GLOBAL ECONOMIC GEOGRAPHYCHAPTER 1 : GLOBALIZATION
What is Geography?• A discipline that studies spatial patterns in the human and physical world.• Examines where and how the human and the natural features of Earth’s surface are distributed, how they relate to each other, and how they change over time.
World Regional GeographyPhysical Geography Human Geography The distribution of The distribution climate varieties, of people and plant ecologies, their activities soil types, (economies, mountain cultures, politics, formation, and and urban river action etc. changes.
Regions• People create Regions• Regions shape people’s activities• People remake regions• Region interacts with other regions• Regions are used by those in power
Globalization• The increasing level of interconnectedness among people and places throughout the world.• Facets of Globalization – The spread of ideas, technologies, crime and diseases – Flows of goods and services – Human mobility – Shifts in dominant ideologies, especially religious or political beliefs – The access to the availability of images and messages through the media of TV, film, the Internet and print. – Uncontrollable negatives
continued...• Facet of Localization – Political nationalism – Separatist groups – Customs and practices – Ethnic and religious differences – Resistance to the visible economic penetration
Measuring Globalization• Political engagement indicator includes membership in international organizations• Technology measures include number of Internet users, Internet hosts and secure servers for encrypted transaction• Personal contact indicators such as international travel and tourism, international telephone traffic, personal transfer, cross-border nongovernmental remittances• Economic integration measures such as trade flows, portfolio capital flows, foreign direct investment, and investment income.
Major World Region1. Europe2. Russia and Neighbouring Countries3. East Asia4. Southeast Asia5. South Asia6. Northern Africa and Southwestern Asia7. Africa South of the Sahara8. Australia, Oceania and Antartica9. Latin America10. North America
The Modern, Globalizing world• Exploration and Colonies – 1400s Indian and Chinese sailors explore the globe. – 1450 European new trade system and wealth expansion. – 1600s African slaves shipped to America• Industrialization and Colonization – Mid-1700s manufacturing technologies expansion.• Globalization, Countries and Protectionism – 1800s globalization of trade through the development of communication technologies (telegraph) and trasportation
Further Globalization• After the World War II (WWII) and the Cold War – Emergence of international organization (UN, GATT [WTO] , IMF) – International movement of ideas, capital, goods and people increased significantly after 1978. – China open door policy – Break up of Soviet union in 1991
Conclusion• The study of the world regions emphasizes the interaction of global forces and local conditions overtime.• These interactions explain why today’s global scenario is the way it is.