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Hyperspectral Imager for Coastal Ocean Imagery & Ocean Protection (HICO)
 

Hyperspectral Imager for Coastal Ocean Imagery & Ocean Protection (HICO)

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Darryl Keith, EPA: "Hyperspectral Imager for Coastal Ocean Imagery & Ocean Protection (HICO)." Presented at the 2013 International Space Station Research and Development Conference, ...

Darryl Keith, EPA: "Hyperspectral Imager for Coastal Ocean Imagery & Ocean Protection (HICO)." Presented at the 2013 International Space Station Research and Development Conference, http://www.astronautical.org/issrdc/2013.

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    Hyperspectral Imager for Coastal Ocean Imagery & Ocean Protection (HICO) Hyperspectral Imager for Coastal Ocean Imagery & Ocean Protection (HICO) Presentation Transcript

    • Office of Research and Development Full Name of Lab, Center, Office, Division or Staff goes here. <Go to View, Master, Slide Master to change> Office of Research and Development National Health and Environmental Effects Research Laboratory/ Atlantic Ecology Division July 16, 2013 EPA/ORD/NHEERL/NERL Naval Research Laboratory/Stennis Space Center ISS Hyperspectral Imager for the Coastal Ocean (HICO): Application of Space-based Hyperspectral Imagery for the Protection of the Nation’s Coastal Resources Jessica Aukamp USEPA/NHEERL/Gulf Ecology Division Donald Cobb USEPA/NHEERL/Atlantic Ecology Division Robyn Conmy USEPA/National Risk Management Research Laboratory/Land Remediation and Pollution Control George Craven USEPA/NHEERL/Gulf Ecology Division Richard Gould Naval Research Laboratory/ Bio-optical Physical Processes and Remote Sensing Section James Hagy USEPA/NHEERL/Gulf Ecology Division Darryl Keith* USEPA/NHEERL/Atlantic Ecology Division John Lehrter USEPA/NHEERL/Gulf Ecology Division Ross Lunetta USEPA/National Exposure Research Laboratory/Environmental Services Division Michael Murrell USEPA/NHEERL/Gulf Ecology Division Kenneth Rocha USEPA/NHEERL/Atlantic Ecology Division Blake Schaeffer USEPA/NHEERL/Gulf Ecology Division *email: keith.darryl@epa.gov
    • Office of Research and Development Full Name of Lab, Center, Office, Division or Staff goes here. <Go to View, Master, Slide Master to change> Office of Research and Development National Health and Environmental Effects Research Laboratory/ Atlantic Ecology Division 1 The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency’s mandate to protect human health and the environment requires innovative and sustainable solutions for addressing the Nation’s environmental problems. HICO offers EPA and the environmental monitoring community an unprecedented opportunity to observe changes in coastal and estuarine water quality across a range of spatial scales not possible with field- based monitoring.
    • Office of Research and Development Full Name of Lab, Center, Office, Division or Staff goes here. <Go to View, Master, Slide Master to change> Office of Research and Development National Health and Environmental Effects Research Laboratory/ Atlantic Ecology Division 2 What is ocean/estuary color? Rrs(0+,λ) = Lw (0+,λ)/ Es(0+,λ) Rrs = remotely sensed reflectance (1/sr) Lw (0+, λ) = water leaving radiance measured above the air/water interface (W m-2 sr-1), Es ((0+, λ) = downwelling irradiance measured above the air/water interface (W m-2 sr-1) Definition of Remotely Sensed Reflectance (Rrs) Remotely sensed reflectance Remotely sensed reflectance
    • Office of Research and Development Full Name of Lab, Center, Office, Division or Staff goes here. <Go to View, Master, Slide Master to change> Office of Research and Development National Health and Environmental Effects Research Laboratory/ Atlantic Ecology Division 3 Use HICO imagery to develop a novel space-based environmental monitoring system that provides information for the sustainable management of coastal ecosystems. To demonstrate that water quality information derived from HICO could be incorporated into a prototype smart phone application to disseminate data to managers in the EPA Office of Water. Program Objectives Water quality news reports may change the social and economic dynamics for the Nation to not only be aware of its water quality conditions but support sustainable practices to maintain or improve conditions at their favorite recreational areas.
