Educational Psychology I<br />Lim Wee Keong<br />Lin Junxiang Dennis<br />Tang Wei Lun Aaron<br />Teo Qin Yi<br />
Approach<br />
Overview<br />Ms Rita – Beginning Teacher<br />Ms Lim & Mr Yeo – Experienced Teachers<br />Students (Secondary Two Express...
Problem EncounterCharacter Analysis<br />Ms Rita<br />Beginning Teacher<br />
Problem EncounterCharacter Analysis<br />Ms Lim<br />Experienced Teacher 1<br />
Problem EncounterCharacter Analysis<br />Mr Yeo<br />Experienced Teacher 2<br />
Problem EncounterCharacter Analysis<br />Students<br />Secondary 2 Express<br />
Problem Inquiry<br />Why was the class unable to answer the questions??<br />Why was Ms Rita so disappointed and frustrate...
6<br />3<br />Teacher was frustrated and dismayed with the students when they were unable to understand what she was teach...
Theories: OverviewUnderstanding it at a glance!<br />
Theories: OverviewUnderstanding it at a glance!<br />
Theories: OverviewUnderstanding it at a glance!<br />
The CorrelationsRelating the problems to the theories<br />What caused these problems???<br />Teacher asked questions beyo...
Schema Theory </li></li></ul><li>The CorrelationsRelating the problems to the theories<br />What caused these problems???<...
Vygotsky’s Socio-cultural Theory</li></li></ul><li>The CorrelationsRelating the problems to the theories<br />What caused ...
Our SolutionOverview<br />Lesson Preparation Phase<br />Start of Lesson<br />Lesson Development<br />Lesson Conclusion<br ...
Our SolutionLesson Preparation<br />Understand Class Profile<br />consult other teachers about the profile of the class.(V...
Our SolutionStart of Lesson<br />Engage Prior Knowledge<br />via various tools (e.g. ICT, KWL, asking questions etc) to id...
Our SolutionLesson Development<br />It’s a NEW topic!<br />Reduced expectations on the class<br />Adopt Positive Reinforce...
Our SolutionLesson Conclusion<br />Consolidate Learning<br />Mindmapping<br />Formative Assessment<br />Informal Class Qui...
Our SolutionReflection Phase<br />Self-Reflection<br />Not just seeking ideas for the next lesson!<br />Accept Failure(Att...
In Summary<br />A student is never alone in the process of learning and development.<br />Teachers should always be mindfu...
References<br />Asia e learning university. (n.d.) Learning theories - cognitive learning theories. Retrieved 10 September...
References<br />McInerney, D. & McInerney, V. (2009). Educational Psychology: Constructing Learning (4th ed. ). Australia:...
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  1. 1. Educational Psychology I<br />Lim Wee Keong<br />Lin Junxiang Dennis<br />Tang Wei Lun Aaron<br />Teo Qin Yi<br />
  2. 2. Approach<br />
  3. 3. Overview<br />Ms Rita – Beginning Teacher<br />Ms Lim & Mr Yeo – Experienced Teachers<br />Students (Secondary Two Express)<br />
  4. 4. Problem EncounterCharacter Analysis<br />Ms Rita<br />Beginning Teacher<br />
  5. 5. Problem EncounterCharacter Analysis<br />Ms Lim<br />Experienced Teacher 1<br />
  6. 6. Problem EncounterCharacter Analysis<br />Mr Yeo<br />Experienced Teacher 2<br />
  7. 7. Problem EncounterCharacter Analysis<br />Students<br />Secondary 2 Express<br />
  8. 8. Problem Inquiry<br />Why was the class unable to answer the questions??<br />Why was Ms Rita so disappointed and frustrated??<br />Why were the students unconfident??<br />
  9. 9. 6<br />3<br />Teacher was frustrated and dismayed with the students when they were unable to understand what she was teaching.<br />Students were not confident of their answers.<br />5<br />Skinner, Maslow & Vygotsky<br />Students could not understand teacher’s explanation on tsunami<br />Attribution<br />2<br />Maslow, Piaget, Vygotsky (ZPD)<br />Students were unable to answer questions posed by teacher<br />4<br />Students incorrectly attributed the formation of tsunami to high and low pressures.<br />Vygotsky & Erikson<br />Schema, Dual Coding<br />Teacher asked questions that student couldn’t answer<br />1<br />7<br />Lesson objectives were not met!<br />The Problem Statements<br />
  10. 10. Theories: OverviewUnderstanding it at a glance!<br />
  11. 11. Theories: OverviewUnderstanding it at a glance!<br />
  12. 12. Theories: OverviewUnderstanding it at a glance!<br />
  13. 13. The CorrelationsRelating the problems to the theories<br />What caused these problems???<br />Teacher asked questions beyond their schema and did not activate/build upon their prior knowledge.<br /><ul><li>Piaget’s Cognitive Learning Theory
  14. 14. Schema Theory </li></li></ul><li>The CorrelationsRelating the problems to the theories<br />What caused these problems???<br />Teacher was not able to effectively scaffold, to lead students towards lesson objective and Teacher asked questions beyond their ZPD<br /><ul><li>Vygotsky’s Scaffolding Theory (ZPD)
