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History           Drama                   WARProphets             PoliticsMurderConspiracy    Ghosts
Murder
IMPERATORGAIUSJULIUSCAESARDIVUSJuliusCaesar
Julius CaesarJuly 12, 100 BC – March 15, 44 BC,was a Roman military and politicalleader and one of the mostinfluential men...
Leading his legions across the Rubicon,Caesar sparked civil war in 49 BC that lefthim the undisputed master of the Romanwo...
These events incited a friendof Caesar, Marcus JuniusBrutus, and a number of othersenators, to assassinate thedictator on ...
• The assassins hoped to  restore the normal running  of the Republic, but their  actions led to another  Roman civil war,...
Brutus began to conspire against Caesar with his friend and brother- in-law Cassius and other men, calling themselves the ...
On the Ides of March of 44 BC, a group of senatorscalled Caesar to the forum for the purpose of reading apetition, written...
As Caesar began to read the false petition, Casca pulledat Caesars tunic and made a glancing thrust at thedictators neck. ...
As Caesar began to read the false petition, Casca pulledat Caesars tunic and made a glancing thrust at thedictators neck. ...
Caesars last words are given              as       "Et tu, Brute?    Then fall, Caesar."   Shortly after the assassination...
Caesars funeral was a public one, taking place in the RomanForum, with a great number of Romans in attendance. Caesarswill...
Caesars death also marked, ironically, the end ofthe Roman Republic, for which the assassins had struck him down. The Roma...
Mark Antony gave a dramatic  eulogy that appealed to the   common people. It was a  reflection of public opinion  followin...
The Tragedy of   Julius Caesar         byWilliam Shakespeare
• Julius Caesar is a tragedy by William Shakespeare, believed written  in 1599. It portrays the conspiracy against the Rom...
"Beware the Ides of March."        Soothsayer, Act I, Scene II  "Cowards die many times before theirdeaths; The valiant ne...
Cast ofCharacters
JULIUS CAESAR: A great Roman general who has recentlyreturned to Rome after a military victory in Spain. Julius Caesar is ...
BRUTUS: A high-ranking, well-regarded Roman nobleman whoparticipates in a conspiracy to assassinate Caesar. Brutus is moti...
MARK ANTONY: A loyal friend of Caesars. In    contrast to the self-disciplined Brutus, Antony isnotoriously impulsive and ...
OCTAVIUS: Caesars adopted son and appointed successor.Octavius, who had been traveling abroad, returns after Caesars death...
FLAVIUS AND MURELLUS: Two tribunes who condemn the plebeians for their fickleness in cheering Caesar when once they  cheer...
Julius caesar
Julius caesar
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Julius caesar
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Julius caesar

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Transcript of "Julius caesar"

  1. 1. History Drama WARProphets PoliticsMurderConspiracy Ghosts
  2. 2. Murder
  3. 3. IMPERATORGAIUSJULIUSCAESARDIVUSJuliusCaesar
  4. 4. Julius CaesarJuly 12, 100 BC – March 15, 44 BC,was a Roman military and politicalleader and one of the mostinfluential men in classical antiquity.He played a critical role in thetransformation of the RomanRepublic into the Roman Empire.
  5. 5. Leading his legions across the Rubicon,Caesar sparked civil war in 49 BC that lefthim the undisputed master of the Romanworld.After assuming control of the government,he began extensive reforms of Romansociety and government.He was proclaimed dictator for life, and heheavily centralized the bureaucracy of theRepublic.
  6. 6. These events incited a friendof Caesar, Marcus JuniusBrutus, and a number of othersenators, to assassinate thedictator on the Ides of March(March 15th) in 44 BC.
  7. 7. • The assassins hoped to restore the normal running of the Republic, but their actions led to another Roman civil war, and eventually to the establishment of the autocratic Roman Empire by Caesars adopted heir, Augustus.• In 42 BC, two years after his assassination, the Roman Senate officially sanctified him as one of the Roman deities.
  8. 8. Brutus began to conspire against Caesar with his friend and brother- in-law Cassius and other men, calling themselves the Liberatores ("Liberators"). Many plans were discussed by the group, as documented by Nicolaus of Damascus: “The conspirators never met openly, but they assembled a few at a time in eachothers homes. There were many discussions and proposals, as might be expected, while they investigated how and where to execute their design. Some suggested that they should make the attempt as he was going along the Sacred Way, which was one of his favorite walks. Another idea was for it to be done at the elections during which he had to cross a bridge to appoint the magistrates in the Campus Martius; they should draw lots for some to push him from the bridge and for others to run up and kill him. A third plan was to wait for a coming gladiatorial show. The advantage of that would be that, because of the show, no suspicion would be aroused if arms were seen prepared for the attempt. But the majority opinion favoured killing him while he sat in the Senate, where he would be byhimself since only Senators would be admitted, and where the many conspirators could hide their daggers beneath their togas. This plan won the day.”Two days before the assassination of Caesar, Cassius met with theconspirators and told them that, if anyone found out about the plan, they were going to turn their knives on themselves.
