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  • 1. RUSSIA AND NEIGHBOURING COUNTRIES World Regional Geography
  • 2. GENERALNATURAL ENVIRONMENT Far from ocean Continentality – extreme cold during winter, hot during summer  Siberia’s January temperature (below -30ºC), July (12-16ºC)  Western Russia, winter (-5ºC-10ºC), summer (15-20ºC.). Natural Resources  Fully exploits natural resources (steel and fuel).  That’s how it gained superpower.  Strong political, military and economic expansion.  Rich of iron, gold, diamond, fuels [coal, oil, natural gas, uranium].
  • 3. ENVIRONMENTAL PROBLEMS4)Oil pollution5)Pollution at Norilsk6)Nuclear Pollution7)Aral Sea Contraction8)Threatened Fisheries
  • 4. GLOBAL ENVIRONMENTAL POLITICS Russia & Its Neighbouring Countries : account for 2nd greatest CO2 emitters with 17.4% United States : 1st emitter with 36.1%. Japan : 3rd with 8.5% Must achieve Kyoto Protocol target to reduce pollution. Economic downturn in 1990s indirectly reduce pollution.
  • 5.  THE SOVIET UNION  WWI (1914-1918) exert stress to the Russian empire.  1917 huge death toll and food shortages.  Lenin died in 1924, Stalin came to power.  Joseph Stalin “Five-year Plan” emphasized on industrialization.  A more productive farming through farms merging.  Command economy, central planning.  Favored production of heavy industries rather than consumer products.  Compromise with Hitler led to WWII.
  • 6.  HUMAN RIGHTS  Czar killed/sent political opponents to Siberia.  Stalin created GULAG – “Main Directorate for Corrective labor Camps”.  High death toll.  Gulag prisoners were forced to work in coal, copper and gold mines.  Human rights blossom only after the breakup of Soviet Union in 1991. WOMEN’S ROLE  Equal rights with men.  Visible in government, economics, medicine, engineering etc.  But still maintain responsibility towards family.
  • 7.  THE ECONOMY OF THE LAND: AGRICULTURE  Productive farming in West of Russia, Ukraine & Moldova.  Fruits, vegetables, wine, tobacco.  Southern Caucasus is warmer can produce citrus fruits, tea, tobacco, cotton and rice.  Nikita Khrushchev introduced Virgin Land Campaign in 1950s to promote self-sufficiency.  Failed mainly due to alteration of the ecosystem.
  • 8.  SECRET CITIES  After 1991, some have over 100,000 people.  Linked to nuclear industry, biologic warfare research, missile and weapon design.  Scientific research institute/labor camps.  Scientists had better living conditions
  • 9. SUBREGION I: THE SLAVIC COUNTRIES Russian Federation, Ukraine, Belarus, Moldova Developed heavy industries during Soviet times. Through 1990s most inefficient industries abandoned. Corruption, poor infrastructure, bureaucracy hindered FDI. Superior in Science and sports. Scientist and athletes were pampered with better living. Under Communism the people enjoyed:  Free university education to everyone.  Free healthcare.  Generous maternity leave.  Supportive to theater and arts.
  • 10.  Public institution and welfare support system ended by 1991 (breakup of Soviet Union)  Scientists and athletes migrated to other countries.  Free education, medical etc no longer available.  Some Russian still support communist ideals.
  • 11. SUBREGION II: THE SOUTHERN CAUCASUS Georgia, Armenia, Azerbaijan Enjoys warmer climate Economic development:  Georgia - tea and citrus fruits.  Armenia - fruits especially grapes.  Azerbaijan : tobacco, cotton and rice.
  • 12. SUBREGION III: CENTRAL ASIA Kazakhstan, Turkmenistan, Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan, Uzbekistan. Majority Muslim During Soviet time, these 5 countries were directed to supply the needs of the Russians [coal, iron, oil, natural gas, chromium]. Pipeline and transportation lines are prevalent. Produce similar commodities of oil, natural gas and cotton. Water disputes between Kyrgyzstan and Uzbekistan. Rivers originate from Kyrgyzstan & Tajikistan flow down to Turkmenistan, Uzbekistan & Kazakhstan.
  • 13. THE END