R e shaping the W o rld of S c holarly C ommunications : E nhanced A c cess to I n formation R esources Indian Institute of Public Administration New Delhi U sha M ujoo M unshi International Conference on “ 21 st C entury Vision for L ibraries “ Islamabad, October 13-14, 2010
C hanges mirror those going on in other institutions and in society as a whole
Library and Librarian part of intellectual infrastructure of previous centuries
What is their role in the 21 st Century?
Google-generation researcher very different to ourselves – social networking, mobile computing, collaborative working, basically anti-IPR, expects everything free & equates what’s free with everything.
Is there something special the academic/research library,librarian can still offer ?
Mediation, trust, guardianship of authenticity, more........................................
Do we have the necessary skill sets?
(How) Are we Selecting new & effective mechanisms for developing an ongoing dialogue with researchers to validate the development of the Library’s content strategy on a regular basis?
How far have we decided (at least) moderate shifts in collecting that can be accommodated within existing resources
W hat distinguishes an Academic/Research library today?
W hat would differentiate them would be :
Degree of connection to subscription services & “managed” access to
freely accessible content on the internet
Other services provided
The Library of the future will combine … ... a managed place … … with a managed digital space .”
From Database/Repository to Environment (Managed Digital Space) Seamless (fully integrated with digital learning and research; beyond?) Community (resources, people, interaction, process, activities, services) Omnipresent (it will be wherever the users are) Dynamic & Organic (the users will construct it as much as we will) Trusted Information Systems (status, reputation, influence, impact) Personal Information Systems (discovery, assistance, utility) Smart Information ( telemetry, propagation )
Scholarly Information Systems Portfolios Information Landscape Personal Info. Manager Portals Identity And Access Management Content Managers Object Libraries Library Catalogue Scholarly Publishing Learning Management Systems Digital Repositories
Signaling value to the institution in an open-ended fashion
Culture of Openness Most modern libraries are “ hybrid” libraries Continuing the past and integrating new methods of storage and transmission of information into an already existing structure
Culture of Openness Expressions of this culture
Preserving knowledge, &
Working with others to bring this
knowledge to bear on the world's great challenges.
Mission directly related to widest dissemination
Creating & sustaining a trusted information environment
Developing strategies & systems that
facilitate worldwide scholarly communication
Strategies and Systems that Promote Discovery
Evaluating, developing, investing in value-added discovery & delivery tools, especially open source tools
Metadata Creation & Management
Buying Access Creating IRs Facilitating Access Provide - One Stop shop Access for Information Resources
Open Access Movement & initiatives Statements & Declarations http://www.digitalscholarship.org/oab/2statements.htm Budapest definition By "open access" to this literature, we mean its free availability on the public internet, permitting any users to read, download, copy, distribute, print, search, or link to the full texts of these articles, crawl them for indexing, pass them as data to software, or use them for any other lawful purpose, without financial, legal, or technical barriers other than those inseparable from gaining access to the Internet itself. (Open Society Institute, 2002) See http://www.soros.org/openaccess/
to have a colossal body of work in “the commons” that is available to the public for -
Free & legal sharing
CC licenses provide
A flexible range of protections & freedoms for authors, artists, & educators
Provides free, easy-to-use legal tools
The tools give everyone from individual creators to large companies & institutions a simple, standardized way to grant copyright permissions to their creative work.
Enable people to easily change their copyright terms from the default of
“ all rights reserved ” to “ some rights reserved .”
flickr cc As rightly said by — Evan Prodromou, Founder, Identi.ca “ Within a generation we can open the world’s knowledge to all of its inhabitants and reduce or eliminate the misery caused by lack of access to information, and Creative Commons is a crucial part of the cultural compact that makes that revolution possible"
Online managed, permanent database of scholarly output
Open Access (OA) maximizes:-
research visibility, usage and uptake
research applications, impact and citation
research productivity, progress and funding
research manageability and assessability
By maximising research accessibility!
There is an ethical argument that research funded by the public should be available to the public.
To maximise, measure & reward the uptake, usage, applications and impact of an institution’s research output
To collect, manage & showcase a permanent record of the institution’s research output.
Open Access ‘Routes’ GOLD = authors publish in OA journals that make their articles freely accessible online immediately upon publication. OA journals are peer-reviewed. Depending on the model, authors may have to pay publishers a fee to publish. GREEN = authors publish in a subscription journal, but also make their articles freely accessible online, usually by depositing them in either an institutional repository or central repository (either peer-reviewed postprints or non-peer-reviewed preprints).