  9. 9. On the Ides of March of 44 BC, a group of senatorscalled Caesar to the forum for the purpose of reading apetition, written by the senators, asking him to handpower back to the Senate. However, the petition was afake.Mark Antony, having vaguely learned of the plot thenight before from a terrified Liberator named ServiliusCasca, and fearing the worst, went to head Caesar off atthe steps of the forum. However, the group of senatorsintercepted Caesar just as he was passing the Theatre ofPompey, and directed him to a room adjoining the eastportico.
  10. 10. As Caesar began to read the false petition, Casca pulledat Caesars tunic and made a glancing thrust at thedictators neck. Caesar turned around quickly andcaught Casca by the arm, crying in Latin "Villain Casca,what do you do?" Casca, frightened, called to his fellowsenators in Greek: "Help, brothers!"Within moments, the entire group, including Brutus,was striking out at the dictator. Caesar attempted to getaway, but, blinded by blood, he tripped and fell; themen eventually murdering him as he lay, defenseless,on the lower steps of the portico. According toEutropius, around sixty or more men participated in theassassination. He was stabbed 35 times.
  11. 11. As Caesar began to read the false petition, Casca pulledat Caesars tunic and made a glancing thrust at thedictators neck. Caesar turned around quickly andcaught Casca by the arm, crying in Latin "Villain Casca,what do you do?" Casca, frightened, called to his fellowsenators in Greek: "Help, brothers!"Within moments, the entire group, including Brutus,was striking out at the dictator. Caesar attempted to getaway, but, blinded by blood, he tripped and fell; themen eventually murdering him as he lay, defenseless,on the lower steps of the portico. According toEutropius, around sixty or more men participated in theassassination. He was stabbed 35 times.
  12. 12. Caesars last words are given as "Et tu, Brute? Then fall, Caesar." Shortly after the assassination the senators left the building talking excitedly amongst themselves, and Brutus cried out to his beloved city: "People of Rome, we are once again free!".
  13. 13. Caesars funeral was a public one, taking place in the RomanForum, with a great number of Romans in attendance. Caesarswill was read and it was discovered that two of his assassins werehis heirs.A gruesome wax model of Caesars body, showing every woundhe suffered, was displayed to the crowd, as was his actual body. Mark Antony gave a stirring speech, and the angry crowd set fireto the meeting hall where Caesar had been killed and went insearch of the assassins.
  14. 14. Caesars death also marked, ironically, the end ofthe Roman Republic, for which the assassins had struck him down. The Roman middle and lower classes, with whom Caesar was immensely popular, were enraged that a small group of aristocrats had killed their champion.
  15. 15. Mark Antony gave a dramatic eulogy that appealed to the common people. It was a reflection of public opinion following Caesars murder. Antony, who had been drifting apart from Caesar, capitalizedon the grief of the Roman mob,perhaps with the intent of taking control of Rome himself.
  16. 16. The Tragedy of Julius Caesar byWilliam Shakespeare
  17. 17. • Julius Caesar is a tragedy by William Shakespeare, believed written in 1599. It portrays the conspiracy against the Roman dictator Julius Caesar, his assassination and its aftermath. It is one of several Roman plays that he wrote, based on true events from Roman history, which also include Coriolanus and Antony and Cleopatra.• Although the title of the play is Julius Caesar, Caesar is not the central character in its action; he appears in only three scenes, and is killed at the beginning of the third act. The protagonist of the play is Marcus Brutus, and the central psychological drama is his struggle between the conflicting demands of honor, patriotism, and friendship.• The play reflected the general anxiety of England over succession of leadership. At the time of its creation and first performance, Queen Elizabeth, a strong ruler, was elderly and had refused to name a successor, leading to worries that a civil war similar to that of Rome might break out after her death.
