Infill Housing Study - Athens, GA

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This presentation covers preliminary research done on three neighborhoods within the city of Athens, GA which have encountered issues related to incompatible infill development. The presentation covers the unique character of each of the infill neighborhoods and the types of variables pursued to determine neighborhood impacts of the infill projects.

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Infill Housing Study - Athens, GA

  1. 1. Challenges & Strategies: Infill Housing Compatibility A study in Athens, GA UAA April 4, 2013 Andy Carswell Kim Skobba Bruce Lonnee
  2. 2. INTRODUCTION BACKGROUND INFILL TRENDS FINDINGS NEXT STEPS General Organization of Infill Housing Study • Introduction- Defining Infill; Purpose for Study • Background- Current policies & ordinances affecting infill • Local Infill Trends- Location & amount of residential construction; Specific compatibility issues • Targeted Study Area Analysis - highlighting benefits and challenges for local context • Next Steps – Opportunities for future study.
  3. 3. INTRODUCTION BACKGROUND INFILL TRENDS FINDINGS NEXT STEPS Background Literature on Infill • Boudreaux (2011) pointed out the lack of interest in infill as research subject. • “Neighbor’s perceptions of urban infill,” Vallance, Perkins, & Moore (2005) • “Effects on size disparities (McMansion effects) versus aesthetic concerns,” Jack Nasar (2007, 2009) • “Reasons why some urban areas/neighborhoods are more likely to be redeveloped than others,” Charles (2011) • A lack of literature on revealed preferences (as opposed to stated preferences)
  4. 4. INTRODUCTION BACKGROUND INFILL TRENDS FINDINGS NEXT STEPS Advantages of Infill Housing • Makes good use of urban land and infrastructure • Creates more “sustainability” within one’s city • Controls urban sprawl and the negative externalities that derive from it
  5. 5. INTRODUCTION BACKGROUND INFILL TRENDS FINDINGS NEXT STEPS Challenges with Infill Housing • Could place more stress on existing infrastructure • Increased density creates varying degrees of social problems • Potential for incompatibility in design with existing urban neighborhoods
  6. 6. INTRODUCTION BACKGROUND INFILL TRENDS NEXT STEPS Why study infill housing in Athens? FINDINGS
  7. 7. INTRODUCTION BACKGROUND INFILL TRENDS NEXT STEPS • 1999 Comp Plan Guiding Principles: Increase Opportunities for Harmonious Infill Housing • 2008 Comp Plan Issues & Opportunities • Concerns raised by neighbors of infill • Mayor & Commission Direction Why study infill housing in Athens? FINDINGS
  8. 8. INTRODUCTION BACKGROUND INFILL TRENDS NEXT STEPS 1950 Median 1950 Average 2005 Median 2005 Average ACC National 983 2434 1164 1453 1773 1920 0 500 1000 1500 2000 2500 Single Family Home Size Trends in Square Feet Why study infill housing in Athens? FINDINGS
  9. 9. INTRODUCTION BACKGROUND INFILL TRENDS NEXT STEPS Why study infill housing in Athens? FINDINGS
  10. 10. INTRODUCTION BACKGROUND INFILL TRENDS NEXT STEPS Study Scope: • Examine infill housing trends • Focus on design and construction • Focus on single-family residential structures • Identify strategies to facilitate compatibility •Identify next steps FINDINGS
  11. 11. INTRODUCTION BACKGROUND INFILL TRENDS NEXT STEPS Defining Infill Housing: • No singular definition that fits all communities; local definitions should fit developmental characteristics of community • Broadly, “Infill” is development on vacant or underutilized parcels in previously developed areas that have access to community infrastructure and services. •For Athens study, single-family residential development on 5 or fewer acres in Traditional neighborhood areas FINDINGS
