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Lesson Planning: An Introduction
Jonathan Manantan Mensalvas
Instructor
Definition
According to Nelson Bossing (1961)
It is a statement of achievements to be realized and the
specific means by w...
It helps the teacher to know what to do in class
(prepared by them) with quite specific activities.

It serve as the “blue...
RECIPE FOR EFFECTIVE LESSON
PLANNING
To ensure successful learning and teaching, teachers must use a
number of skills from...
The effective lesson plan is the means by which all of these things
are prioritized and orchestrated. It is the means by w...
WHY PLAN LESSONS?
Planning what and how we teach is something that every
teacher embraces every lesson of everyday of thei...
Lesson planning for the 21st century requires a deep
knowledge of a variety of issues. Effective curriculum
managers know ...
IMPORTANCE OF LESSON
PLAN
• 1. A student’s educational growth depends on the selection of
subject matter, activities, expe...
2. A lesson plan includes framing objectives and
choosing subject matter, procedures, materials, and
evaluation techniques...
3. Making lesson plan involves foreseeing what is likely to
happen and choosing experiences that will change
students for ...
4. A lesson plan serves as a guide to the apprentice
teacher.

5. Planning prevents waste of time that usually
accompanies...
6. A lesson plan prevents wandering away from
the subject matter by making the teacher
conscious of what he has to accompl...
9. The principle of self-activity applies to the
learning of both teachers and students. If students
learn by doing so do ...
I. OBJECTIVES
II. SUBJECT MATTER
a. Topic
b. References
c. Materials of instruction (IM’s)
III. Procedure
a. Drill/Daily r...
OBJECTIVES

Provide goals to be attained, give direction to the class
discussion, and call for what outcomes to expect, ma...
SPECIFIC OBJECTIVE

It is usually attainable in a specific lesson and
contributes to the accomplishment of the
general aim...
GENERAL OBJECTIVE

It is usually broad in scope and may be the
objective of a course, subject or semester. It
can not be a...
The acronym in formulating objectives of
lesson is SMART, which stands for
S - specific
M- measurable

A - attainable
R - ...
Behavioral Objectives
Current lesson plans used this because they are directed to
the development of certain changes in be...
Bloom's Taxonomy of
Learning Domains
Bloom's Taxonomy was created in 1956 under the
leadership of educational psychologist Dr. Benjamin
Bloom in order to promo...
The Three Types of
Learning
The committee identified three domains of
educational activities or learning (Bloom, 1956):
Cognitive: mental skills (Know...
Since the work was produced by higher education, the words tend
to be a little bigger than we normally use. Domains can be...
This compilation divides the three domains into
subdivisions, starting from the simplest behavior to the
most complex. The...
Cognitive Domain
The cognitive domain involves knowledge
and the development of intellectual skills
(Bloom, 1956). This in...
Category

Example and Key Words
(verbs)
Examples:

Knowledge:
Recall data or information.

Recite a policy. Quote prices f...
Comprehension:

Examples: Rewrites the principles
of test writing. Explain in one's own
words the steps for performing a
c...
Examples:
Use a manual to calculate an
employee's vacation time. Apply
laws of statistics to evaluate the
Use a concept in...
Analysis:

Examples: Troubleshoot a piece of
equipment by using logical deduction.
Recognize logical fallacies in
reasonin...
Examples: Write a company operations or
process manual. Design a machine to
perform a specific task. Integrates
training f...
Evaluation:

Examples: Select the most
effective solution. Hire the most
qualified candidate. Explain and
justify a new bu...
Bloom's Revised
Taxonomy
Creating

Evaluating

Analyzing

Applying

Understanding

Remembering
Lorin Anderson, a former student of Bloom, revised the
cognitive domain in the learning taxonomy in the midnineties and ma...
This new taxonomy reflects a more active form of thinking
and is perhaps more accurate:
Table of The Revised Cognitive Domain
Category

Remembering:
Recall previous learned
information.

