Edrd 3160 chowdhury


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Edrd 3160 chowdhury

  1. 1. Social Shaping of Internet-based Media Applications in Global Communication Landscape The Cases of Iran and Indonesia Guest Lecture/ February 2012 Course:3160: International Communication Dr. Ataharul Huq Chowdhury School of Environmental Design and Rural Development University of Guelph
  2. 2. Outline <ul><li>Internet-based Media and Some Essential Definitions </li></ul><ul><li>Social Media and Functional Dynamics of Communication </li></ul><ul><li>Social Shaping of Communication Media: Concepts and Theories </li></ul><ul><li>Cases of Internet-based Media </li></ul><ul><li>Insights and Questions </li></ul>
  3. 3. <ul><li>Internet: Series of developments emerged as out of </li></ul><ul><li>necessity from traditional telecommunication system to </li></ul><ul><li>‘ network of networks’ </li></ul><ul><li>World Wide Web- advanced development of internet </li></ul><ul><li>based on data distribution processing, interconnection of </li></ul><ul><li>personal computers, hypertext and coding, and browser </li></ul><ul><li>Video Streaming-Video signal transmission techniques </li></ul><ul><li>over the internet </li></ul><ul><li>Web 2.0- Ways of deploying the web for interactive </li></ul><ul><li>communication e.g. social networking, bookmarking, </li></ul><ul><li>wikies, blogs etc. </li></ul>Internet-based Media and Some Essential Definitions I I
  4. 4. Social Media -Informal and personal approach to informaiton sharing, shifting top-down and corporate-based communication process to a more indivdualized, participatory and democratic approach, whereby user is creator, consumer, and repeat innovator of the web content (Schein et al , 2010; Ashley et al , 2009) II Social Media Adding Functional Dynamics of Communication
  5. 5. 4
  6. 6. Honeycomb of Social Media Functionalities Ctied from Kietzmann et al , 2011
  7. 7. Communication approaches are becoming more dynamic, interchanging functional roles/ways to enable human communication Ctied from Luders, 2008
  8. 8. <ul><li>What are the implications for global communication systems? </li></ul><ul><li>What matter is not patterns of interaction, but </li></ul><ul><li>societal significance of evolving media </li></ul><ul><li>practices between personal and mass mediated </li></ul><ul><li>communication. </li></ul><ul><li>Market mechanism and strategies, socio-political, </li></ul><ul><li>cultural and ethical concerns etc. </li></ul><ul><li>Shifting from a pyramid structure to multiple ways </li></ul><ul><li>that support indivdual creativities and mass </li></ul><ul><li>innovation </li></ul>
  9. 9. III Social Shaping of Communication Media: Concepts and Theories Social Shaping of Technology (SST) Theory (Bijker, 1995; Williams & Edge, 1996) Technological Determinism (Technology direct social change) Social and Economic Determinism (Social, political and economic contexts direct development and use of technology) SST : technological and social change is the outcome of dynamic interplays among inventions, social, economic and political institutions, and culture that take place in a large and intricate systems
  10. 10. <ul><li>Key concepts and stages </li></ul><ul><li>Sociotechnical ensemble and social groups : Dynamic relationship between heterogeneous technical and social elements and specific practices. Different social groups are engaged in this relationship in order to achieve their diverse stakes </li></ul><ul><li>Interpretive flexibility : Different meanings of technology and choices available. Social groups start defining the techology that best serve their own interests and goals </li></ul><ul><li>Stablization : Stage of narrowing down interpretive flexibility </li></ul>
  11. 11. <ul><li>Social systems, code of conducts, rules allow both </li></ul><ul><li>designer and user to enthusiastically participate in the </li></ul><ul><li>development and use of a tool </li></ul><ul><li>User shapes the technology/tool (user oriented) </li></ul><ul><li>Tool encourages democratic communication among the members of a society </li></ul><ul><li>It supports use of maximum creativity, and energy of individuals </li></ul><ul><li>Users are both consumers, and producers </li></ul>Tools for Conviviality (Illrich, 1973)
