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Android Introduction

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  • 1. Swapnal AgarwalVipul Kishor Bhatt
  • 2. 1. Introduction2. Platform3. Software development4. Dalvik VM5. Components & API6. Building Blocks7. Layouts
  • 3. IntroductionWhat is Android? • A software platform and operating system for mobile devices • Based on the Linux kernel • Developed by Google and later the Open Handset Alliance (OHA) • Allows writing managed code in the Java language • Android platform was announced on 5th November 2007 with the founding of OHA
  • 4. AndroidAn Open Handset Alliance Project What is the Open Handset Alliance (OHA)? • OHA is an alliance of nearly 50 organizations devoted to advancing open standards for mobile devices • Develop technologies that will significantly lower the cost of developing and distributing mobile devices and services What’s the Target? • Write apps to run on mobile phones • Will be released as open source  http://code.google.com/android
  • 5. PlatformOperating System(s)   • Android uses Linux for its device drivers, memory management, process management, and networking.  • The next level up contains the Android native libraries. They are all written in C/C++ internally, but you’ll be calling them through Java interfaces. In this layer you can find the Surface Manager, 2D and 3D graphics, Media codecs, the SQL database (SQLite), and a native web browser engine (WebKit).  Call through Java Call through Java Interface Interface C/C++ Native Libraries Surface Manager Surface Manager SQLite SQLite Media Codecs Media Codecs Webkit Webkit
  • 6. Platform • Dalvik Virtual Machine. Dalvik runs .dex files, which are converted at compile time fromlayoutlayout.xml.xml R.java R.java standard class and jar files. *.class *.class *dex. *dex. • The Dalvik runtime is highly optimized: *.java *.java  Run multiple VMs efficiently  Each app has its own VM  Minimal memory footprint android- android- manifest.xml manifest.xml application. apk file • Android applications are compiled to Dalvik bytecode.
  • 7. Software Development IDE and Tools   Android SDK • Class Library • Developer Tools  dx – Dalvik Cross-Assembler  aapt – Android Asset Packaging Tool  adb – Android Debug Bridge  ddms – Dalvik Debug Monitor Service • Emulator and System Images • Documentation and Sample Code Eclipse IDE + ADT (Android Development Tools) • Reduces Development and Testing Time • Makes User Interface-Creation easier • Makes Application Description Easier
  • 8. Components
  • 9. Android APIsAndroid-specific packages are easy to identify because they start with android inthe package name. Some of the more important packages are:android.app—Android application model accessandroid.bluetooth—Android’s Bluetooth functionalityandroid.content—Accessing and publishing data in Androidandroid.net—Contains the Uri class, used for accessing contentandroid.gesture—Create, recognize, load, and save gesturesandroid.graphics—Graphics primitivesandroid.location—Location-based services (such as GPS)android.opengl—OpenGL classesandroid.os—System-level access to the Android environmentandroid.provider—ContentProvider-related classesandroid.telephony—Telephony capability access, including support for both Code Division MultipleAccess (CDMA) and Global System for Mobile communication (GSM) devicesandroid.text—Text layoutandroid.util—Collection of utilities for logging and text manipulation, including XMLandroid.view—UI elementsandroid.webkit—Browser functionalityandroid.widget—More UI elements
  • 10. Android APIsJava packages included in the Android SDK:java.lang—Core Java language classesjava.io—Input/output capabilitiesjava.net—Network connectionsjava.text—Text-handling utilitiesjava.math—Math and number-manipulation classesjavax.net—Network classesjavax.security—Security-related classesjavax.xml—DOM-based XML classesorg.apache.*—HTTP-related classesorg.xml—SAX-based XML classes
  • 11. Android Building Blocks Android Manifest.xml Activities Views Intents Services Notifications Content Provider
  • 12. Android Building Blocks Activity: It represents a visible Services application component within Android Intents: An Intent in Android Notification describes what you want to do. Content Provider: Views: It helps data sharing between UI elements different Android Applications or between different Activities.
  • 13. Layouts• Different Layouts :- <?xml version="1.0" encoding="utf-8"?> <RelativeLayout  Linear Layout xmlns:android="http://schemas.android.com/apk/res/android" android:id="@+id/job_search_layout"  Relative Layout android:layout_width="fill_parent"  Table Layout android:layout_height="wrap_content"  Frame Layout <ListView android:layout_width="wrap_content“  Absolute Layout android:layout_width="wrap_content" (Deprecated) android:layout_height="wrap_content" /> <ImageView android:id="@+id/geo_location“ android:src="@drawable/geo_location" android:layout_width="wrap_content" android:layout_height="wrap_content" /> <LinearLayout android:id="@+id/location_selection_layout“ android:layout_width="wrap_content" android:layout_height="wrap_content" > <TextView android:id="@+id/recent_search_header_count”> android:layout_width="wrap_content" android:layout_height="wrap_content" /> </LinearLayout> </RelativeLayout>
  • 14. Activity Life Cycle
  • 15. Thanks