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Investments in the Future: NASA's Technology Programs
 

Investments in the Future: NASA's Technology Programs

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Robert D. Braun, 2010 American Astronautical Society Goddard Memorial Symposium

Robert D. Braun, 2010 American Astronautical Society Goddard Memorial Symposium

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    Investments in the Future: NASA's Technology Programs Investments in the Future: NASA's Technology Programs Presentation Transcript

    • Investments in the Future:
      NASA’s Technology Programs
      Robert D. Braun
      NASA Chief Technologist
      March 11, 2010
      1
    • Outline
      NASA Innovation and Technology Initiative
      NASA Office of the Chief Technologist
      Space Technology Program
      Technology Integration
      2
    • Augustine Committee Input
      In 2009, the Augustine Committee strongly endorsed increased investment in innovative technologies and approaches to achieving broadly defined NASA and national goals
      This technology and innovation investment was included in all new Program Options suggested by the Augustine Committee
      The Committee strongly believes it is time for NASA to reassume its crucial role of developing new technologies for space. Today, the alternatives available for exploration systems are severely limited because of the lack of a strategic investment in technology development in past decades. NASA now has an opportunity to develop a technology roadmap that is aligned with an exploration mission that will last for decades. If appropriately funded, a technology development program would re-engage the minds at American universities, in industry and within NASA. The investments should be designed to increase the capabilities and reduce the costs of future exploration. This will benefit human and robotic exploration, the commercial space community, and other U.S. government users.
      3
      http://www.nasa.gov/pdf/396093main_HSF_Cmte_FinalReport.pdf
      *Underline highlight added.
    • Recent NRC Recommendations (1 of 2)
      In 2009, the NRC report “America’s Future in Space” specifically speaks to this issue in one of its six key recommendations:
      4. Advanced space technology. NASA should revitalize its advanced technology development program by establishing a DARPA-like organization within NASA as a priority mission area to support preeminent civil, national security (if dual-use), and commercial space programs. The resulting program should:
      a. Be organizationally independent of major development programs;
      b. Serve all civil space customers, including the commercial sector;
      c. Conduct an extensive assessment of the current state and potential of civil space technology; and
      d. Conduct cutting-edge fundamental research in support of the nation’s space technology base.
      4
      http://www.nap.edu/catalog.php?record_id=12701
      *Underline highlight added.
    • Recent NRC Recommendations (2 of 2)
      In 2009, the Congressionally mandated NRC report “Fostering Visions for the Future: A Review of the NASA Institute for Advanced Concepts” also speaks to this issue:
      Key Recommendations:
      • NASA should reestablish a NIAC-like entity (“NIAC2”)…to seek out visionary, far-reaching, advanced concepts with the potential of significant benefit to accomplishing NASA’s charter and to begin the process of maturing these advanced concepts for infusion into NASA’s missions
      • NIAC2 should report to the Office of the Administrator, be outside mission directorates, and be chartered to address NASA-wide mission and technology needs. To increase NIAC2’s relevance, NASA mission directorates should contribute thematic areas for consideration. The committee also recommends that a NIAC2 organization should be funded and administered separately from NASA development programs, mission directorates, and institutional constraints.
      • Future NIAC2 proposal opportunities be open to principal investigators or teams both internal and external to NASA
      *Underline highlight added.
      http://www.nap.edu/catalog.php?record_id=12702
      5
    • NASA Innovation Initiative Goals*
      • Revitalize NASA as a preeminent R&D organization through significant investment in longer term technical or process innovations
      • Encourage innovative application of NASA capabilities to address broader national needs such as energy, weather and climate, Earth science, health and wellness, national security, and STEM education
      • Stimulate a vibrant commercial space sector through helping to create new types of engagement, creation of new markets, and investments in future technologies
      • Generate excitement about NASA’s work by investing in a large number of highly creative activities with potential for disruptive breakthroughs
      • Provide exciting hands-on work for students and new employees
      *Internal NASA assessment in Summer/Fall 2009
