Raising children in a diverse society abt 2
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Raising children in a diverse society abt 2 Raising children in a diverse society abt 2 Presentation Transcript

  •   Asya Taylor
  •   Get into small groups (3 or 4 people) Make a list of qualities you believe are important for a parent to posses AND challenges a parent may face when…. o Disciplining their child o Communicating with their child o Preparing their child for diversity (Especially in schools)
  •    Parenting PROCESS in the a society that is diverse economically, by race/ethnicity, and in terms of family structure Objective: To understand and begin to recognize how the parenting process is influenced by was of gender, race/ethnicity, and social class INTERCONNECT within the family structure. Addresses the parenting process in a diversity of social circumstances
  •     Family Form: Married couples (64%), Unmarried parenting couples (3.7%), Single mothers (24.6%), Single fathers (4.3%) Grandparent families (3%) Living Arrangements: New level of complexity Multipartnered Fertility: a person having children with more than one partner. ―Regardless of their living arrangements or family structure, parents today face a myriad of questions that would not have been imagines just a few decades ago.
  •  Some positives.. o Parents now have higher levels of education and are likely to have had some exposure to formal knowledge about child development and child-raising techniques o Many fathers are more emotionally involved than several decades ago o New communication technologies  Negatives.. o Difficulties and mistakes made by parents o Helps to know that children can be remarkably resilient: Children (and adults) can demonstrate the capacity to recover from or rise above adverse situations and events
  •  1. 2. 3. 4. 5. The family ecology perspective (Chapter 2) leads us to look at how the larger environment challenges parents today Balancing work and parenting Many influences on children other than those at home Emphasis on how parents influence their children can lead to them feeling anxious about their performance as parents Stress on parents due to caring for a children and elderly parents Parenting has become a lifestyle choice among many.
  •    Page 257 Stress that parents experience and cause parental frustration, anger, depression, and household conflict. Having social support mediates, or diminishes, this adverse relationship
  •  • • • • About 40 years ago, Alice Rossi conducted an analysis and asserted that the transition to parenthood is difficult for several reasons First time parents- little experience Geographically distant from friends and family (common)- feel isolated– especially true for immigrant mothers Employed mothers- Stressed- especially those with inflexible schedules and little room for promotion Postpartum depression- in about 10% of new mothers
  •  • • • • Study among low-income black families Those who were pleased with their pregnancy were less likely to look at parenting as burdensome For couples- less time spent relaxing together- decline in emotional and sexual relationship Transition to parenthood is easier for couples who rated their relationship high in quality prior to having a child– even when they have an unusually fussy child Becoming a parent typically involves the paradox of parenting: • ―New parents feel overwhelmed , but the motivation to overcome their stress and do their best proceeds from the stressor itself- the child as a source of love, joy, and satisfaction‖ (Coles 2009).
  •    Cultural tradition- mother assumes primary responsibility of the child Mother is also expected to be child’s primary psychological parent– take on major emotional responsibility of child’s upbringing and safety Recently– society expects ―good‖ fathers to not only assume considerable (usually primary) financial responsibility, but to also actively participate in child’s care.
  •    Mothers typically engage in more hands-on parenting than do fathers. (Mother could be single, cohabitating, or married. Parenting style doesn’t change) Take primary responsibility for their child’s upbringing Mothers define ―quality time‖ differently from fathers
  •   Heterosexual fathers see themselves as more involved with their child’s life than their partner does When mother see fathers as competent parents—and when fathers believe that their child’s mother has confidence in them—fathers are more likely to be highly involved‖ (Fagan and Barnett 2003).
  •    About 38% of all births occur to unmarried women Single women, dramatically more often that single men, assume responsibility for child rearing Single mother is a diverse category- by race/ethnicity, immigration experience, education, and socioeconomic class.
  •    1. 2. Adopt or use donor sperm/artificial insemination Tend to be in their 30s or 40s Stages in the decision to become a single mother by choice Woman begins to realize that finding a partner before becoming a parent is unlikely Investigates options– adoption or nonstandard insemination • 3. Mobilizes support from friends and family Once the child is in her life, she continue to construct her roles around financial support and caring for the child
  •     Variety of ways that a woman can arrive at this status More likely to live in poverty ―Prince Charming‖ Some keep biological fathers of the child at a distance for multiple reasons o Poor relations, safety concerns for children, apprehension about father’s illegal activities, or seeing him as generally unreliable  Single mothers are well aware that to be married is the cultural ideal
  •     Single mothers often feel stigmatized These negatives attitudes encourage society-wide reluctance to provide resources for single mothers and their children Many single mothers construct support networks Many brothers, brothers-in-law, grandfathers, uncles, and male cousins act as father figures to the children
  •     Private Safety Net- social support from family and friends, --associated with children’s better adjustment. Comes with costs– Single mothers undertake an ―ungainly balancing act… as they walk a tightrope of reciprocity, social isolation, and material support frequently coupled with humiliating condemnation‖ Mothers commonly choose to further their education to improve life for themselves and their children More stress can come from welfare (seen also in Chapter 7) o Can cause unsatisfying work at poverty-level wages, new day care struggles, and less time with their children.