  12. 12. INTRODUCTION BACKGROUND INFILL TRENDS NEXT STEPS Defining Infill Housing: FINDINGS
  13. 13. INTRODUCTION BACKGROUND INFILL TRENDS NEXT STEPS To guide the study and any subsequent policy recommendations, the Background examines past policies and current ordinances that have an influence on infill housing trends. • Local historic district designations • Model Infill Housing Plans • Comprehensive zoning changes in 2000 • Subsequent amendments to 2000 code • Ongoing, overlapping policy considerations FINDINGS
  14. 14. INTRODUCTION BACKGROUND INFILL TRENDS NEXT STEPS Local historic district designations – in 1988 four districts established; now eleven local residential historic districts Urban Subdivision Urban Infill - Historic Disticts Urban Infill Suburban Infill Surburban Subdivision 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 FINDINGS
  15. 15. INTRODUCTION BACKGROUND INFILL TRENDS NEXT STEPS Local historic district designations Certificate of Appropriateness review for: •Placement •Orientation •Massing •Scale •Façade Elements •Materials & Ornamentation FINDINGS
  16. 16. INTRODUCTION BACKGROUND INFILL TRENDS NEXT STEPS Model Infill Housing Plans – in 1996 FINDINGS
  17. 17. INTRODUCTION BACKGROUND INFILL TRENDS NEXT STEPS New zoning ordinance – 2000 intended to increase infill opportunities THEN: RG- 6 Arterial Road/ Major Collector: Local: 30,000 min. lot area 150’ min. lot width 40’ front yard setback 25’ rear yard setback 10’ side yard setback 6,000 min. lot area 60’ min. lot width 30’ front yard setback 25’ rear yard setback 10’ side yard setback NOW: RS-8 & RS-5 & RM-1 8,000, 5,000, & 4,000 min. lot area 60’ & 50’ min. lot width 80’ min. depth 15’ front yard setback 10’ rear yard setback 6’ side yard setback All Streets: FINDINGS
  18. 18. INTRODUCTION BACKGROUND INFILL TRENDS NEXT STEPS • Subsequent ordinance amendments – 2003-2007 intended to encourage compatibility • Flag Lots • Street Frontage • Final plat sequencing • Residential in commercial zones • Manufactured homes FINDINGS
  19. 19. INTRODUCTION BACKGROUND INFILL TRENDS NEXT STEPSFINDINGS Background: Previous Policies & Ordinances AMENDMENTS SINCE 2000 FLAG LOTS
  20. 20. INTRODUCTION BACKGROUND INFILL TRENDS NEXT STEPSFINDINGS Background: Previous Policies & Ordinances AMENDMENTS SINCE 2000 STREET FRONTAGE
  21. 21. INTRODUCTION BACKGROUND INFILL TRENDS NEXT STEPSFINDINGS Teardowns & Subdivisions
  22. 22. INTRODUCTION BACKGROUND INFILL TRENDS NEXT STEPSFINDINGS Background: Previous Policies & Ordinances AMENDMENTS SINCE 2000FINAL PLAT SEQUENCING
  23. 23. INTRODUCTION BACKGROUND INFILL TRENDS NEXT STEPSFINDINGS Condominium Single-Family Residential
  24. 24. INTRODUCTION BACKGROUND INFILL TRENDS NEXT STEPS INFILL SINCE 2004 BY INFORMAL NEIGHBORHOOD AREAS 30% 21% 14% 13% 7% 4% 4% 3% 2% 2% EAST ATHENS-NORTH EAST ATHENS FIVE POINTS BOULEVARD ARMC-KING AVE COBBHAM-HANCOCK NEWTOWN BAXTER-BROAD CARRS HILL OTHER Local Trends: Amount & Location of Infill FINDINGS
  25. 25. INTRODUCTION BACKGROUND INFILL TRENDS NEXT STEPS Common Compatibility Issues: •Scale & Massing •Height •Setbacks & Orientation •Fenestration •Driveways & Parking Areas •Details & Materials •Grading & Stormwater Runoff •Landscaping •Tree Protection •Teardowns & Subdivisions FINDINGS
  26. 26. INTRODUCTION BACKGROUND INFILL TRENDS NEXT STEPS Scale & Massing FINDINGS
  27. 27. INTRODUCTION BACKGROUND INFILL TRENDS NEXT STEPS Height FINDINGS
  28. 28. INTRODUCTION BACKGROUND INFILL TRENDS NEXT STEPSFINDINGS How do height, massing, and Floor Area Ratio relate?
