What is communication part 1


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What is communication part 1

  1. 1. What is Communication? SENDER RECEIVER Feedback receiver sender Communication is the process of sending and receiving information among people… Medium Encode Decode
  2. 2. Communication process <ul><li>Sender- The person who sends the messege.also knows as the source. </li></ul><ul><li>Receiver- The person who receives the message. </li></ul><ul><li>Message- Subject matter of communication. It may contain facts, ideas, feeling or thought. </li></ul><ul><li>Feedback- Receiver’s response or reaction or reply to the message, which is directed towards the sender. </li></ul>
  3. 3. Communication Process channel Noise feedbac k message to be sent Encoding message Message received Message decoding Sender Receiver
  4. 4. Most common ways to communicate Speaking Visual Images Writing Body Language Reading
  7. 8. Oral Communication <ul><li>Anything emanating from mouth is referred to as oral communication. </li></ul>
  9. 10. Types of written communication <ul><li>Reports </li></ul><ul><li>Illustrations </li></ul><ul><li>Memos </li></ul><ul><li>Telegrams </li></ul><ul><li>Facsimiles (FAX) </li></ul><ul><li>E-mails </li></ul><ul><li>Tenders </li></ul><ul><li>Others </li></ul>
  11. 12. Non – Verbal Communication <ul><li>The way an individual positions himself, holds his hands, tilts his head, all transmit volumes about the individual refers to non- verbal Communication. </li></ul>
  12. 13. Types of non-verbal communication <ul><li>Body Language </li></ul><ul><li>Signs and symbols </li></ul><ul><li>Territory/Zone </li></ul><ul><li>Object language </li></ul>
  13. 14. Reading skills <ul><li>Introduction:- </li></ul><ul><li>Reading skills enable readers to turn writing into meaning and achieve the goals of independence , comprehension , and fluency . </li></ul><ul><li>Definition:- </li></ul><ul><li> Reading skills are specific abilities which enable a reader </li></ul><ul><li>to read the written form as meaningful language </li></ul><ul><li>to read anything written with independence, comprehension and fluency, and </li></ul><ul><li>to mentally interact with the message. </li></ul>
  14. 15. Reading Strategies <ul><li>There are eight strategies of reading which we use in different situations: </li></ul><ul><li>Skimming </li></ul><ul><li>Scanning </li></ul><ul><li>Detailed reading </li></ul><ul><li>Reading between the lines </li></ul><ul><li>Reading beyond the lines </li></ul><ul><li>Predict </li></ul>
  15. 16. Skimming: for getting the gist of something <ul><li>The technique you use when you're going through a newspaper or magazine: you read quickly to get the main points, and skip over the detail. It's useful to skim: </li></ul><ul><li>to preview a passage before you read it in detail </li></ul><ul><li>to refresh your understand of a passage after you've read it in detail. </li></ul><ul><li>Use skimming when you're trying to decide if a book in the library or bookshop is right for you. </li></ul>
  16. 17. SKIMMING <ul><li>A reading skill used to get the general idea of the text </li></ul><ul><li>Quicker-it is done in 3 to 4 times quicker than normal reading </li></ul><ul><li>Employed when readers have a lot to read in a short time </li></ul><ul><li>Look out for key words, phrases, headings, subheadings to get the general idea </li></ul><ul><li>E.g. reading newspapers, flipping through magazines, surfing the Internet </li></ul>
  17. 18. Scanning: for a specific focus <ul><li>The technique you use when you're looking up a name in the phone book: you move your eye quickly over the page to find particular words or phrases that are relevant to the task you're doing. </li></ul><ul><li>It's useful to scan parts of texts to see if they're going to be useful to you: </li></ul><ul><li>the introduction or preface of a book </li></ul><ul><li>the first or last paragraphs of chapters </li></ul><ul><li>the concluding chapter of a book. </li></ul>
  18. 19. SCANNING <ul><li>A selective reading skill used to find specific information quicker </li></ul><ul><li>Involves quick eye movement down the page to look for specific words, phrases or sentences </li></ul><ul><li>Readers do not read everything in detail but pay attention to only specific parts that may concern the information sought after </li></ul><ul><li>E.g. looking for cupcakes recipe in a cookbook, searching for an electrician in Yellow Pages, looking for an answer in a specific paragraph </li></ul>
