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  • 1. Education Psychology I<br />Lim Wee Keong<br />Lin Junxiang Dennis<br />Tang Wei Lun Aaron<br />Teo Qin Yi<br />
  • 2. Approach<br />
  • 3. Overview<br />Ms Rita – Beginning Teacher<br />Ms Lim &amp; Mr Yeo – Experienced Teachers<br />Students (Secondary Two Express)<br />
  • 4. Problem EncounterCharacter Analysis<br />Ms Rita<br />Beginning Teacher<br />
  • 5. Problem EncounterCharacter Analysis<br />Ms Lim<br />Experienced Teacher 1<br />
  • 6. Problem EncounterCharacter Analysis<br />Mr Yeo<br />Experienced Teacher 2<br />
  • 7. Problem EncounterCharacter Analysis<br />Students<br />Secondary 2 Express<br />
  • 8. Problem Inquiry<br />Why was the class unable to answer the questions??<br />Why was Ms Rita so disappointed and frustrated??<br />Why were the students unconfident??<br />
  • 9. 6<br />3<br />Teacher was frustrated and dismayed with the students when they were unable to understand what she was teaching.<br />Students were not confident of their answers.<br />5<br />Skinner, Maslow &amp; Vygotsky<br />Students could not understand teacher’s explanation on tsunami<br />Attribution<br />2<br />Maslow, Piaget, Vygotsky (ZPD)<br />Students were unable to answer questions posed by teacher<br />4<br />Students incorrectly attributed the formation of tsunami to high and low pressures.<br />Vygotsky &amp; Erikson<br />Schema, Dual Coding<br />Teacher asked questions that student couldn’t answer<br />1<br />7<br />Lesson objectives were not met!<br />The Problem Statements<br />
  • 10. Theories: OverviewUnderstanding it at a glance!<br />
  • 11. Theories: OverviewUnderstanding it at a glance!<br />
  • 12. Theories: OverviewUnderstanding it at a glance!<br />
  • 13. The CorrelationsRelating the problems to the theories<br />What caused these problems???<br />Teacher asked questions beyond their schema and did not activate/build upon their prior knowledge.<br /><ul><li>Piaget’s Cognitive Learning Theory
  • 14. Schema Theory </li></li></ul><li>The CorrelationsRelating the problems to the theories<br />What caused these problems???<br />Teacher was not able to effectively scaffold, to lead students towards lesson objective and Teacher asked questions beyond their ZPD<br /><ul><li>Vygotsky’s Scaffolding Theory (ZPD)
  • 15. Vygotsky’s Socio-cultural Theory</li></li></ul><li>The CorrelationsRelating the problems to the theories<br />What caused these problems???<br />Students wrongly attributed the formation of the tsunami to high and low atmospheric pressure, which are actually what causes a tornado = Misconception!<br /><ul><li>Origins of Misconceptions</li></li></ul><li>The CorrelationsRelating the problems to the theories<br />What caused these problems???<br />Learning gap not bridged. Intelligence involves Experiential components which involves relating new experience to old.<br /><ul><li>Schema Theory </li></li></ul><li>The CorrelationsRelating the problems to the theories<br />What caused these problems???<br />Deficiency needs such as esteem needs were not met. Hence, growth needs (i.e. need to know and understand) could not be met.<br /><ul><li>Maslow’s Hierachy of Needs</li></li></ul><li>The CorrelationsRelating the problems to the theories<br />What caused these problems???<br />Novice Teaching’s Planning <br />(Teacher enter Erikson&apos;s Generativity Stage)<br /><ul><li>Erikson’s Psychosocial Theory</li></li></ul><li>Problem Inquiry Revisited<br />Why was the class unable to answer the questions??<br />Poor scaffolding<br />Poor understanding of class profile<br />Why was Ms Rita so disappointed and frustrated??<br />High expectations<br />Inability to accept failure<br />Why were the students unconfident??<br />Esteem need not fulfilled<br />No sense of belongingness<br />
  • 16. Our SolutionOverview<br />Lesson Preparation Phase<br />Start of Lesson<br />Lesson Development<br />Lesson Conclusion<br />Reflection Phase<br />
  • 17. Our SolutionLesson Preparation<br />Understand Class Profile<br />consult other teachers about the profile of the class.(Vygotsky’sScaffolding Theory) <br />Constructive Staff Sharing <br />can pick up some useful insights and cut down on her overambitious mindset and eagerness to succeed.(Erikson’s Psychosocial Theory) <br />
  • 18. Our SolutionStart of Lesson<br />Engage Prior Knowledge<br />via various tools (e.g. ICT, KWL, asking questions etc) to identify the students’ ZPD.<br />Introduction / Scaffold<br />ask questions from the lower levels in the bloom&apos;s taxonomy.(Vygotsky’s Scaffolding Theory)<br />
  • 19. Our SolutionLesson Development<br />It’s a NEW topic!<br />Reduced expectations on the class<br />Adopt Positive Reinforcement!<br />Encouraging Figure of Speech<br />Question Prompts (Skinner’s Operant Conditioning)(Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs)<br />Provide Verbal Guides<br />verbal guides to complement visual aids during the lesson(Dual Coding Theory)<br />
  • 20. Our SolutionLesson Conclusion<br />Consolidate Learning<br />Mindmapping<br />Formative Assessment<br />Informal Class Quiz<br />Questions &amp; Answer<br />
  • 21. Our SolutionReflection Phase<br />Self-Reflection<br />Not just seeking ideas for the next lesson!<br />Accept Failure(Attribution Theory)<br />Belongingness &amp; Esteem Needs<br />learning activities to enhance class bonding<br />Be tactful in speech(Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs)<br />
  • 22. In Summary<br />A student is never alone in the process of learning and development.<br />Teachers should always be mindful of this and should always scaffold this process!<br />

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