Example and Key Words (...
Understanding:
Comprehending the meaning,
translation, interpolation, and
interpretation of instructions and
problems. Sta...
Applying:
Use a concept in a new situation or
unprompted use of an abstraction.
Applies what was learned in the
classroom ...
Analyzing:
Separates material or concepts into
component parts so that its
organizational structure may be
understood. Dis...
Evaluating:
Make judgments about the value of
ideas or materials.

Examples: Select the most effective
solution. Hire the ...
Examples: Write a company
operations or process manual.
Design a machine to perform a
specific task. Integrates training
f...
Affective Domain
The affective domain (Krathwohl, Bloom,
Masia, 1973) includes the manner in which
we deal with things emo...
Category

Receiving
Phenomena:

Example and Key Words (verbs)

Examples: Listen to others with
respect. Listen for and
rem...
Responding to
Phenomena:

Examples: Participates in class
discussions. Gives a presentation.
Questions new ideals, concept...
Examples: Demonstrates belief in the
democratic process. Is sensitive towards
individual and cultural differences (value
d...
Organization:
Organizes values into priorities by
contrasting different values, resolving
conflicts between them, and crea...
Internalizing values
(characterization):
Has a value system that controls their
behavior. The behavior is pervasive,
consi...
Psychomotor Domain
The psychomotor domain (Simpson,
1972) includes physical movement,
coordination, and use of the motorsk...
Category

Example and Key Words (verbs)

Examples: Detects non-verbal
communication cues. Estimate where a
ball will land ...
Set:
Readiness to act. It includes
mental, physical, and emotional
sets. These three sets are
dispositions that predetermi...
Guided Response:
The early stages in learning a
complex skill that includes
imitation and trial and error.
Adequacy of per...
Mechanism
(basic proficiency):
This is the intermediate stage in
learning a complex skill. Learned
responses have become h...
Complex Overt Response
(Expert):
The skillful performance of motor acts
that involve complex movement
patterns. Proficienc...
Examples: Responds effectively to
unexpected experiences. Modifies
instruction to meet the needs of the
learners. Perform ...
Examples: Constructs a new
theory. Develops a new and
comprehensive training
Creating new movement patterns
programming. C...
Lesson planning and demo teaching
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Lesson planning and demo teaching