      6
    • Why Invest in Technology & Innovation?
      Many positive outcomes are likely from a long-term NASA advanced concepts & broad technology development program with mission-focused, crosscutting, game-changing and early-stage innovation components.
      A more vital and productive aeronautics and space future than our country has today
      A means to focus NASA intellectual capital on significant national needs
      A spark to a technology-based economy
      An international symbol of our country’s scientific and technological leadership
      A motivation for many of the country’s best young minds to pursue educational programs and careers in engineering and science
      While these efforts are high risk and not all will succeed, when taken in total, the benefits will be significant for NASA and the Nation.
      Individual project failure must be acceptable for innovation to flourish
      We must develop a program that extracts knowledge even in cases of failure
      Consider the following examples:
      Mars Pathfinder
      Orion Thermal Protection System Development
      Human Mars exploration
      Bloom Energy
      7
    • 8
    • Planetary Exploration Flight Projects
      In Development Within 2 Years of Mars Pathfinder Landing
      9
    • Direct Results of the Orion TPS ADP
      PICA
      Competitive materials R&D resulted in multiple viable materials & systems
      ACC
      TPS ADP arcjet tests revealed catastrophic failure mode of initial MSL TPS
      3DQP
      Avcoat: Selected for the Orion
      Avcoat
      PhenCarb
      MSL shifts to a new TPS ADP
      developed TPS material
      PICA: Selected for MSL & Dragon
      • New NASA TPS experts
      • Multiple TPS firms
      • Large scale manufacturing
      • TRL = 5-6 ablative TPS
      • Promising new TPS concepts
      • Technology transfer to commercial space industry
      Large article arcjet testing demonstrated during TPS ADP is now a necessary TPS tool
      10
    • The Value of Technology InvestmentsMars Mission Example
      Notes:
      • Approximate results only.
      • Further assessments required.
      • Results are cumulative and thus dependent on combinations/sequences of technologies applied
      • The change between points shows the relative mass savings for that particular technology
      14
      Improved Cryogenic Boil-off
      12
      Cargo Aerocapture at Mars
      10
      Advanced Propulsion
      Closed-Loop Life Support
      8
      ISRU Propellants
      Normalized Mass Savings
      Nuclear Surface Power
      6
      Maintenance & Spares
      Advanced Avionics
      DRA 5.0 Reference
      4
      ISS at Assembly Complete
      2
      Without technology investments, the mass required to initiate a human Mars mission in LEO is approximately eight times the mass of the International Space Station
      Technology investments of the type proposed in the FY 2011 budget are required to put such a mission within reach
      11
    • Nine Years after NASA Mars Oxygen Generator Development……
      12
      Space technology modified to generate clean power at Ebay Headquarters in San Jose, CA. Similar fuel cell systems deployed at five other customer sites. Image from www.bloomenergy.com.
      Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Described
    • National Aeronautics and Space Administration
      Office of the Administrator
      Chief Financial Officer*
      Chief Scientist
      Advisory Groups
      NAC ASAP
      Chief Information Officer*
      Inspector General
      Chief Technologist
      Diversity and Equal Employment Opportunity
      Legislative and Intergovernmental Affairs*
      Chief, Safety and Mission Assurance
      Chief Engineer
      Independent Program and Cost Evaluation
      Chief Health and Medical Officer
      Education
      Office of Communications*
      International and Interagency Affairs
      Small Business Programs
      General Counsel
      Science Mission Directorate
      Aeronautics Research Mission Directorate
      Mission Support Directorate
      Johnson Space Center
      Ames Research Center
      Kennedy Space Center
      Dryden Flight Research Center
      Space Operations Mission Directorate
      Exploration Systems Mission Directorate
      Budget Management and Systems Support
      Internal Controls and Management Systems
      Langley Research Center
      Glenn Research Center
      NASA Shared Services Center
      Headquarters Operations
      Marshall Space Flight Center
      Goddard Space Flight Center
      Program and Institutional Integration
      Human Capital Management
      Stennis Space Center
      Jet Propulsion Laboratory
      Note:
      * Center functional office directors report to Agency functional AA. Deputy and below report to Center leadership.
      Infrastructure
      Procurement
      11/13/09
      February 22, 2010
      Protective Services
    • Office of Chief TechnologistRoles/Responsibilities
