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Session 9

Session 9






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Session 9 Session 9 Presentation Transcript

  • Separate but Equal?
  • Agenda
    • School Reform Model Presentations
    • Share ASCD Articles
    • PPT: School and Neighborhood Segregation
    • Read and Discuss: “The Policy and Practice of Curriculum Inequality”
    • Socratic Discussion: “How the Question we Ask Most…”
    • Preparation for final
    • Updated Grades
  • ASCD Article Share
    • How is the issue of curriculum and/or inequality/equality addressed in your article?
  • Top Challenges in Education
    • School-Family-Community Partnerships
    • Diversity of race, language and income
    • Meeting the needs of diverse learners--Special Education
    • Working with NCLB
    • Adequate funding for education
    • Public Support of Public Education
  • Emerging Divide: US Economy and Society
  • Traditional Theory of Assimilation
    • The US economy/society allows equal opportunity for those who are poor to become wealthy through hard work and education.
    • Immigrants arrive poor and with less education than their US counterparts.
    • Through hard work and education of their children, their children attain middle-class status.
  • Segmented Assimilation
    • The US is an increasingly divided economy/society by race and class.
    • Service-sector is fastest growing sector of the economy: highly skilled workers in the knowledge economy and many unskilled low-level jobs
    • Income disparities, and education as the key to one’s income/occupation.
    • It becomes harder to move between economic levels (Waters, p. 254-255).
  • Segmented Assimilation
    • Therefore, immigrants are not necessarily assimilating into the middle class but into these divided sectors of the economy: the professional class and the unskilled class.
  • A Little Background about School and Neighborhood Segregation in the US
  • 18% of children live in poverty* but they tend to live in areas and go to schools where poor children are in the majority. *Federal poverty threshold = $19,350 for family of four in 2005; Orfield is using reduced or free lunch as the indicator of family poverty, which goes up to $22,290 for family of four (2005-2006) National Center for Children in Poverty, Columbia University, “Low-Income Children in the United States,” January 2006.
  • What is the effect of concentrated poverty on school achievement?
  • School Achievement
    • Loss of successful role models: Adults that a child sees are unemployed or working low-paying jobs
    • Loss of access to networks to get jobs
    • Loss of tax resources to support high-quality schools
  • One factor is neighborhood segregation, by class and race. Schools reflect that segregation, but do not create it.
  • Neighborhoods
    • Provide and determine:
    • Education
    • Recreational facilities
    • Insurance rates
    • Employment
    • Transportation
    • Safety
    • Health
    • Tax base for government services
  • What happens when poor people are concentrated together?
    • Loss of private businesses: grocery stores, banks, etc
    • Loss of political power: environmental discrimination (waste processing facilities and chemical plants)
    • Lower property values: deteriorating buildings and and unsavory facilities (jails)
    • Loss of medical facilities and clinics
    • Loss of revenue for public schools
    • Massey, Douglas S. 1990. “American Apartheid: Segregation and the Making of the Underclass. American Journal of Sociology 96(2): 329-357
  • While the majority of poor people are white, they are less likely than poor African-Americans and Latinos to live in neighborhoods of concentrated poverty.
  • Racial discrimination combines with class segregation for African-Americans and Latinos to produce “hyper-segregation,” particularly in old industrial areas of the Midwest and Northeast.
  • Three-quarters of African-Americans live in highly segregated neighborhoods today, whereas 90-100% of other groups experience only moderate levels of segregation. Massey, Douglas S. and Mary J. Fischer. 2000. “How Segregation Concentrates Poverty.” Ethnic and Racial Studies 23(4): 670-691.
  • Why do many African-Americans live in neighborhoods of concentrated poverty and racial segregation?
  • Racial Discrimination
    • Individual prejudice and feelings of comfort/discomfort
    • Discrimination in real estate and banking industries
    • Government policies increasing racial and class-based housing segregation