  15. 15. Vygotsky’s Socio-cultural Theory</li></li></ul><li>The CorrelationsRelating the problems to the theories<br />What caused these problems???<br />Students wrongly attributed the formation of the tsunami to high and low atmospheric pressure, which are actually what causes a tornado = Misconception!<br /><ul><li>Origins of Misconceptions</li></li></ul><li>The CorrelationsRelating the problems to the theories<br />What caused these problems???<br />Learning gap not bridged. Intelligence involves Experiential components which involves relating new experience to old.<br /><ul><li>Schema Theory </li></li></ul><li>The CorrelationsRelating the problems to the theories<br />What caused these problems???<br />Deficiency needs such as esteem needs were not met. Hence, growth needs (i.e. need to know and understand) could not be met.<br /><ul><li>Maslow’s Hierachy of Needs</li></li></ul><li>The CorrelationsRelating the problems to the theories<br />What caused these problems???<br />Novice Teaching’s Planning <br />(Teacher enter Erikson's Generativity Stage)<br /><ul><li>Erikson’s Psychosocial Theory</li></li></ul><li>Problem Inquiry Revisited<br />Why was the class unable to answer the questions??<br />Poor scaffolding<br />Poor understanding of class profile<br />Why was Ms Rita so disappointed and frustrated??<br />High expectations<br />Inability to accept failure<br />Why were the students unconfident??<br />Esteem need not fulfilled<br />No sense of belongingness<br />
  16. 16. Our SolutionOverview<br />Lesson Preparation Phase<br />Start of Lesson<br />Lesson Development<br />Lesson Conclusion<br />Reflection Phase<br />
  17. 17. Our SolutionLesson Preparation<br />Understand Class Profile<br />consult other teachers about the profile of the class.(Vygotsky’sScaffolding Theory) <br />Constructive Staff Sharing <br />can pick up some useful insights and cut down on her overambitious mindset and eagerness to succeed.(Erikson’s Psychosocial Theory) <br />
  18. 18. Our SolutionStart of Lesson<br />Engage Prior Knowledge<br />via various tools (e.g. ICT, KWL, asking questions etc) to identify the students’ ZPD.<br />Introduction / Scaffold<br />ask questions from the lower levels in the bloom's taxonomy.(Vygotsky’s Scaffolding Theory)<br />
  19. 19. Our SolutionLesson Development<br />It’s a NEW topic!<br />Reduced expectations on the class<br />Adopt Positive Reinforcement!<br />Encouraging Figure of Speech<br />Question Prompts (Skinner’s Operant Conditioning)(Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs)<br />Provide Verbal Guides<br />verbal guides to complement visual aids during the lesson(Dual Coding Theory)<br />
  20. 20. Our SolutionLesson Conclusion<br />Consolidate Learning<br />Mindmapping<br />Formative Assessment<br />Informal Class Quiz<br />Questions & Answer<br />
  21. 21. Our SolutionReflection Phase<br />Self-Reflection<br />Not just seeking ideas for the next lesson!<br />Accept Failure(Attribution Theory)<br />Belongingness & Esteem Needs<br />learning activities to enhance class bonding<br />Be tactful in speech(Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs)<br />
  22. 22. In Summary<br />A student is never alone in the process of learning and development.<br />Teachers should always be mindful of this and should always scaffold this process!<br />
  23. 23. References<br />Asia e learning university. (n.d.) Learning theories - cognitive learning theories. Retrieved 10 September, 2011 from peoplelearn.homestead.com/BEduc/Chapter_5.pdf<br />Bransford, J., Brown, A., & Cocking,, R. (Eds.). (2000). How people learn: Brain, mind, experience, and school. Washington DC: National Academy Press.<br />Elliott, S., Kratochwill, T., Cook, J. L., Travers, J. (2000). Educational Psychology: Effective Teaching, Effective Learning (3rd ed.). Boston: McGraw-Hill<br />Greeno, J., Collins, A., & Resnick, L. (1996). Cognition and learning. In D. Berliner & R. Calfee (Eds.), Handbook of educational psychology (pp. 15-46). New York: Macmillan.<br />Learning Theories Knowledgebase. (2011, October). at Learning-Theories.com. Retrieved 7 September, 2011 from http://www.learning-theories.com/<br />(2008), Maslow’s Hierachy of Needs (Documentary),United States: Insight Media, Retrieved 8 September, 2011 from http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=QxdNzOVRAmA&feature=fvwrel<br />
  24. 24. References<br />McInerney, D. & McInerney, V. (2009). Educational Psychology: Constructing Learning (4th ed. ). Australia: Pearson Education. <br />Meter, P., & Stevens, R. (2000). The role of theory in the study of peer collaboration. Journal of Experimental Education, 69(1), 113-127. <br />Nuthall, G. (1999a). Learning how to learn: The evolution of students’ minds through the social processes and culture of the classroom. International Journal of Educational Research. 31(3), 141-256. <br />Objective: Meeting Basic and Evolving Human Needs, Retrieved 10 September, 2011 from http://miraclemind.com/investors/newsletter/?a=2008_5_5<br />Packer, M., & Goicoechea, J. (2000). Sociocultural and constructivist theories of learning: Ontology, not just epistemology. Educational Psychologist, 35(4), 227-241. <br />Palincsar, A. (1998). Social constructivist perspective on teaching and learning. Annual Review of Psychology, 49, 345-375. <br />Tan,O.S., Parsons, R.D., Hinson,S.L., & Sardo-Brown,D. (2011). Educational Psychology: A Practitioner-Researcher Approach (2nd ed.). Singapore: Cengage Learning Asia<br />Vygotsky, L.S. (1978). Mind and society: The development of higher mental processes. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.<br />
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