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  1. 1. Lesson Planning: An Introduction Jonathan Manantan Mensalvas Instructor
  2. 2. Definition According to Nelson Bossing (1961) It is a statement of achievements to be realized and the specific means by which these are to be attained as a result of the activities engaged in day by day under the guidance of the teacher. This definition shows a change in emphasis. In the past, the teacher emphasized knowledge as an end in itself. Today lessons are means of acquiring desirable habits. Attitudes and skills that will lead to the social and personal development.
  3. 3. It helps the teacher to know what to do in class (prepared by them) with quite specific activities. It serve as the “blue print” and “bible” of the teacher and the teaching learning process.
  4. 4. RECIPE FOR EFFECTIVE LESSON PLANNING To ensure successful learning and teaching, teachers must use a number of skills from their considerable learning armory: planning, recording, challenging, demonstrating, securing, managing, adapting, explaining, discussing, interrogating, reviewing, evaluating, modifying, establishing, and questioning. Now ask yourself if you could do all of that without planning for it.
  5. 5. The effective lesson plan is the means by which all of these things are prioritized and orchestrated. It is the means by which we can provide for the diverse and complex elements of learning lesson on lesson. The planning that underpins lessons must be robust, relevant and manageable.
  6. 6. WHY PLAN LESSONS? Planning what and how we teach is something that every teacher embraces every lesson of everyday of their teaching career. The days when teachers could go into a lesson without planning have long since thankfully disappeared.
  7. 7. Lesson planning for the 21st century requires a deep knowledge of a variety of issues. Effective curriculum managers know who within their teams can model the way forward for others and who will be the weakest links in need of strengthening and support.
  8. 8. IMPORTANCE OF LESSON PLAN • 1. A student’s educational growth depends on the selection of subject matter, activities, experiences, and methods adapted to his interests, needs and abilities, and level of maturity. The wise teacher who plans his lessons well gets optimum results in his teaching.
  9. 9. 2. A lesson plan includes framing objectives and choosing subject matter, procedures, materials, and evaluation techniques. A teacher who has to do all these things is forced to prepare and organize his lessons well.
  10. 10. 3. Making lesson plan involves foreseeing what is likely to happen and choosing experiences that will change students for the better. Foresight contributes to good teaching which incidentally, is the aim of every teacher. A lesson plan stimulates the teacher to be creative.
  11. 11. 4. A lesson plan serves as a guide to the apprentice teacher. 5. Planning prevents waste of time that usually accompanies unorganized or haphazard teaching. A lesson plan helps the teacher to be systematic and orderly.
  12. 12. 6. A lesson plan prevents wandering away from the subject matter by making the teacher conscious of what he has to accomplish for the day. 7. A lesson plan gives a feeling security especially to the beginning teacher who usually feels nervous and tense.
  13. 13. 9. The principle of self-activity applies to the learning of both teachers and students. If students learn by doing so do the teachers. By making lesson plans, the teacher learns to be a more effective in as much as good preparation insures good instruction 10. Past lesson plans will be of use to a substitute teacher who may take over in an emergency. A substitute teacher will frame future lessons based on what the class has already covered.
  14. 14. I. OBJECTIVES II. SUBJECT MATTER a. Topic b. References c. Materials of instruction (IM’s) III. Procedure a. Drill/Daily routines b. Review c. Motivation d. Presentation of the lesson e. Lesson proper f. Development of the lesson IV. EVALUATION V. ASSIGNMENT
  15. 15. OBJECTIVES Provide goals to be attained, give direction to the class discussion, and call for what outcomes to expect, may be general or specific.
  16. 16. SPECIFIC OBJECTIVE It is usually attainable in a specific lesson and contributes to the accomplishment of the general aim.
  17. 17. GENERAL OBJECTIVE It is usually broad in scope and may be the objective of a course, subject or semester. It can not be attained in one lesson.
  18. 18. The acronym in formulating objectives of lesson is SMART, which stands for S - specific M- measurable A - attainable R - result oriented T - Time bounded
  19. 19. Behavioral Objectives Current lesson plans used this because they are directed to the development of certain changes in behavior of the individual. Such objectives are visible and measurable. Behavioral objectives are further broken down into cognitive, psychomotor, and affective domains.
  20. 20. Bloom's Taxonomy of Learning Domains
  21. 21. Bloom's Taxonomy was created in 1956 under the leadership of educational psychologist Dr. Benjamin Bloom in order to promote higher forms of thinking in education, such as analyzing and evaluating, rather than just remembering facts (rote learning).
  22. 22. The Three Types of Learning