  19. 20. example 12 * 10 -6 Concrete 0.9 * 10 -6 Invar (Ni-Fe alloy) 11 * 10 -6 Steel 29 * 10 -6 Lead 3.2 * 10 -6 Glass (Pyrex) 9 * 10 -6 Glass (ordinary) 17 * 10 -6 copper 19 * 10 -6 Brass and bronze 24 * 10 -6 Aluminum Average Linear expansion coefficient( α ) (ºC) -1 Material
  20. 21. Examples <ul><li>The ‘What’s on’ section of the local paper: </li></ul><ul><li>Skimming </li></ul><ul><li>Scanning </li></ul><ul><li>A newspaper: </li></ul><ul><li>Skimming </li></ul><ul><li>Scanning </li></ul><ul><li>The telephone directory: </li></ul><ul><li>Skimming </li></ul><ul><li>Scanning </li></ul><ul><li>A train timetable: </li></ul><ul><li>Skimming </li></ul><ul><li>Scanning </li></ul>
  21. 22. Detailed reading: for extracting information accurately <ul><li>Where you read every word, and work to learn from the text. </li></ul><ul><li>In this careful reading, you may find it helpful to skim first, to get a general idea, but then go back to read in detail. Use a dictionary to make sure you understand all the words used. </li></ul>
  22. 23. Reading between the lines <ul><li>Meaning:- </li></ul><ul><li>Discern a meaning which isn't made obvious or explicit. </li></ul><ul><li>It means trying to understand the deeper meaning of literature rather than just the written words. </li></ul><ul><li>origin:- </li></ul><ul><li>This expression derives from a simple form of cryptography, in which a hidden meaning was conveyed by secreting it between lines of text. It originated in the mid 19th century and soon became used to refer to the deciphering of any coded or unclear form of communication, whether written or not; for example, one might say &quot;She said she was happy to go to the party but didn't seem concerned when it was cancelled. Reading between the lines, I don't think she wanted to go in the first place&quot;. </li></ul>
  23. 24. Reading between the lines <ul><li>For example:- </li></ul><ul><li>“ I don’t care what anyone thinks.” — Translation: I’m deeply insecure and constantly worry about what everyone thinks of me. </li></ul><ul><li>“ I have to learn for myself.” — Translation: I’m an idiot. </li></ul><ul><li>“ Sure, you can call me sometime.” — Translation: I will be changing my phone number tomorrow. </li></ul>
  24. 25. Reading beyond the lines <ul><li>Often times it is the more mature student that is capable of reading beyond the lines. This involves deriving implications, speculating about consequences , and drawing generalizations not stated by the author. This process leads the reader to new insights and to reflection on the significance of the ideas proposed by the author. This level of reading is perhaps the highest and most difficult to attain , however it is in reach of every reader. Questions to ask at this level would be, If you agree with the author, what other conclusion now mentioned can you draw? What other reaction can you or other people experience to this material? Why are these alternatives important? </li></ul><ul><li>It means reading and thinking about questions that aren't obvious in the book and/or article. For example; Questions about the future (in the reading). </li></ul>
  25. 26. Predict <ul><li>After skimming or scanning a text, make a few guesses about it: </li></ul><ul><li>What is the text about? </li></ul><ul><li>What clues suggest the topic? </li></ul><ul><li>What likely happens in the text? </li></ul><ul><li>Purpose </li></ul><ul><li>think about a topic before reading in greater details. </li></ul><ul><li>Identify what you already know about a topic </li></ul><ul><li>Keeps your mind focused as you read </li></ul>
  26. 27. process <ul><li>1. Skim the text, and note any heading, graphics, bolded text, etc. </li></ul><ul><li>2. Stop. Write a few guesses. You may use a few prompts to get you started: </li></ul><ul><li>“I think this text is about….” </li></ul><ul><li>“something that likely happens in this text is….” </li></ul><ul><li>3. Begin the text. </li></ul><ul><li>Check at your guesses. Are they correct? </li></ul><ul><li>Change your predictions as you read. </li></ul>
  28. 29. <ul><li>Figure out your purpose of reading </li></ul><ul><li>State what you know about the topic </li></ul><ul><li>Look at the questions that follow the text (if any) </li></ul>PRE-READING WHILE-READING <ul><li>Write down your thoughts </li></ul><ul><li>Identify the writer’s main points </li></ul><ul><li>Highlight any words, phrases or sentences that interest you </li></ul>
  29. 30. POST-READING <ul><li>Think again about what you have read </li></ul><ul><li>Write down your opinion </li></ul><ul><li>Answer the questions that follow (if any) </li></ul><ul><li>Discuss with your friends about the topic </li></ul>