While these are getting populated regularly, new resources crop up for access by all
Resources: Typical Examples
Directory of Open Access Journals http://www.doaj.org/;
OpenDOAR—the Directory of Open Access Repositories http://www.opendoar.org/ ;
ROAR--Registry of Open Access Repositories
Free Medical Journals http://www.freemedicaljournals.com/
Several open access Forums, Blogs, and News are out there. Examples include :
American Scientist Open Access Forum: http://www.ecs.soton.ac.uk/~harnad/Hypermail/Amsci/ - a
complete Hyper-mail archive of the ongoing discussion of providing open access to the peer-
reviewed research literature online ;
Budapest Open Access Initiative Forum http://www.soros.org/openaccess/forum.shtml;
OA Librarian http://oalibrarian.blogspot.com/;
Open Access News http://www.earlham.edu/~peters/fos/fosblog.html
; SPARC Open Access Forum http://www.arl.org/sparc/soa/index.html#forum and SPARC Open Access Newsletter http://www.arl.org/sparc/soa/index.html
SHERPA http://www.sherpa.ac.uk/ SHERPA is investigating issues in the future of scholarly communication. It is developing open-access institutional repositories in universities to facilitate the rapid and efficient worldwide dissemination of research. ROAR tracks the growth of existing OA Archives. OpenDOAR worldwide Directory of Open Access Repositories (http://www.opendoar.org/) ROARMAP tracks the growth of institutional self-archiving policies . ROMEO tracks journal/publisher "green" policies on author self-archiving . RoMEO - Publisher's copyright & archiving policies (http://www.sherpa.ac.uk/romeo/) JULIET - Research funders archiving mandates and guidelines (http://www.sherpa.ac.uk/juliet/index.php ) Statistical Analysis For an indication of how UK research funders have implemented Open Access policies and level of funds affected, please see: Selected research funders' grant expenditure available at http://www.sherpa.ac.uk/juliet/financialstats.html.) Let us take a look at some statistics associated with some of these International/National Initiatives: Open Access to Research
ROAR Registry of Open Access Repositories resulted in 1737 repositories Open Access to Research India: Vidyanidhi (~55000 records) IISc, Bangalore, (~23000records) (IIAstrophysics (~4211) RRI (~3546) Many not listed ROAR/Open DOAR – NISCAIR (6 Feb, 2009)
Open Access to Research OpenDOAR 1737 repositories ~996 Organizations ~100 countries 8 Continents India
Open Access to Research http://www.eprints.org/openaccess/policysignup/
National Level Open Access Repositories Subject-based central repositories - for medicine (NIC), library and information science, and catalysis National Level Open Access Repositories Catalysis Database Librarians’ Digital Library (LDL) OpenMed&NIC Principal Implementing Agency : National Centre for Catalysis Research (NCCR), Indian Institute of Technology Madras (IITM), Chennai Supporting Agency : Indian Institute of Technology Madras (IITM), Ministry of Human Resource Development, Government of India Web Address : http://www.eprints.iitm.ac.in Principal Implementing Agency : Documentation Research & Training Centre (DRTC), Indian Statistical Institute, Bangalore Supporting Agency : Indian Statistical Institute, Government of India Web Address : https://drtc.isibang.ac.in Principal Implementing Agency : Bibliographic Informatics Division, National Informatics Centre (NIC), New Delhi Supporting Agency : National Informatics Centre, Ministry of Communication & Information Technology, Government of India; Indian Council of Medical Research (ICMR), Ministry of Health & Family Welfare, Government of India Web Address : http://openmed.nic.in/
Directory of Open Access Journals : http://www.doaj.org/
Service covers free, full text, quality controlled scientific and scholarly journals (more or less) cover all subjects and languages.
Aim to increase the visibility and ease of use of open access scientific and scholarly journals thereby promoting their increased usage and impact
2296 journals searchable at article level.
450157 articles included in the
Open Access Journal : We define open access journals as journals that use a funding model that does not charge readers or their institutions for access. From the BOAI definition of "open access" we take the right of users to "read, download, copy, distribute, print, search, or link to the full texts of these articles" as mandatory for a journal to be included in the directory Open Access to Research : OA Journals
Digital Library Initiatives : Digital Archiving and Information Dissemination Digital Library of India
Three broad Categories
Several Digital Library Initiatives taken up at national level. Examples Include:
Digital Library of India
National Mission for Manuscripts
Typical Examples Digital Libraries Principal Implementing Agency : Indian Institute of Science (IISc), Bangalore Supporting Agency (Indian) : Ministry of Communication & Information Technology, Government of India Supporting Agency (Overseas) : National Science Foundation, USA Web Address : http://www.new.dli.ernet.in/ http://www.dli.cdacnoida.in/ http://www.dli.iiit.ac.in/
Open Archives Initiative – Protocol for Metadata Harvesting
a client application that issues OAI-PMH requests
A harvester is operated by a service provider as a means of collecting metadata from repositories .
Cross Archives Search Service for Indian Repositories (CASSIR) National Centre For Science Information (NCSI), Indian Institute of Science (IISc), Bangalore http://ardb4.ncsi.iisc.ernet.in/oai/
Har vesters for Open Repositories with Unlimited Search (HORUS) Indian Statistical Institute, Kolkata http://ir.isical.ac.in/
Search Digital Libraries (SDL) : Documentation Research & Training Centre (DRTC), Indian Statistical Institute, Bangalore, Government of India https://drtc.isibang.ac.in/sdl/
Knowledge Harvester@INSA …
Knowledge Harvester @ IIPA OKHARI is a suit of information services based on OAI-PMH (Open Access Initiative - Protocol for Metadata Harvesting) OKHARI collects metadata from various digital repositories dealing with subjects in Social Sciences with a strong flavour in Public Administration and provides a single stop search engine for full-text resources in the respective subjects.
HORUS is a suit of information services based on OAI-PMH (Open Access Initiative - Protocol for Metadata Harvesting) HORUS collects metadata from various digital repositories dealing with subjects like Computer Sciences, Biological Sciences,, Social Sciences, etc. and provides a single stop search engine for full-text resources in the respective subjects.
Accessing Multifaceted Digital Resources The end user is forced to learn and interact with as many interfaces as products available and this leads to stress and confusion. It results in very low usage of the subscribed resources. Limitations Offer links only to content from publishers with which these companies have agreements, or that a library accesses within a specific service
Linking and Serial Management Service by other publishers
Examples: PubMed's LinkOut, Silverplatter Silverlinker, ISI Web of Science, OCLC Electronic Collections Online, Cambridge Scientific, EBSCO
-- A publishing industry initiative to enable article linkages across participating publishers
-- Multiple vendor implementations, e.g., Ex Libris SFX and Endeavor Encompass
-- being developed through the Open Archives Initiative
-- TDNet and SerialsSolutions: fulltext list generation, URL generation to load MARC-like catalog records into local catalog
OpenURL for accessing Resources OSS tools for OpenURL