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Science and NASA's Human Space Flight Program

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Matt Mountain, 2010 American Astronautical Society Goddard Memorial Symposium

Matt Mountain, 2010 American Astronautical Society Goddard Memorial Symposium

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  • 1. Science and NASA’s Human Space Flight Program Matt Mountain Space Telescope Science Institute
  • 2. Planetary nebula NGC 6203 ■ WFC3/UVIS
  • 3. “Davidson” metric, NASA contributions to worldwide scientific discovery and technological achievement SM 3b SM 3a 70.0 SM 2 52.5 SM 1 35.0 17.5 1973 1975 1977 1979 1981 1983 1985 1987 1989 1991 1993 1995 1997 1999 2001 2003 2005 2007 Hubble Chandra SST GRO Voyager Viking MGS Galileo Cassini Apollo STS Rockets/Balloons ISTP
  • 4. Hubble images first planets b 13 November 2008, 13 November 2008, Kalas et al. Marois et al. HR 8799 b hidden in Hubble’s data archive since 1998 extracted by Lafreniere et al. 2009
  • 5. Hubble images first galaxies? Hubble Ultra Deep Field courtesy of the HUDF09 Team galaxies from when the Universe was less than 600 Myr old PI: Garth Illingworth
  • 6. This is only possible with new camera technologies
  • 7. New instruments and technologies sustains demand for HST normalized demand = demand averaged over first 5 years of operation
  • 8. The partnership between science and human space flight: HST has sustained media impact News Coverage of Select Space Observatory & Planetary Missions (1994‐2008) 4000 Mars Rovers Cassini Chandra Spitzer Hubble number of news stories (source Lexis‐Nexis) 3000 2000 1000 0 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008
  • 9. Longevity Effect Change Hubble Education Program is used in all 50 states Reaches: 506,000 pre- and in-service teachers 6.3 million students per year Undergraduate Summer School
  • 10. The changing nature of 21 st Century space science x 10,000 Space Science has always made enormous gains through enabling technologies - and broad participation by the community ensures there is no “low-hanging fruit”
  • 11. The changing nature of 21 st Century space science
  • 12. aperture growth driven by science, technological innovation but also by philanthropy, science and/or industrial policy.... 100 Ground-based Telescopes E-ELT TMT ATLAST Space-based Telescopes LBT 16-m Effective Primary Aperture (meters) 10 Keck JWST HST 1 0.1 Herschel Galileo Newton Courtesy Marc Postman 0.01 1600 1650 1700 1750 1800 1850 1900 1950 2000 Year Primary Telescope Aperture vs. Time
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  • 15. 2020 The Challenge 2000 16m ~ $4.5B (FY07) 1980 6.5m ~ $4B (FY07) Incrementalism is innovation’s worst enemy. 2.4m ~ $4.5B (FY07) We don’t want continuous improvement, we want radical change. - Sam Walton
  • 16. Future space based technologies rely on, and can enable innovation and multidisciplinary partnerships 136 most favorable nearby stars for habitable planets Solar collectors in space Geostationary orbit "I would like to see a reconnaissance of the planetary systems around the nearest 100 stars.” Carl Sagan, 1994 (paraphrase) National & Environmental Security Energy Are we alone?
  • 17. Pathway to a continued partnership Deep Space Observatory  between science and human space flight Delivery & Servicing •Life in the Galaxy •Event Horizon Physics Deep Space Observatory  ConstrucSon •Earthlike Exoplanet Spectra •First Black Holes •VIS/IR Astrophysics 30m Earth Observing  Increasing Science Value Observatory Assembly Increasing Complexity •Greenhouse Gas Monitoring,  AYribuSon & Compliance SE‐L2 LEO Telescope Assembly •Persistent ISR* •Human/RoboSc InteracSon •Earth Science 20m •On‐board Metrology •Autonomous Alignment/Control •ContaminaSon Control EM‐L1 Low Thrust  TransportaSon for  Delivery to SE‐L2 &  10m Servicing 3m GEO ISS *ISR= Intelligence, Surveillance &   Reconnaissance Time & Increasing Distance From Earth EVA System ContaminaSon  CapabiliSes             Habitat 1 Modular Observatory 2 3 Needed:                 Low Thrust Propulsion  
  • 18. Constructing Extremely Large Telescopes in Space through progressive development of the partnership between science and 21st Century human space flight EVA TOOLS HUMAN/ROBOTIC INTERACTIONS MANIPULATORS MODULAR ASSEMBLY & INTERFACES ROBOTIC ASSIST METROLOGY LOW THRUST DELIVERY & SERVICING SEGMENTED MIRRORS SCALABLE ARCHITECTURES HABITATS UVOIR OBSERVATORIES AIRLOCKS MOBILITY BREAKTHROUGH SCIENCE HEAVY LIFT NATIONAL SECURITY LOW THRUST PROPULSION INPUT CAPABILITIES OUTCOMES
  • 19. Human and Robotic Construction of Extremely Large Telescopes in Space We need …the right balance between manned space exploration and robotic space exploration.We need to manage the balance between looking up and looking down… Dr. John Holdren • Extend our reach – move humans beyond low Earth orbit • Explore our Earth, our Galaxy and our Universe – Assemble increasingly larger telescopes in space • Expand our knowledge • Persistent surveillance and reconnaissance for National Security • Monitor greenhouse gas emissions for arbitration and compliance • Enable remote sensing of other worlds and search for life • Explore the structure of the Cosmos and find the first black holes

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