    • Office of Research and Development Full Name of Lab, Center, Office, Division or Staff goes here. <Go to View, Master, Slide Master to change> Office of Research and Development National Health and Environmental Effects Research Laboratory/ Atlantic Ecology Division 4 • HICO is intended as a pathfinder for follow-on sensors designed with better resolution and for routine observations of coastal, riverine, and estuarine waters (Lucke et al., 2011). • Built on the legacy of the NRL Ocean Portable Hyperspectral Imager for Low-Light Spectroscopy (Ocean PHILLS) airborne imagers and funded as an Innovative Naval Prototype by the Office of Naval Research • January, 2007: HICO selected to fly on the International Space Station (ISS) • November, 2007: Construction began following the Critical Design Review • September, 2008: Space-qualified instrument delivered to the DOD Space Test Program for integration and spacecraft-level testing • April, 2009: Shipped to Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency (JAXA) for launch • September 10, 2009: HICO launched on JAXA H-II Transfer Vehicle (HTV) • September 24, 2009: HICO installed on ISS Japanese Module Exposed Facility Hyperspectral Imager for the Coastal Ocean (HICO).... Intent and a bit of history
    • Office of Research and Development Full Name of Lab, Center, Office, Division or Staff goes here. <Go to View, Master, Slide Master to change> Office of Research and Development National Health and Environmental Effects Research Laboratory/ Atlantic Ecology Division 5 HICO Viewing Slit spectrometer Hyperspectral Imager for the Coastal Ocean (HICO) 1st spaceborne imaging spectrometer specifically made for the environmental characterization of the coastal ocean from space HICO is installed in the HICO-RAIDS experiment payload (HREP) on the Japanese Experiment Module - Exposed Facility camera
    • Office of Research and Development Full Name of Lab, Center, Office, Division or Staff goes here. <Go to View, Master, Slide Master to change> Office of Research and Development National Health and Environmental Effects Research Laboratory/ Atlantic Ecology Division 6 To increase scene access frequency+45 to -30 degCross-track pointing Data volume and transmission constraints1 maximumScenes per orbit Large enough to capture the scale of coastal dynamics Adequate for scale of selected coastal ocean features Sensor response to be insensitive to polarization of light from scene Provides adequate Signal to Noise Ratio after atmospheric removal Derived from Spectral Range and Spectral Channel Width Sufficient to resolve spectral features All water-penetrating wavelengths plus Near Infrared for atmospheric correction Rationale ~100 Number of Spectral Channels ~50 x 200 kmScene Size ~100 meters Ground Sample Distance at Nadir < 5%Polarization Sensitivity > 200 to 1 for 5% albedo scene (10 nm spectral binning) Signal-to-Noise Ratio for water-penetrating wavelengths 5.7 nmSpectral Channel Width 380 to 960 nmSpectral Range PerformanceParameter Arnone et al., (2009) HICO for NASA Gulf Workshop HICO Tech Specs
    • Office of Research and Development Full Name of Lab, Center, Office, Division or Staff goes here. <Go to View, Master, Slide Master to change> Office of Research and Development National Health and Environmental Effects Research Laboratory/ Atlantic Ecology Division 7 Program Implementation Collected 49 images from four estuaries along NW Florida during April 2010 to May 2012 during ISS Expeditions 24 - 31 Pensacola, Choctawhatchee, and St. Andrew Bays are shallow (~4.0 m), microtidal (tidal range ~ 1.0 m) brackish water estuaries. St. Joseph Bay is slightly deeper ( ~8 m) and not influenced by the inflow of fresh water. Pensacola Bay Choctowhatchee Bay St. Andrew Bay St. Joseph Bay
    • Office of Research and Development Full Name of Lab, Center, Office, Division or Staff goes here. <Go to View, Master, Slide Master to change> Office of Research and Development National Health and Environmental Effects Research Laboratory/ Atlantic Ecology Division Field Validation Program Pensacola Bay Choctawhatchee Bay St. Joseph Bay St. Andrew Bay Sample stations Green = water quality moorings (chl a, turbidity, and CDOM) Yellow = above water radiance, temp, salinity, and optical properties Red = same as yellow + discrete water samples