  23. 23. The committee identified three domains of educational activities or learning (Bloom, 1956): Cognitive: mental skills (Knowledge) Affective: growth in feelings or emotional areas (Attitude or self) Psychomotor: manual or physical skills (Skills)
  24. 24. Since the work was produced by higher education, the words tend to be a little bigger than we normally use. Domains can be thought of as categories. Trainers often refer to these three categories as KSA (Knowledge, Skills, and Attitude). This taxonomy of learning behaviors can be thought of as “the goals of the learning process.” That is, after a learning episode, the learner should have acquired new skills, knowledge, and/or attitudes.
  25. 25. This compilation divides the three domains into subdivisions, starting from the simplest behavior to the most complex. The divisions outlined are not absolutes and there are other systems or hierarchies that have been devised in the educational and training world. However, Bloom's taxonomy is easily understood and is probably the most widely applied one in use today.
  26. 26. Cognitive Domain The cognitive domain involves knowledge and the development of intellectual skills (Bloom, 1956). This includes the recall or recognition of specific facts, procedural patterns, and concepts that serve in the development of intellectual abilities and skills. There are six major categories, which are listed in order below, starting from the simplest behavior to the most complex. The categories can be thought of as degrees of difficulties. That is, the first ones must normally be mastered before the next ones can take place.
  27. 27. Category Example and Key Words (verbs) Examples: Knowledge: Recall data or information. Recite a policy. Quote prices from memory to a customer. Define a term. Key Words: arranges, defines, describes, identifies, knows, labels, lists, matches, names, outlines, recalls, recognizes, reproduces, selects, states.
  28. 28. Comprehension: Examples: Rewrites the principles of test writing. Explain in one's own words the steps for performing a complex task. Translates an equation into a computer spreadsheet. Understand the meaning, translation, interpolation, and Key Words: comprehends, converts, interpretation of instructions and defends, distinguishes, estimates, problems. State a problem in one's explains, extends, generalizes, own words. gives an example, infers, interprets, paraphrases, predicts, rewrites, summarizes, translates.
  29. 29. Examples: Use a manual to calculate an employee's vacation time. Apply laws of statistics to evaluate the Use a concept in a new situation or reliability of a written test. unprompted use of an abstraction. Key Words: applies, changes, Applies what was learned in the computes, constructs, classroom into novel situations in demonstrates, discovers, the work place. manipulates, modifies, operates, Application: predicts, prepares, produces, relates, shows, solves, uses.
  30. 30. Analysis: Examples: Troubleshoot a piece of equipment by using logical deduction. Recognize logical fallacies in reasoning. Gathers information from a department and selects the required tasks for training. Separates material or concepts into component parts so that its organizational Key Words: analyzes, breaks down, structure may be understood. Distinguishes compares, contrasts, diagrams, between facts and inferences. deconstructs, differentiates, discriminates, distinguishes, identifies, illustrates, infers, outlines, relates, selects, separates.
  31. 31. Examples: Write a company operations or process manual. Design a machine to perform a specific task. Integrates training from several sources to solve a problem. Revises and process to improve Builds a structure or pattern from the outcome. Key Words: categorizes, combines, diverse elements. Put parts together to form a whole, with compiles, composes, creates, devises, designs, explains, generates, modifies, emphasis on creating a new organizes, plans, rearranges, meaning or structure. reconstructs, relates, reorganizes, revises, rewrites, summarizes, tells, writes. Synthesis:
  32. 32. Evaluation: Examples: Select the most effective solution. Hire the most qualified candidate. Explain and justify a new budget. Key Words: appraises, compares, Make judgments about the value concludes, contrasts, criticizes, of ideas or materials. critiques, defends, describes, discriminates, evaluates, explains, interprets, justifies, relates, summarizes, supports.
  33. 33. Bloom's Revised Taxonomy
  34. 34. Creating Evaluating Analyzing Applying Understanding Remembering
  35. 35. Lorin Anderson, a former student of Bloom, revised the cognitive domain in the learning taxonomy in the midnineties and made some changes, with perhaps the two most prominent ones being, 1) changing the names in the six categories from noun to verb forms, and 2) 2) slightly rearranging them (Anderson, Krathwohl, Airasian, Cruikshank, Mayer, Pintrich, Raths, Wittrock, 2000; Pohl, 2000)
  36. 36. This new taxonomy reflects a more active form of thinking and is perhaps more accurate:
  37. 37. Table of The Revised Cognitive Domain Category Remembering: Recall previous learned information. Example and Key Words (verbs) Examples: Recite a policy. Quote prices from memory to a customer. Knows the safety rules. Key Words: defines, describes, identifies, knows, labels, lists, matches, names, outlines, recalls, recognizes, reproduces, selects, states.