  12. 12. <ul><li>Authoritarian regime with strict control over traditional </li></ul><ul><li>mass media </li></ul><ul><li>Promising growth of Internet-based media, supported by </li></ul><ul><li>public-private partnerships and user demand </li></ul>Case 1: Social Media in Iranian Social and Political Mobilization (Amieripour et al , 2009) Cases of Internet-based Media Applications IV
  13. 13. <ul><li>One million signature campaign to change </li></ul><ul><li>discriminatory law against women such as, right </li></ul><ul><li>to participate in public events, maternal identity </li></ul><ul><li>rights etc. </li></ul><ul><li>Blogsphere - getting the message across </li></ul><ul><li>different segments </li></ul><ul><li>Struggles between bloggers and government to </li></ul><ul><li>control cyberspace </li></ul><ul><li>- Censoring word ‘women’ from search engine </li></ul><ul><li>- Compliance to registry blogs </li></ul><ul><li>- Reducing the speed to 128kbps </li></ul><ul><li>- Imprisonment and death penalty of bloggers </li></ul>Social movement for women rights Bloggers post photos, stories in support of campaign Cited from Amieripour, 2009
  14. 14. <ul><li>Bloggers role in distributing the news, links and stories </li></ul><ul><li>Increasing pressure from outside </li></ul><ul><li>Review of several cases and changes in punishment </li></ul>Campaign against the law of death penalty by stoning in case of involvement in adultery Logo of the campaign (Cited from Amieripour, 2009)
  15. 15. <ul><li>Authoritative regime, strict control of the pubic media </li></ul><ul><li>Low connectivity and access to the internet (<1% access) </li></ul>A traditional Warung (left) and a Warnet (right) (cited from Lim, 2003) Case 2: Internet, Social Networks and Political Revolution in Indonesia (Lim, 2003) <ul><li>Traditional linkages of Warnet (cybercafe) and its social networks </li></ul>
  16. 16. <ul><li>Controversial information on President Suharto’s wealth </li></ul><ul><li>initiated by an Indonesian Professor working in Australia </li></ul><ul><li>Information disseminated through different mechanisms </li></ul><ul><li>including traditional distribution outlets/agents </li></ul><ul><li>First layer- The informant (Indonesian professor and some online news </li></ul><ul><li>platform) </li></ul><ul><li>Second layer- Internet user mostly in warnet </li></ul><ul><li>Third layer- various mediators (newspaper sellers, street vendors, taxi </li></ul><ul><li>drivers, and warung/warnet owner) </li></ul>
  17. 17. <ul><li>Internet-based media may be conditioned by the vested interest </li></ul><ul><li>of authoritarian regime </li></ul><ul><li>What is about in case of democratic region/capitalistic societies </li></ul><ul><li>in Asia- Is it enjoying convivial use? Why? And Why not? </li></ul><ul><li>Pakistan- Strong censorship over website (1300 million website shutdown due </li></ul><ul><li>to religious controversy and pornography, facebook/youtube were </li></ul><ul><li>shutdown several time) </li></ul><ul><li>Bangladesh- Shutdown of facebook/ youtube two times in 2010, </li></ul><ul><li>imprisonment of a university teacher, imprisonment of a </li></ul><ul><li>facebook based social mobilization group member in 2012. </li></ul>
  18. 18. V Insights and Questions
  19. 19. <ul><li>Have the theories of global communication fully grasped the impact of </li></ul><ul><li>communication practices on global economic progress? </li></ul><ul><li>How can we describe an anti-capitalism movement such as raising voices </li></ul><ul><li>against impact of WTO and TNCs to resource-poor and often rural </li></ul><ul><li>communities in Asia? </li></ul><ul><li>How can we explain the present controversy regarding “who owns the </li></ul><ul><li>internet” to users in countries such as Iran or Indonesia who are trying to </li></ul><ul><li>have their voices heard globally? </li></ul><ul><li>How can we explain role of internet-media, more specifically social media in </li></ul><ul><li>considering diversities across Asia nations? </li></ul><ul><li>What is the impact of conviviality of the Internet-based media (e.g. social </li></ul><ul><li>media) in public sector services (non profitable services), such as agri-food, </li></ul><ul><li>health and education internationally? </li></ul><ul><li>How can we assess the contemporary application of social media at global & </li></ul><ul><li>local scale? Has it been already stabilized? or open to further development? </li></ul>Questions for further discussions
  20. 20. Ataharul Huq Chowdhury [email_address]