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AssessmentAssessment refers to the general process of monitoring orkeeping track of the learners’ progress. ( Hedge, 2008)Assessment provides students with a tool to be more involved intheir learning, and give them a better sense of control for their ownlearning. (Richards, 2002)It is the concern with measuring significant learning. Or, the act ofjudging or forming an opinion about something / somebody.(Saphier, 1997)
Functions of assessmentEvaluate students’ overall level.Evaluate students’ progress.Evaluate how well students have learnt specificmaterial during a course.Evaluate students’ strengths and weaknesses.(Ur, 2012)
Purposes of assessment• Formative assessment One purpose is pedagogically motivated, i.e. formativeassessment, where the teacher will use information gainedfrom assessments about leaners progress as the basis forfurther classroom work. (Hedge, 2008) Formative assessment happens in the middle of a period oflearning rather than at the end, provides clear feedback inthe form of error correction and suggestion forimprovement.(Ur, 2012)
• Summative assessment The second purpose for assessment is to measure learnerachievement. This is referred to as summative assessment.(Hedge, 2008) They provide only a grade, often expressed as apercentage, offer no specific feedback on aspects ofperformance, and are designed to summarize or conclude aperiod of learning. Summative assessment may be used asfinal school grades, or for acceptance into further educationor employment.e.g. International exams, like; TOFEL, IELTS,(Ur, 2012)
Alternative assessment Teacher assessment. Continuous assessment. Self-assessment.(Ur, 2012)
Alternative assessment procedureThe main goal of alternative assessment is to “ gatherevidence about how students areapproaching, processing, and completing ‘real-life’tasks in a particular domain.(Richards, 2002)
Alternative assessment is different fromtraditional testing. Does not include on intrude on regular classroom activities. Reflects the curriculum that is actually being implemented inthe classroom. Provides information on the strengths and weaknesses ofeach individual student. Provides multiple indices that can be used to gauge studentprogress. Is more multiculturally sensitive and free ofnorm, linguistic, and cultural biases found in traditionaltesting.(Richards, 2002)
Nontraditional or alternative forms ofassessment of classroom based writing Portfolio assessment Protocol analysis Learning logs Journal entries Dialogue journals(Richards, 2002)
Assessment should- remain an essential and integral part of teaching and learning.- involve sharing learning goals with students.- help students to know and recognise the standards theyare aiming for.- involve students in peer and self-assessment.- provide feedback which leads to students recognising theirnext steps and how to make them.- involve both teacher and students in reviewing and reflectinon assessment data.(Saphier, 1997)
Assessment and testingAssessmentAssessment refers to the generalprocess of monitoring or keepingtrack of the learners’ progress.Assessment is a boarder concept, itis a part of the whole educationalprocess of teaching and learning.TestingTesting is one kind ofassessment, one which is typicallyused at the end of a stage ofinstruction of measure studentachievement.Testing is a term that is not alwaysused precisely, here, it refers to thespecific procedure that teachers andexaminers employ to try to measureability in the language.
What is testing? Testing is by far the most common basis for assessment. Thecriterion for success is a fixed level which the student isexpected to reach; and the result is usually expressed as apercentage. Tests are relatively easy to design and check, takeplace at pre-test times and places, give clear-cut results, and arein general accepted as reliable bases for course grades.( Ur, 2012) Good tests provide the opportunity for learners to show howmuch they know about language structure and vocabulary, aswell as how they are able to use these formal linguistic featuresto convey meaning in classroom language activities throughlistening, speaking, reading, and writing. ( Hedge, 2008)
What is a language test ? The purpose of language test is to determine a personsknowledge and/or ability in the language and todiscriminate that persons ability from that of others. Suchability may be of different kinds; achievement, proficiency oraptitude.( Davies, 2006) Language tests can be a valuable tool for providinginformation that is relevant to several concerns in languageteaching. They can provide evidence of the results oflearning and instruction, and hence feedback on theeffectiveness of the teaching program itself.(Bachman & Palmer, 1996)
Principle of administrating tests Inform your students about the test well in advance. Allot some class time to preparation. Provide, or review, essential information about the test as you present it. Help students with instructions. Check and return tests as soon as you can.( Ur, 2012) Preparing the testing environment.This involve arranging the place of testing, materials andequipment, personal, time of testing, and physical conditionsunder which the test is administered.( Bachman & Palmer, 1996)
Functions of the test act as ‘station’, marking off the ends of units. encourage students to review material. Motivede students give a sense of achievement and progress. Provide learning or review.(Ur, 2012)
Problems of testsThey are not always valid.They may not be reliable.They are a one-off event which might not give a fairrepresentation of the student’s overall ability.They discriminate against students with test anxietywho perform badly under test conditions.( Ur, 2012)
Four major types of tests Proficiency tests Aptitude tests Diagnostic tests Achievement tests( Hughes, 1998)
Features of good testsAccuracyObjectivityReliabilityValidityScorability(Hughes, 1996)
Other types of test Standardized and non-standardized tests External and internal tests. Oral and written tests. Objective and subjective tests.