  38. 38. Understanding: Comprehending the meaning, translation, interpolation, and interpretation of instructions and problems. State a problem in one's own words. Examples: Rewrites the principles of test writing. Explain in one's own words the steps for performing a complex task. Translates an equation into a computer spreadsheet. Key Words: comprehends, converts, defends, distinguishes, estimates, explains, extends, generalizes, gives an example, infers, interprets, paraphrases, predicts, rewrites, summarizes, translates.
  39. 39. Applying: Use a concept in a new situation or unprompted use of an abstraction. Applies what was learned in the classroom into novel situations in the work place. Examples: Use a manual to calculate an employee's vacation time. Apply laws of statistics to evaluate the reliability of a written test. Key Words: applies, changes, computes, constructs, demonstrates, discovers, manipulates, modifies, operates, predicts, prepares, produces, relates, shows, solves, uses.
  40. 40. Analyzing: Separates material or concepts into component parts so that its organizational structure may be understood. Distinguishes between facts and inferences. Examples: Troubleshoot a piece of equipment by using logical deduction. Recognize logical fallacies in reasoning. Gathers information from a department and selects the required tasks for training. Key Words: analyzes, breaks down, compares, contrasts, diagrams, deconstructs, differentiates, discriminates, distinguishes, identifies, illustrates, infers, outlines, relates, selects, separates.
  41. 41. Evaluating: Make judgments about the value of ideas or materials. Examples: Select the most effective solution. Hire the most qualified candidate. Explain and justify a new budget. Key Words: appraises, compares, concludes, contrasts, criticizes, critiques, defends, describes, discriminates, evaluates, explains, interprets, justifies, relates, summarizes, supports.
  42. 42. Examples: Write a company operations or process manual. Design a machine to perform a specific task. Integrates training from several sources to solve a Builds a structure or pattern from problem. Revises and process to improve the outcome. diverse elements. Put parts together to form a whole, with Key Words: categorizes, combines, emphasis on creating a new compiles, composes, creates, meaning or structure. devises, designs, explains, generates, modifies, organizes, plans, rearranges, reconstructs, relates, reorganizes, revises, rewrites, summarizes, tells, writes. Creating:
  43. 43. Affective Domain The affective domain (Krathwohl, Bloom, Masia, 1973) includes the manner in which we deal with things emotionally, such as feelings, values, appreciation, enthusiasms, motivations, and attitudes. The five major categories are listed from the simplest behavior to the most complex:
  44. 44. Category Receiving Phenomena: Example and Key Words (verbs) Examples: Listen to others with respect. Listen for and remember the name of newly introduced people. Key Words: asks, chooses, Awareness, willingness to hear, describes, follows, gives, holds, identifies, locates, names, points selected attention. to, selects, sits, erects, replies, uses.
  45. 45. Responding to Phenomena: Examples: Participates in class discussions. Gives a presentation. Questions new ideals, concepts, models, etc. in order to fully Active participation on the part of understand them. Know the safety the learners. Attends and reacts to a rules and practices them. particular phenomenon. Learning Key Words: answers, assists, aids, outcomes may emphasize complies, conforms, discusses, compliance in responding, greets, helps, labels, performs, willingness to respond, or practices, presents, reads, recites, satisfaction in responding reports, selects, tells, writes. (motivation).
  46. 46. Examples: Demonstrates belief in the democratic process. Is sensitive towards individual and cultural differences (value diversity). Shows the ability to solve The worth or value a person attaches to a problems. Proposes a plan to social particular object, phenomenon, or improvement and follows through with behavior. This ranges from simple commitment. Informs management on acceptance to the more complex state of matters that one feels strongly about. commitment. Valuing is based on the Key Words: completes, demonstrates, internalization of a set of specified differentiates, explains, follows, forms, values, while clues to these values are expressed in the learner's overt behavior initiates, invites, joins, justifies, proposes, reads, reports, selects, shares, and are often identifiable. studies, works. Valuing:
  47. 47. Organization: Organizes values into priorities by contrasting different values, resolving conflicts between them, and creating an unique value system. The emphasis is on comparing, relating, and synthesizing values. Examples: Recognizes the need for balance between freedom and responsible behavior. Accepts responsibility for one's behavior. Explains the role of systematic planning in solving problems. Accepts professional ethical standards. Creates a life plan in harmony with abilities, interests, and beliefs. Prioritizes time effectively to meet the needs of the organization, family, and self. Key Words: adheres, alters, arranges, combines, compares, completes, defends, explains, formulates, generalizes, identifies, integrates, modifies, orders, organizes, prepares, relates, synthesizes.
