Reported speech (1)

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Reported speech (1)

  1. 1. R EPORTED S PEECH E STILO INDIRECTO
  2. 2. What is reported speech? <ul><li>We use reported speech to speak about what someone has said. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>For example: </li></ul></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul><ul><li>Lisa: “I like Beyonce” </li></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Reported speech </li></ul></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul><ul><li>Lisa said (that) she liked Beyonce. </li></ul>
  3. 3. How do we use reported speech? <ul><li>1. We usually change what the person said in the present into the past tense: </li></ul><ul><li>Lisa said: “I LIKE Beyonce” </li></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul><ul><li>Lisa said (that) she LIKED Beyonce </li></ul>
  4. 4. There are two main reporting verbs: SAY and TELL. <ul><li>Say has only one object: </li></ul><ul><li>She said that she liked Beyonce </li></ul><ul><li>Tell has TWO objects: </li></ul><ul><li>She told Karen that she liked Beyonce. </li></ul><ul><li>She told her that she liked Beyonce. </li></ul><ul><li>(note that we use the object pronouns: told me, told you, told him, told her, told us, told them ) </li></ul>
  5. 5. How to transform a reported speech sentence. <ul><li>Present ->past </li></ul><ul><li>E.g. I’m happy -> </li></ul><ul><li>She said that she was happy </li></ul><ul><li>Past simple -> past perfect </li></ul><ul><li>e.g. I bought a t-shirt -> </li></ul><ul><li>She said that she had bought a t-shirt </li></ul>
  6. 6. <ul><li>Present perfect ->past perfect </li></ul><ul><li>e.g. Susan has lived in Madrid since 1998 -> </li></ul><ul><li>He said that Susan had lived in Madrid since 1998 </li></ul><ul><li>Present continuous->past continuous </li></ul><ul><li>e.g. I’m cooking spaghetti-> </li></ul><ul><li>She said that she was cooking spaghetti </li></ul>
  7. 7. <ul><li>Future simple ->would + infinitive </li></ul><ul><li>e.g. I’ll go to the beach -> </li></ul><ul><li>She said she would go to the beach </li></ul><ul><li>can->could </li></ul><ul><li>e.g. I can play the guitar -> </li></ul><ul><li>He said he could play the guitar </li></ul><ul><li>Must->had to </li></ul><ul><li>e.g. I must go-> </li></ul><ul><li>He said he had to go </li></ul>
  8. 8. <ul><li>Sometimes you have to change the pronouns: </li></ul><ul><li>I-> he, she </li></ul><ul><li>We ->they </li></ul><ul><li>You must use common sense here. If you are transforming a sentence you said yourself, of course you don’t have to make this transformation! </li></ul><ul><li>e.g . «You must write a composition» -> </li></ul><ul><li>I said that you had to write a composition . (I’m the same person) </li></ul><ul><li>BUT if you tell this to your mum: </li></ul><ul><li>Elena/She said that we had to write a composition </li></ul>!!!
  9. 9. <ul><li>Same problem when using time references: </li></ul><ul><li>Tuesday: </li></ul><ul><li>« You have to write the composition tomorrow»-> </li></ul><ul><li>She said I had to write the composition tomorrow . </li></ul><ul><li>(still Tuesday) </li></ul><ul><li>She said I had to write the composition the next day. </li></ul><ul><li>(NOT on Tuesday) </li></ul>
  10. 10. Other common transformations: This, these Now Today Yesterday The day before yesterday Tomorrow The day after tomorrow Next week/month/year Last week/month/year Two days/three hours ago That, those Then That day The day before Two days before The next day Two days later The following week/month/year The previous week/month/year Two days/three hours before

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