Standardized and non-standardized tests• Standardized tests usually includes tests prepared by teams ofspecialists. Standardized test are used widely in someeducational settings for both first and second languageassessment.• Teacher-made school test is non-standardized because it maybe applied once and then forgotten.( Genesee, 1996)
Standardized tests have the following qualities They provide a "systematic procedure for describing behaviors, whether interms of numbers or categories." They include specified procedures for administration and scoring. The test items are derived from experience, either by experiment orobservation, rather than theory. They have an established format and set of materials. They present the same tasks and require the same response modes fromall test takers. They provide tables of norms to which the scores of test takers can becompared in order to ascertain their relative standing.( Genesee, 1996)
According to their content of language; Reading comprehension Vocabulary Grammar Pronunciation test Writing Speaking Spelling Dictation Translation(Ur, 2012)
Performance Evaluation A performance evaluation is a dynamic tool by the help ofwhich the performance of an individual could be measured bythe concern authority. For example, such document ispresented to the school and college students for gauging thestatus of the institute.Bartolomei, Kyra (2010)
Planning evaluation To monitor student’s language proficiency in and outside class. To understand student’s learning styles and strategies To know student’s interests and attitude about learning To know student’s background experience that can influence their learningin the classroom. To ascertain student’s understanding and perceptions of classroomactivities Develop student’s self assessment skills Promote student responsibility and ownership of evaluation Involve student in identifying instructional goals and planning instructionalactivities.( Genesee, 1996)
Backwash The effect of testing on teaching and learning process isknown as backwash. Backwash can be useless (harmful) oruseful (beneficial) . If a test is regarded as important andmade as well as by teachers , then preparation for it can cometo control all teaching and learning activities according totextbooks or courses taken by students, it will be usefulprocess or good test. And if the test content and testingtechniques are at variance with the objectives of thecourse, then there is likely to be harmful backwash.Hughes (1996)
. Language skillsOral written1. Reading2. Writing1. Listening2. SpeakingRecognition( listening and reading )Production( speaking and writing )To see something andget the main ideaTo make something
. As teacherLess attention More attentionon onListening and reading Speaking and writingPrecede
ReferencesBachman, L. F. & Palmer, A. S. (1996). Language testing in practice. New York:Oxford.Bartolomei, Kyra . (2010). What is performance evaluation? January 14, 2013.1956635www.answerbag.com/q_view/http://fromRetrievedDavies, A. & et al. (2006). Dictionary of language testing. Studies in languagetesting.(7th ed.). UK: Cambridge University Press.Genesee, F. & Upshur, J.A. (1996). Classroom-based evaluation insecond language education. UK: Cambridge University Press.Hedge, T. (2000). Teaching and learning in the language classroom. New York:Oxford.Hughes, Ar. (1996). Testing for language teachers. Great Britain: Cambridge.McNamara, T. (2000). Language testing. New York: Oxford.Saphier, J. & Gower, R. (1997). The skillful teacher. (5th ed.). USA: RBT.Ur, P. (2012). A course in English language teaching. Great Britain: Cambridge.