  •     Father’s involvement in a child’s upbringing -- positive cognitive, emotional, and behavioral outcomes from infancy into adolescence Father absence -- adverse effects– cognitive, moral, and social development Encouraging father contact is not always the best thing Social fathers- nonbiological fathers in the role of fathers (stepfather)
  •     Increasingly invested in their children’s daily lives– engage in breadwinning, planning, sharing activities, and teaching their children Fathers are more likely to play with or engage in leisure activities with children Low income fathers of color – not always unmarried/absent fathers– usually married AND involved with child’s upbringing Stressed father– less effective father
  • Stay-at-home Father– married Single fathers Nonresident fathers • 140,000 in US– 2008 • Some are out of work force • avoid sending children to day care • Wives earn money • Describe the experience as ―humbling‖ • New respect for parenting • Small percentage compared to single mothers • Only 4% • About half of these fathers were never married– some divorced– small proportion were widowed • Most only parent one child • ―stepped up‖ in difficult or rough times • Unlike single mothers, rarely ask for help • Usually biological fathers– rarely adoptive • Move in and out of child’s life • May be living with one of more of his other biological children • May be serving as a social father to other children • Stereotyped as disinterested • Studies show– many visit children regularly OR show genuine
  •   All- encouragement, adequate nutrition, and shelter– parental interest in their schooling, consistency in rules and expectations Needs differ- age Infant Preschool Schoolaged Teens • • • • • • • Discipline is unacceptable Unable to change their behavior Don’t understand • • Practice motor development Exposure to language Clear, constant definitions of what behavior is unacceptable • • • • Practice accomplishing goals appropriate to their abilities Learn how to get along with others Better accept criticism No exaggerated praise nor aggressive criticism Feel like they’re contributing to family • • Firm guidance Effective methods for resolving conflict Parental accessibility Emotional support
  • http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=6LWeBjFXaSg
  •  Experts Advise Authoritative Parenting o Parenting style- a general manner of relating to and disciplining their children. • Authoritarian parenting styles- low on emotional warmth and nurturing but high on parental discretion and control • • • • • AKA positive parenting ―I am in charge and set/enforce rules, no matter what‖ More likely to spank Too much parental discretion and control- associated with a child’s decreased sense of personal effectiveness or mastery over a situation, even among children as young as four Permissive parenting- gives children little parental guidance. High on emotional guidance and nurturing • ―spoiled‖ children
  •      Spanking- hitting a child with an open hand without causing physical injury Controversial 1/3 of fathers and 44% of moms Single mothers in a serious romantic relationship- more likely to spank their children European American children- being spanked at a young age leads to.. o Later behavioral problems o Depression o Suicide o Alcohol/drug abuse o Physical aggression against one’s parents in adolescence o Abusing one’s own children o Intimate partner violence
  • Middle and Upper Middle Working- class Low-income and Poverty-level • Access to better resources • Environment conducive to successfully raising and educating children • Concerted cultivationpraise child, play with them ―just for fun‖, read with them, enforce rules about watching TV, etc. • Influence child’s education (connections) • Facilitation of natural growth parenting model- children’s abilities are allowed to develop naturally • Look down on concerted cultivation method • Obedience and conformity • Discomfort, distrust, and constraint regarding school work and experiences • Rented homes, apartments, etc. • Stress- parents • Poorer nutrition • Emotional or behavioral problems (8%) • Homeless- less likely to focus on getting kids to school/ helping with homework. Problems with shelters, finding jobs, setting consistent rules, etc.
  • African-American Native American Hispanic • Race and social class play a role on the way they raise their children • Mothers are more likely than European mothers to spank children • Seen as appropriate by parent and child • No long-term effects on child unlike with European children • Have to find their own place in society (black middle class families) • Permissive parenting style (―neglectful‖) • Individual choice for parents and children • Before the arrival of Europeans… • Nonverbal teaching • Light discipline • Still allow children to work out their own problems • Broader society is forcing them to change the way they parent (substance abuse and suicide rates) • Authoritarian • Label may be seen as Eurocentric • Hierarchical parenting- warmth and demand for respect • Collective value system instead of high individualism • Teach children tradition and values • Generational gap • Could lead to different attitudes to speaking Spanish
  • Multiracial Religious Minority • • • • • Often associated with ethnicity (ex. Chinese Americans– Buddhists) • Christian dominant culture • Public schools scheduling doesn’t take into account many religious ―holy days‖ for other religions • Discrimination and ridicule • Parents hope they will keep their religious affiliation, despite living in a majority culture that seldom understands and is sometimes threatening Nearly 7 million Americans 40% under the age of 18 Rates expected to increase Tensions between family members over cultural values and attitudes • ―you have to seek, to go out of your way to give them that AfricanAmerican side‖- White single mother • Many biracial teens chose to embrace a Latina identity to deal with racial ambiguity • More support for multiracial/ethnic children in schools and in homes
  •      Adds stress to an already stressful parenting process Family tries to shield/protect children Race socialization- developing children’s pride in their cultural heritage while warning and preparing them about the possibility of encountering discrimination Must value one’s heritage while being required to deny or ―rise above‖ it to advance Emotional estrangement
  •  http://gpcolorism.wikispaces.com/A-+Testimonials
  •  http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=9xQk2QKfSjg
  •      Launching oneself into adulthood- especially difficult Higher- SES parents- pay off student loans, buy cars, etc. Many still live with parents Parents should set reasonable household expectations Need support and love- even when they’re adults