  48. 48. Internalizing values (characterization): Has a value system that controls their behavior. The behavior is pervasive, consistent, predictable, and most importantly, characteristic of the learner. Instructional objectives are concerned with the student's general patterns of adjustment (personal, social, emotional). Examples: Shows self-reliance when working independently. Cooperates in group activities (displays teamwork). Uses an objective approach in problem solving. Displays a professional commitment to ethical practice on a daily basis. Revises judgments and changes behavior in light of new evidence. Values people for what they are, not how they look. Key Words: acts, discriminates, displays, influences, listens, modifies, performs, practices, proposes, qualifies, questions, revises, serves, solves, verifies.
  49. 49. Psychomotor Domain The psychomotor domain (Simpson, 1972) includes physical movement, coordination, and use of the motorskill areas. Development of these skills requires practice and is measured in terms of speed, precision, distance, procedures, or techniques in execution. The seven major categories are listed from the simplest behavior to the most complex:
  50. 50. Category Example and Key Words (verbs) Examples: Detects non-verbal communication cues. Estimate where a ball will land after it is thrown and then moving to the correct location to catch Perception (awareness): the ball. Adjusts heat of stove to correct The ability to use sensory cues to guide temperature by smell and taste of food. motor activity. This ranges from Adjusts the height of the forks on a sensory stimulation, through cue forklift by comparing where the forks are selection, to translation. in relation to the pallet. Key Words: chooses, describes, detects, differentiates, distinguishes, identifies, isolates, relates, selects.
  51. 51. Set: Readiness to act. It includes mental, physical, and emotional sets. These three sets are dispositions that predetermine a person's response to different situations (sometimes called mindsets). Examples: Knows and acts upon a sequence of steps in a manufacturing process. Recognize one's abilities and limitations. Shows desire to learn a new process (motivation). NOTE: This subdivision of Psychomotor is closely related with the “Responding to phenomena” subdivision of the Affective domain. Key Words: begins, displays, explains, moves, proceeds, reacts, shows, states, volunteers.
  52. 52. Guided Response: The early stages in learning a complex skill that includes imitation and trial and error. Adequacy of performance is achieved by practicing. Examples: Performs a mathematical equation as demonstrated. Follows instructions to build a model. Responds hand-signals of instructor while learning to operate a forklift. Key Words: copies, traces, follows, react, reproduce, responds
  53. 53. Mechanism (basic proficiency): This is the intermediate stage in learning a complex skill. Learned responses have become habitual and the movements can be performed with some confidence and proficiency. Examples: Use a personal computer. Repair a leaking faucet. Drive a car. Key Words: assembles, calibrates, constructs, dismantles, displays, fastens, fixes, grinds, heats, manipulates, measures, mends, mixes, organizes, sketches.
  54. 54. Complex Overt Response (Expert): The skillful performance of motor acts that involve complex movement patterns. Proficiency is indicated by a quick, accurate, and highly coordinated performance, requiring a minimum of energy. This category includes performing without hesitation, and automatic performance. For example, players are often utter sounds of satisfaction or expletives as soon as they hit a tennis ball or throw a football, because they can tell by the feel of the act what the result will produce. Examples: Maneuvers a car into a tight parallel parking spot. Operates a computer quickly and accurately. Displays competence while playing the piano. Key Words: assembles, builds, calibrates, constructs, dismantles, displays, fastens, fixes, grinds, heats, manipulates, measures, mends, mixes, organizes, sketches. NOTE: The Key Words are the same as Mechanism, but will have adverbs or adjectives that indicate that the performance is quicker, better, more accurate, etc.
  55. 55. Examples: Responds effectively to unexpected experiences. Modifies instruction to meet the needs of the learners. Perform a task with a machine that it was not originally intended to do Skills are well developed and the individual can modify movement patterns (machine is not damaged and there is no danger in performing the new task). to fit special requirements. Adaptation: Key Words: adapts, alters, changes, rearranges, reorganizes, revises, varies.
  56. 56. Examples: Constructs a new theory. Develops a new and comprehensive training Creating new movement patterns programming. Creates a new to fit a particular situation or gymnastic routine. specific problem. Learning outcomes emphasize creativity Key Words: arranges, builds, combines, composes, constructs, based upon highly developed creates, designs, initiate, makes, skills. originates. Origination:
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