The Toxicology of Personal Care Products & CosmeticsPresentation Transcript
The Toxicology ofPersonal Care Products& CosmeticsCleveland State University, Fall 2005
The ProblemThe EvidenceRecommendations
The Problem The Food, Drug & Cosmetic Act defines cosmetics as:“articles other than soap, which are applied to thehuman body for cleansing, beautifying, promoting attractiveness, or altering the appearance.”
This definition includes: • Baby Products • Makeup • Bath items • Mouthwash • Deodorant • Nail care • Fragrances • Skin care • Hair care • ToothpasteAmericans spend about $8 billion a year on cosmetics – some 85% contain synthetic fragrances.
What’s wrong with fragrances?• Herbs, flowers, spices• Pheromones (musk)• Crude oil isolates - benzene, toluene, naphthalene, phenol and xylene• Byproduct – VOCs• Indoor Air pollutant
Fragrances and Indoor Air QualityVOCs• Central nervous system• Allergies, asthma & migraines• Hypersensitivity – 15% - Initial exposure, re-exposure - Degenerative diseases - Neurological disorders
In the 1990’s, research efforts increase• MCS causes debate in the medical community• Groups aim to prove link between chemical exposures and health problems• Strategy – use government / industry data
The Evidence Environmental Working Group• Several in-depth reports• Reviewed 7,000+ ingredients; 14,108 products – crossed w/scientific and regulatory databases – 11% tested for safety – Hundreds deemed “unsafe for use in cosmetics” – Many known to cause cancer, birth defects, etc. – Proposition 65, OSHA, EPA, NIH, Superfund
Other studies used • Centers for Disease Control – Third National Report on Human Exposure to Environmental Chemicals • Healthcare without Harm – Not Too Pretty – Pretty Nasty • All find toxins in cosmetics
Breast Cancer and Cosmetics• 1 in 7• Paraben preservatives & the estrogen patch• Alcohol & breast cancer • Increases activity of ER+ • Fragrances, 80% by volume • Dose = 30 glasses of table wine
Other cancer concerns• Cosmetics grade talc – ovarian cancer• Formaldehyde in nail polish• Ethylacrylate - Maybelline mascara – Unsafe according to Intl Fragrance Association• Coal Tar Dye - Neutrogena • Bladder cancer & non-hogkins lymphoma
Neurotoxins • Central nervous function • Shampoos – MIT • Nail polish - formaldehyde • Neurological disorders ADD/ADHD, autism, cerebral palsy, dyslexia, MS, Parkinson’s,
Reproductive Effects• Teratogens, Mutagens, Endocrine Disruptors• Phthalates – Purpose – Genital abnormalities and thelarche (68%, 6-24 mos)• Musk – PBT – Passes from mother to child – German U studies – damages cellular DNA
Other environmental effects • Modern wastewater and sewage treatment methods can’t remove fragrance compounds • Toxic burden for animals • Petroleum = environmental effects
Are my products going to hurt me?poi·son - A substance taken internally or appliedexternally that is injurious to health or dangerous to life. • Cumulative /combined effects • Low-dose effects • Timing • Genetic vulnerability • Bioaccumulative chemicals should be avoided
Policies FDA is the regulating agency – Food, Drug & Cosmetic Act • Requires no pre-market safety testing –Fair Packaging & Labeling Act • Labeling exemption, trade secrets, “fragrance”
Cozy for industry• No law requires product registration, ingredient data or even reports on product-related injuries or illness.• Industry panel finds 9 ingredients unsafe in 30 years• FDA and other regulated industries – Drugs, foods – “Revolving door” hiring
What do industry trade groups have to say?
Latest news • EU bans ingredients – (U.S. companies provide alternatives) • Arnold signs law – California Safe Cosmetics Act November 2005 • Calvin Klein’s “Eternity”
More changes needed• Consumers rely on FDA, the agency charged with regulation and public notification• Enforce federal code requiring products with untested ingredients to carry warning• Provide full disclosure
Precautionary principle “Preventative anticipation.“ Willingness to take action in advance of scientific proof on the grounds that further delay will provecostly to society and nature, and in the longer term, is selfish and unfair to future generations.