American Journal of Sociology 96(2): 329-357 </li></ul>
    16. 16. While the majority of poor people are white, they are less likely than poor African-Americans and Latinos to live in neighborhoods of concentrated poverty.
    17. 17. Racial discrimination combines with class segregation for African-Americans and Latinos to produce “hyper-segregation,” particularly in old industrial areas of the Midwest and Northeast.
    18. 18. Three-quarters of African-Americans live in highly segregated neighborhoods today, whereas 90-100% of other groups experience only moderate levels of segregation. Massey, Douglas S. and Mary J. Fischer. 2000. “How Segregation Concentrates Poverty.” Ethnic and Racial Studies 23(4): 670-691.
    19. 19. Why do many African-Americans live in neighborhoods of concentrated poverty and racial segregation?
    20. 20. Racial Discrimination <ul><li>Individual prejudice and feelings of comfort/discomfort </li></ul><ul><li>Discrimination in real estate and banking industries </li></ul><ul><li>Government policies increasing racial and class-based housing segregation </li></ul>
    21. 21. 1992 Detroit Survey on Neighborhood Preference <ul><li>Neighborhood that is 20% black: One-third of whites uncomfortable and unwilling to live there. </li></ul><ul><li>Neighborhood where one-third of the residents are black: 59% of whites would be unwilling to live there, 44% would be uncomfortable, and 29% would seek to leave. </li></ul><ul><li>Neighborhood that is 50-50 black and white: becomes unacceptable to all but a small minority of whites. </li></ul>
    22. 22. 1992 Detroit Survey on Neighborhood Preference <ul><li>For African-Americans: </li></ul><ul><li>The most popular choice is a neighborhood that is half black and half white. </li></ul><ul><li>87% willing to live in a neighborhood that is 20% black. </li></ul>
    23. 23. Neighborhood Turnover <ul><li>In a neighborhood that is 20% black, whites begin to not move in because they are uncomfortable, blacks move in because they comfortable with that balance. </li></ul><ul><li>The balance tips towards a mix of 70% white, 30% black, and now some whites begin to sell their houses in order to move out. </li></ul>
    24. 24. Neighborhood Turnover <ul><li>When the neighborhood is 50-50, blacks begin to move in because the neighborhood is ideal; the majority of whites want to sell their houses </li></ul><ul><li>Soon the neighborhood is entirely black </li></ul>
    25. 25. Neighborhood Turnover <ul><li>This is what happened in central cities during the 1980s and 1990s, in which white people for the most part abandoned cities and fled to the suburbs </li></ul><ul><li>However, now, the same thing is happening with the inner ring of suburbs so that segregation is maintained even in the suburbs </li></ul>
    26. 26. Does neighborhood and school segregation apply to the students at your school? If so, to what extent?
    27. 27. Agree/Disagree <ul><li>“ Tracking [ability grouping by performance] promotes overall student achievement --- that is, that the academic needs of all students will be better met when they learn in groups with similar capabilities or prior levels of achievement.” </li></ul>
    28. 28. The Policy and Practice of Curriculum Inequality <ul><li>By Jeanie Oaks </li></ul><ul><li>September 1986 </li></ul>
    29. 29. <ul><li>Access to Knowledge : high status vs. low status </li></ul><ul><li>Opportunities to Learn : instructional time and teaching quality </li></ul><ul><li>Classroom Climate : teacher/student/peer relations and intensity of student involvement in learning </li></ul>1) How do these three areas, as described by Oakes, impact/relate to curriculum and instruction practices at your school cite? In your classroom? 2) What are the differences observed between classes in different tracks?
    30. 30. Socratic Discussion <ul><li>“How the Question We ask Most about Race in Education is the very Question we Most Suppress” by Pollack. </li></ul>
    31. 31. Last Class <ul><li>Technology Group Presentation </li></ul><ul><li>WEB 2.0 </li></ul><ul><li>Book share </li></ul><ul><li>FINAL OPTIONS </li></ul><ul><li>Option 1: Take home final (due by Wednesday December 5th at 10:00pm) </li></ul><ul><li>Option 2: Take final at regularly scheduled date and time: FRIDAY DECEMBER 7, 2007 </li></ul><ul><li>4:00 TO 5:20. </li></ul>
    32. 32. Preparation for Final and “Comps” <ul><li>Make a list of major contributors to curriculum philosophy. </li></ul><ul><li>Summarize the positions of contributors and philosophies </li></ul><ul><li>Write down key quotes or phrases representative of the different perspectives/philosophies/ philosophers </li></ul>
    33. 33. Major Philosophies studied in this course: <ul><li>Education: </li></ul><ul><li>Essentialism (Bagley) </li></ul><ul><li>Progressivism (Dewy) </li></ul><ul><li>Existentialism (Apple) </li></ul><ul><li>Perennialism (Adler) </li></ul><ul><li>Sociological Theories: Role of Education </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Durkheim (Functionalism) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Marx (Conflict Theory) </li></ul></ul>
    34. 34. Concepts of Importance <ul><li>Aims of education (changing purposes over time--causes and effects) </li></ul><ul><li>Curriculum Criteria (historical perspectives--Hass and Parkay) </li></ul><ul><li>Equality and Access in Curriculum Design </li></ul><ul><li>School Reform: (What can be done? New research, trends affecting education, changing purposes of ed, historical perspectives) </li></ul>
    35. 35. Helpful Articles to Review before “Comps.” <ul><ul><ul><li>“ The Paideia Proposal,” by Mortimer Adler </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>“ The Case for Essentialism vs. The Case for Progressivism,” by Bagley and Kilpatrick </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Schooling in America: Where are We Headed” by E.W. Eisner </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>“ Eighty Years of Curriculum Theory,” by Glen Hass </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Who Should Plan Curriculum” by Glen Hass </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>“ Perspectives on Curriculum Criteria” by Forrest Parkay. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>“ Accountability Systems: Implications of Requirements of the No Child Left Behind Act of 2001” </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>“ Keeping Track Part 1:The Policy and Practice of Curriculum Inequality” Jeanie Oakes </li></ul></ul></ul>
    36. 36. Extra Credit Posts <ul><li>Session 9: Post a response to one of the two articles assigned. </li></ul><ul><li>Session 10: Post your study guide for final! </li></ul><ul><li>5pts each. </li></ul>

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