  • 1992 Detroit Survey on Neighborhood Preference
    • Neighborhood that is 20% black: One-third of whites uncomfortable and unwilling to live there.
    • Neighborhood where one-third of the residents are black: 59% of whites would be unwilling to live there, 44% would be uncomfortable, and 29% would seek to leave.
    • Neighborhood that is 50-50 black and white: becomes unacceptable to all but a small minority of whites.
  • 1992 Detroit Survey on Neighborhood Preference
    • For African-Americans:
    • The most popular choice is a neighborhood that is half black and half white.
    • 87% willing to live in a neighborhood that is 20% black.
  • Neighborhood Turnover
    • In a neighborhood that is 20% black, whites begin to not move in because they are uncomfortable, blacks move in because they comfortable with that balance.
    • The balance tips towards a mix of 70% white, 30% black, and now some whites begin to sell their houses in order to move out.
  • Neighborhood Turnover
    • When the neighborhood is 50-50, blacks begin to move in because the neighborhood is ideal; the majority of whites want to sell their houses
    • Soon the neighborhood is entirely black
  • Neighborhood Turnover
    • This is what happened in central cities during the 1980s and 1990s, in which white people for the most part abandoned cities and fled to the suburbs
    • However, now, the same thing is happening with the inner ring of suburbs so that segregation is maintained even in the suburbs
  • Does neighborhood and school segregation apply to the students at your school? If so, to what extent?
  • Agree/Disagree
    • “ Tracking [ability grouping by performance] promotes overall student achievement --- that is, that the academic needs of all students will be better met when they learn in groups with similar capabilities or prior levels of achievement.”
  • The Policy and Practice of Curriculum Inequality
    • By Jeanie Oaks
    • September 1986
    • Access to Knowledge : high status vs. low status
    • Opportunities to Learn : instructional time and teaching quality
    • Classroom Climate : teacher/student/peer relations and intensity of student involvement in learning
    1) How do these three areas, as described by Oakes, impact/relate to curriculum and instruction practices at your school cite? In your classroom? 2) What are the differences observed between classes in different tracks?
  • Socratic Discussion
    • “How the Question We ask Most about Race in Education is the very Question we Most Suppress” by Pollack.
  • Last Class
    • Technology Group Presentation
    • WEB 2.0
    • Book share
    • Option 1: Take home final (due by Wednesday December 5th at 10:00pm)
    • Option 2: Take final at regularly scheduled date and time: FRIDAY DECEMBER 7, 2007
    • 4:00 TO 5:20.
  • Preparation for Final and “Comps”
    • Make a list of major contributors to curriculum philosophy.
    • Summarize the positions of contributors and philosophies
    • Write down key quotes or phrases representative of the different perspectives/philosophies/ philosophers
  • Major Philosophies studied in this course:
    • Education:
    • Essentialism (Bagley)
    • Progressivism (Dewy)
    • Existentialism (Apple)
    • Perennialism (Adler)
    • Sociological Theories: Role of Education
      • Durkheim (Functionalism)
      • Marx (Conflict Theory)
  • Concepts of Importance
    • Aims of education (changing purposes over time--causes and effects)
    • Curriculum Criteria (historical perspectives--Hass and Parkay)
    • Equality and Access in Curriculum Design
    • School Reform: (What can be done? New research, trends affecting education, changing purposes of ed, historical perspectives)
  • Helpful Articles to Review before “Comps.”
        • “ The Paideia Proposal,” by Mortimer Adler
        • “ The Case for Essentialism vs. The Case for Progressivism,” by Bagley and Kilpatrick
        • Schooling in America: Where are We Headed” by E.W. Eisner
        • “ Eighty Years of Curriculum Theory,” by Glen Hass
        • Who Should Plan Curriculum” by Glen Hass
        • “ Perspectives on Curriculum Criteria” by Forrest Parkay.
        • “ Accountability Systems: Implications of Requirements of the No Child Left Behind Act of 2001”
        • “ Keeping Track Part 1:The Policy and Practice of Curriculum Inequality” Jeanie Oakes
  • Extra Credit Posts
    • Session 9: Post a response to one of the two articles assigned.
    • Session 10: Post your study guide for final!
    • 5pts each.