  29. 29. INTRODUCTION BACKGROUND INFILL TRENDS NEXT STEPS Setbacks & Orientation FINDINGS
  30. 30. INTRODUCTION BACKGROUND INFILL TRENDS NEXT STEPS Fenestration FINDINGS
  31. 31. INTRODUCTION BACKGROUND INFILL TRENDS NEXT STEPS Details & Materials FINDINGS
  32. 32. INTRODUCTION BACKGROUND INFILL TRENDS NEXT STEPS Driveways & Parking Areas FINDINGS
  33. 33. INTRODUCTION BACKGROUND INFILL TRENDS NEXT STEPS Grading & Stormwater Runoff FINDINGS
  34. 34. INTRODUCTION BACKGROUND INFILL TRENDS NEXT STEPS Landscaping FINDINGS
  35. 35. INTRODUCTION BACKGROUND INFILL TRENDS NEXT STEPS Tree Protection FINDINGS
  36. 36. INTRODUCTION BACKGROUND INFILL TRENDS NEXT STEPS Amount and Location of InfillNew Single Family Residential Permit Locations 7% 17% 5% 71% Urban Subdivision Urban Infill Suburban Infill Surburban Subdivision FINDINGS
  37. 37. INTRODUCTION BACKGROUND INFILL TRENDS NEXT STEPSFINDINGS Athens Infill Study Areas
  38. 38. INTRODUCTION BACKGROUND INFILL TRENDS NEXT STEPSFINDINGS • Historic Boulevard Neighborhood Area • Hampton Court Neighborhood Area • Dr. Martin Luther King Pkwy Neighborhood Area Study Areas
  39. 39. INTRODUCTION BACKGROUND INFILL TRENDS NEXT STEPSFINDINGS Historic Boulevard Neighborhood Area • Central portion is both a Local and National Register Historic District • Immediately northwest of Downtown Athens • Several periods of infill development over 250 years • Primarily owner- occupied housing
  40. 40. INTRODUCTION BACKGROUND INFILL TRENDS NEXT STEPSFINDINGS Historic Boulevard Neighborhood Area
  41. 41. INTRODUCTION BACKGROUND INFILL TRENDS NEXT STEPSFINDINGS Hampton Court Neighborhood Area • Early 20th C. suburb of Downtown • Located south of Downtown Athens and UGA campus • Recent trends of large- scale, single-lot infill, and “Ranchions” • Mix of owner- occupied and student rental housing
  42. 42. INTRODUCTION BACKGROUND INFILL TRENDS NEXT STEPSFINDINGS Hampton Court Neighborhood Area
  43. 43. INTRODUCTION BACKGROUND INFILL TRENDS NEXT STEPSFINDINGS Dr. Martin Luther King Jr. Pkwy. Area • Historically African-American Neighborhood • “Over the River” from Downtown Athens • Recent trends of large-lot infill development • Primarily off- campus student housing
  44. 44. INTRODUCTION BACKGROUND INFILL TRENDS NEXT STEPSFINDINGS Dr. Martin Luther King Jr. Pkwy. Area
  45. 45. INTRODUCTION BACKGROUND INFILL TRENDS NEXT STEPSFINDINGS Results for Change in Assessed Values for Impacted and Non-Impacted Areas of Neighborhoods, 2000-2012 BOULEVARD Non-Impacted Homes (n=292) --> Ann. Growth Assess. Value 2000-2012 = 9.33% Impacted Homes (n=118) --> Ann. Growth Assess. Value 2000-2012 = 9.56% Infill Homes (n=12) --> Ann. Growth Assess. Value 2000-2012 = 15.61% HAMPTON*** Non-Impacted Homes (n=228) --> Ann. Growth Assess. Value 2000-2012 = 5.21% Impacted Homes (n=85) --> Ann. Growth Assess. Value 2000-2012 = 4.29% Infill Homes (n=4) --> Ann. Growth Assess. Value 2000-2012 = 3.97%
  46. 46. INTRODUCTION BACKGROUND INFILL TRENDS NEXT STEPSFINDINGS Results for Mobility of Residents/Homeowners within Impacted and Non-Impacted Areas of Neighborhoods, 2000-2012 BOULEVARD HOME OWNERS** • Non-Impacted areas (56.70%) • Infill and Impacted Areas (46.15%) HAMPTON HOME OWNERS • Non-Impacted Areas (50.66%) • Infill and Impacted Areas (48.31%)
  47. 47. INTRODUCTION BACKGROUND INFILL TRENDS NEXT STEPSFINDINGS Results for Estimated Effect on 2012 Property Taxes Paid per Household within Impacted Neighborhoods BOULEVARD HOME OWNERS • Total Tax Revenue Surcharge: $7,009.83 • Tax Revenue Surcharge Per Household: $54.34 HAMPTON HOME OWNERS • Total Tax Revenue Foregone: $(40,482.37) • Total Tax Revenue Foregone Per Household: $(454.86)
  48. 48. INTRODUCTION BACKGROUND INFILL TRENDS NEXT STEPS • There seems to be a relationship between mobility and assessed value vis a vis the two neighborhoods studied. • Different types of infill cause different directional effects. • This is the first known attempt to go beyond stated preferences of infill-affected neighborhoods. Conclusions FINDINGS
  49. 49. INTRODUCTION BACKGROUND INFILL TRENDS NEXT STEPS Limitations of Athens Infill Study FINDINGS Limited number of neighborhoods studied. No control for other neighborhood variables not captured by the assessment data. Association does not mean causation. Qualitative data assembly regarding infill- impacted neighbors would add significantly. Historical assessment data limitations.
  50. 50. INTRODUCTION BACKGROUND INFILL TRENDS NEXT STEPS • Incorporate student learning type of components to integrate students within the community and learn more about incompatible housing types • Survey the residents of impacted communities to learn more about what their concerns or issues are with infill housing, and to help choose better variables to measure to determine the impacts and effects of infill housing within a community. Next Steps for Study FINDINGS
  51. 51. Questions?

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