  18. 18. "Beware the Ides of March." Soothsayer, Act I, Scene II "Cowards die many times before theirdeaths; The valiant never taste of death but once." Julius Caesar, Act II, Scene II "Et tu, Brute! Then fall, Caesar." Julius Caesar, Act III, Scene I"Cry Havoc and let slip the dogs of war" Mark Anthony, Act III, Scene I "Friends, Romans, countrymen, lend me your ears;I come to bury Caesar, not to praise him." Mark Anthony, Act III, Scene II"This was the noblest Roman of them all" Mark Anthony, Act V, Scene V
  19. 19. Cast ofCharacters
  20. 20. JULIUS CAESAR: A great Roman general who has recentlyreturned to Rome after a military victory in Spain. Julius Caesar is not the main character of the play that bears his name; Brutus has over four times as many lines, and the play does not show us Caesars point of view. Nonetheless, virtually every other character is preoccupied with Caesar—specifically, with thepossibility that Caesar may soon become king. If Caesar were to become king, it would mean the end of Romes republican system of government, in which senators, representing the citizens of Rome, wield most of the power. To noblemen like Brutus and Cassius, who consider themselves the equals of Caesar or any other citizen, Caesars coronation would mean they would no longer be free men but rather slaves. Caesar never explicitly says that he wants to be king—he even refuses the crown three times in a dramatic public display—but everything he says and does demonstrates that he regards himself as special and superior to other mortals. In his own mind, he seems already to be an absolute ruler.
  21. 21. BRUTUS: A high-ranking, well-regarded Roman nobleman whoparticipates in a conspiracy to assassinate Caesar. Brutus is motivated byhis sense of honor, which requires him to place the good of Rome above his own personal interests or feelings. Thus, he plots against Caesar in order to preserve the republic even though he loves and admires Caesarpersonally. While the other conspirators act out of envy and rivalry, only Brutus truly believes that Caesars death will benefit Rome. Brutusssense of honor is also his weakness, as he tends to assume that his fellow Romans are as highminded as he is, which makes it easy for others to manipulate him. CASSIUS: A talented general and longtime acquaintance of Caesar. Cassius resents the fact that the Roman populace has come to revere Caesar almost as a god. He slyly leads Brutus to believe that Caesar hasbecome too powerful and must die, finally converting Brutus to his cause by sending him forged letters claiming that the Roman people support the death of Caesar. Impulsive and unscrupulous like Antony, Cassius harbors no illusions about the way the political world works. A shrewd opportunist, he acts effectively but lacks integrity.
  22. 22. MARK ANTONY: A loyal friend of Caesars. In contrast to the self-disciplined Brutus, Antony isnotoriously impulsive and pleasure-seeking, passionaterather than principled. He is extremely spontaneous and lives in the present moment. As resourceful as he is unscrupulous, Antony proves to be a dangerous enemy of Brutus and the other conspirators.
  23. 23. OCTAVIUS: Caesars adopted son and appointed successor.Octavius, who had been traveling abroad, returns after Caesars death,then joins with Antony and sets off to fight Cassius and Brutus. Antonytries to control Octaviuss movements, but Octavius follows his adoptedfathers example and emerges as the authoritative figure, paving the wayfor his eventual seizure of the reins of Roman government. CASCA: One of the conspirators. Casca is a tribune (an officialelected to represent the common people of Rome) who resents Caesarsambition. A rough and blunt-speaking man, Casca relates to Cassius andBrutus how Antony offered the crown to Caesar three times and how eachtime Caesar declined it. Casca insists, however, that Caesar was acting,manipulating the populace into believing that he has no personalambition. Casca is the first to stab Caesar. CALPHURNIA: Caesars wife. Calphurnia invests greatauthority in omens and portents. She warns Caesar against going to theSenate on the Ides of March, for she has had terrible nightmares andheard reports of many bad omens. PORTIA: Brutuss wife and the daughter of a noble Roman(Cato) who took sides against Caesar. Portia, accustomed to beingBrutuss confidante, is upset to find him so reluctant to speak his mindwhen she finds him troubled.
  24. 24. FLAVIUS AND MURELLUS: Two tribunes who condemn the plebeians for their fickleness in cheering Caesar when once they cheered for Caesars enemy Pompey. Flavius and Murellus are punished for removing the decorations from Caesars statues during Caesars triumphal parade. CICERO: A Roman senator renowned for his oratorical skill. Cicero speaks at Caesars triumphal parade. He later dies at the order of Antony, Octavius, and Lepidus.LEPIDUS: The third member of Antony and Octaviuss coalition. Though Antony has a low opinion of Lepidus, Octavius trusts Lepiduss loyalty.DECIUS: A member of the conspiracy. Decius convinces Caesar that Calphurnia misinterpreted her dire nightmares and that, in fact, no danger awaits him at the Senate. Decius leads Caesar right into the hands of the conspirators.
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