    • Office of Research and Development Full Name of Lab, Center, Office, Division or Staff goes here. <Go to View, Master, Slide Master to change> Office of Research and Development National Health and Environmental Effects Research Laboratory/ Atlantic Ecology Division Using small boat surveys within each estuary, collected and processed water column profile and above-water hyperspectral data (Rrs) and water quality samples (Chl a, TSS, CDOM, salinity) Field Validation Program – Part 1 Attempted to conduct sampling within 1-3 days of an ISS overflight Laboratory analysisAbove-water radiometryWater column profiling
    • Office of Research and Development Full Name of Lab, Center, Office, Division or Staff goes here. <Go to View, Master, Slide Master to change> Office of Research and Development National Health and Environmental Effects Research Laboratory/ Atlantic Ecology Division 10 Field Validation Program – Part 2 Autonomous underwater vehicles (AUVs) were deployed concurrently with HICO overpasses by the NRL Stennis Space Center Detachment (NRL/SSC) and the USEPA Atlantic Ecology Division (AED) NRL/SSC deployed a Slocum electric glider off of Pensacola Bay along the 15- 30 m bathymetric contours which recorded: temperature salinity (conductivity) chlorophyll and CDOM florescence Slocum G2 Glider Designed and manufactured by Webb Research AED deployed a REMUS (Remote Environmental Monitoring Unit) AUV in Pensacola and Choctowhatchee Bays which recorded: temperature salinity (conductivity) chlorophyll and turbidity at approximately one meter depth Photo courtesy of Kongsberg Maritime
    • Office of Research and Development Full Name of Lab, Center, Office, Division or Staff goes here. <Go to View, Master, Slide Master to change> Office of Research and Development National Health and Environmental Effects Research Laboratory/ Atlantic Ecology Division 11 HICO Image Processing: Optical Components of a Coastal Scene Multiple light paths • Scattering due to: – atmosphere – aerosols – water surface – suspended particles – bottom • Absorption due to: – atmosphere – aerosols – suspended particles – dissolved matter
    • Office of Research and Development Full Name of Lab, Center, Office, Division or Staff goes here. <Go to View, Master, Slide Master to change> Office of Research and Development National Health and Environmental Effects Research Laboratory/ Atlantic Ecology Division 12 HICO Image Processing Steps Processing done with Excelis VIS ENVI 4.7 software Open HICO Level 1b Image with calibrated TOA at-sensor radiances Recover true at-sensor radiance valuesStep 2 Step 7 Steps 8 - 9 Create GLT + Geolocate + Warp Images Step 10 Clip estuary shapefile to Warped image Step 11 Export clipped Rrs data to EXCEL CDOMTurbidity TSM Chl a Step 3 Step 1 Sun glint correction Cloud removal (if needed) Step 5 Convert from W/m2/um/sr to uW/cm2/nm/sr Step 4 Step 6 Offshore pixel subtraction Convert at-sensor Reflectance to Remote sensing Reflectance Convert at-sensor Radiance to Reflectance Determine Mean Solar Irradiance (F0) Determine diffuse transmittance from sun to pixel (t0)
    • Office of Research and Development Full Name of Lab, Center, Office, Division or Staff goes here. <Go to View, Master, Slide Master to change> Office of Research and Development National Health and Environmental Effects Research Laboratory/ Atlantic Ecology Division Spectral match-ups between HyperSAS (dotted line) and HICO spectral signature (solid line). iss2012016.0116.193730.L1B_PensacolaBay_des.v03.9170.20120117211554.100m.hico.bil Step 1: Level 1b calibrated radiance Step 4:Offshore pixel subtraction (W/m2/um/sr) Step 7: Remotely sensed Reflectance (1/sr) 0.000 0.002 0.004 0.006 0.008 0.010 405 428 451 474 497 520 543 565 588 611 634 657 680 703 726 Rrs(1/sr) Wavelength (nm) PB 18: Redfish Cove
    • Office of Research and Development Full Name of Lab, Center, Office, Division or Staff goes here. <Go to View, Master, Slide Master to change> Office of Research and Development National Health and Environmental Effects Research Laboratory/ Atlantic Ecology Division 14 0 0.001 0.002 0.003 0.004 0.005 0.006 0.007 0.008 0.009 405 439 474 508 543 577 611 646 680 714 Rrs(sr-1) Wavelength (nm) PB06: June 2, 2011 0 0.001 0.002 0.003 0.004 0.005 0.006 0.007 0.008 0.009 0.01 405 439 474 508 543 577 611 646 680 714 Rrs(sr-1) Wavelength (nm) PB 16: June 2, 2011 0 0.001 0.002 0.003 0.004 0.005 0.006 0.007 0.008 405 439 474 508 543 577 611 646 680 714 Rrs(sr-1) Wavelength (nm) PB 15: June 2, 2011 0 0.001 0.002 0.003 0.004 0.005 0.006 0.007 0.008 0.009 0.01 405 439 474 508 543 577 611 646 680 714 Rrs(sr-1) Wavelength (nm) PB04: June 2, 2011 HICO HYPERSAS PB04 PB06 PB16 PB15 Spectral Match-ups Pensacola Bay, FL
    • Office of Research and Development Full Name of Lab, Center, Office, Division or Staff goes here. <Go to View, Master, Slide Master to change> Office of Research and Development National Health and Environmental Effects Research Laboratory/ Atlantic Ecology Division 15 0 2 4 6 8 10 -0.200 -0.100 0.000 0.100 0.200 HICO[ (1/Rrs674-1/Rrs703)*Rrs726] R2 = 0.68 0 2 4 6 8 10 12 0 2 4 6 8 10 12 Measuredchla(ug/L) HICO predicted chl a (ug/L) R2 = 0.82 RMSE = 1.7 ug/L Chl a = 19.264 X [a] + 6.614 a = [1/Rrs(674) – 1/Rrs(703)]x Rrs(726) approach of Gitelson et al., 2011 Chl a: indicator of phytoplankton abundance and eutrophication
    • Office of Research and Development Full Name of Lab, Center, Office, Division or Staff goes here. <Go to View, Master, Slide Master to change> Office of Research and Development National Health and Environmental Effects Research Laboratory/ Atlantic Ecology Division 16 0.0 0.5 1.0 1.5 2.0 2.5 3.0 0.0 0.5 1.0 1.5 2.0 2.5 CTDNTU HICO NTU R2 = 0.67 RSME = 0.56 NTU n = 14 Turbidity = 2*106 X [Rrs(646)2.7848] R2 = 0.72 n = 18 0.10 1.00 10.00 0.003 0.005 0.007 0.009 Turbidity(NTU) HICO Rrs(646) approach of Chen et al., 2007 Turbidity is an indicator of the distribution of total suspended matter in estuaries
    • Office of Research and Development Full Name of Lab, Center, Office, Division or Staff goes here. <Go to View, Master, Slide Master to change> Office of Research and Development National Health and Environmental Effects Research Laboratory/ Atlantic Ecology Division 17 Colored Dissolved Organic Matter Absorption: indicator of light attenuation in estuaries R² = 0.93 RMSE = 0.21 /m n = 18 0.0 0.5 1.0 1.5 2.0 2.5 3.0 0.0 1.0 2.0 3.0 4.0Meas.CDOMabsorption HICO CDOM absorption R² = 0.60 n = 17 0.0 0.5 1.0 1.5 2.0 2.5 0.0 0.5 1.0 1.5 2.0 2.5 ag(412)(1/m) HICO Rrs(670)/Rrs(490) ag412 (m-1) = 0.8426 x [Rrs(670)/Rrs(490)] – 0.032 approach of Bowers et al., 2004
    • Office of Research and Development Full Name of Lab, Center, Office, Division or Staff goes here. <Go to View, Master, Slide Master to change> Office of Research and Development National Health and Environmental Effects Research Laboratory/ Atlantic Ecology Division HICO/MODIS Comparison MODIS scene 19:00 GMT, 7 minutes before HICO overpass Adj R2 = 0.83 HICO scene Pixels common to both images and used in the match-up October 28, 2011 HICO and MODIS image date Dashed line = HyperSAS Rrs Dotted line = HICO Rrs at MODIS bandwidths 1:1
    • Office of Research and Development Full Name of Lab, Center, Office, Division or Staff goes here. <Go to View, Master, Slide Master to change> Office of Research and Development National Health and Environmental Effects Research Laboratory/ Atlantic Ecology Division 19 Using atmospherically corrected HICO imagery and a comprehensive field validation program, regionally-tuned algorithms were developed to estimate the spatial distribution of chlorophyll a, colored dissolved organic matter, and turbidity for four estuaries along the northwest coast of Florida from April 2010 – May 2012. Program Summary The HICO-derived water quality data from this project have been uploaded to a internal EPA HICO website for review and use by the EPA Office of Water and a prototype mobile application has been completed.
    • Office of Research and Development Full Name of Lab, Center, Office, Division or Staff goes here. <Go to View, Master, Slide Master to change> Office of Research and Development National Health and Environmental Effects Research Laboratory/ Atlantic Ecology Division 20 Conclusions HICO helped us to show that it is possible for a hyperspectral space-based sensor to produce products that meet the needs of EPA. While the potential benefits are many, there are several issues that must be resolved before HICO images and data can be incorporated into routine monitoring programs of EPA • HICO is currently limited to only one image per orbit. • ISS overpass times are difficult to precisely predict. These uncertainties led to the rescheduling of planned image acquisitions which at times impacted the effective deployment of crews for field validation activities. HICO has the potential to be a valuable monitoring tool, if transitioned to a constellation of sensors.
    • Office of Research and Development Full Name of Lab, Center, Office, Division or Staff goes here. <Go to View, Master, Slide Master to change> Office of Research and Development National Health and Environmental Effects Research Laboratory/ Atlantic Ecology Division 21 Special Thanks to: Crews on ISS Expeditions 24 - 31 Naval Research Laboratory Remote Sensing Division Oregon State University NASA ISS Program American Astronautical Society and EPA Office of Research and Development EPA Pathfinder Innovation Program (Grant 2011) EPA Safe and Sustainable Waters Research Program