      OCT has six main goals and responsibilities:
      Principal NASA advisor and advocate on matters concerning Agency-wide technology policy and programs.
      Up and out advocacy for NASA research and technology programs. Communication and integration with other Agency technology efforts.
      Direct management of Space Technology program.
      Coordination of technology investments across the Agency, including the mission-focused investments made by the NASA mission directorates. Perform strategic technology integration.
      Change culture towards creativity and innovation at NASA Centers, particularly in regard to workforce development.
      Document/demonstrate/communicate societal impact of NASA technology investments. Lead technology transfer and commercialization opportunities across Agency.
      14
      • Mission Directorates continue to manage mission-focused technology for directorate missions and future needs
      • Beginning in FY 2011, activities associated with the Innovative Partnerships Program are integrated into the Office of the Chief Technologist
    • NASA Office of the Chief Technologist
      HQ – Overall Program Management
      Chief Technologist (CT)
      Deputy CT
      Financial Management
      Partnership Development
      Strategic Integration
      Communications
      Early-Stage Innovation
      Game Changing Technology
      Crosscutting
      Capability Demonstrations
      Space Tech Research Grants
      NIAC2
      SBIR/STTR
      Centennial Challenges
      Center Innovation Fund
      Technology Demonstrations
      Edison Small Sat Missions
      Flight Opportunities
      Game-Changing Development
      Small Sat Technologies
      Management & Implementation
      Management & Implementation
      Management & Implementation
      Flight Demos,
      Projects / Activities
      Projects / Activities
      Projects / Activities
      Centers - Project Implementation
      15
    • The Space Technology Program shall advance non-mission-focused technology currently at low-to-mid Technology Readiness Levels (TRLs), in some cases to flight-ready status.
      The Space Technology Program shall meet the Nation’s needs for new technologies to support future NASA missions in science and exploration, as well as the needs of other government agencies and the Nation’s space industry in a manner similar to the way NACA aided the early aeronautics industry. There shall be multiple customers for Space Technology program products.
      The Space Technology Program shall employ a portfolio approach to innovation that ensures opportunities for technology investment and maturation over the entire TRL spectrum.
      The Space Technology Program shall sponsor research in academia, industry, and NASA field Centers based on the quality of research proposed at those institutions and in a manner that supports competition and balance.
      16
      NASA Space TechnologyFoundational Principles
    • NASA Space Technology Program Elements
      Early-Stage Innovation: Creative ideas regarding future NASA systems and/or solutions to national needs.
      Game Changing Technology: Prove feasibility of novel, early-stage idea that has potential to revolutionize a future NASA mission and/or fulfill national need.
      Crosscutting Capability Demonstration: Maturation to flight readiness of cross-cutting capabilities that advance multiple future space missions, including flight test projects where in-space demonstration is needed before the capability can transition to direct mission application.
      17
      *Both competitive and guided program approaches will be used in the Game Changing Technology and Crosscutting Capability Demonstration program elements. The Early-Stage Innovation program element will be entirely competed.
    • NASA Space TechnologyProgram Elements
      TRL
      1
      2
      3
      4
      5
      6
      7
      Early-Stage Innovation
      • System Concepts and Analyses
      • Foundational Disciplinary Advances
      • Technology Enablers
      • Benefits/Feasibility Assessments
      Game-Changing Technology
      • New Capabilities
      (Systems & Subsystems, Not Components)
      • Large Scale
      • Quantitative Performance
      • Hardware Validation
      • Risk Results in Moderate Failure Rate
      Crosscutting Capability Demo.
      • Relevant Environment Testing
      • 7120 Flight Processes
      • Not Mission Specific Technology
      • 25% Cost Share Req. for Flight Tests
    • NASA Space Technology Program
      TRL
      1
      2
      3
      4
      5
      6
      Visions of the Future
      Possible
      Solution
      Idea
      Idea
      Is it Flight-Ready?
      Does it WORK?
      Idea
      Possible
      Solution
      Idea
      Idea
      Mission Directorates, OGAs, Industry
      Idea
      Possible
      Solution
      Idea
      Idea
      Possible
      Solution
      Idea
      Idea
      Idea
      Idea
      Idea
      Possible
      Solution
      Idea
      Early-Stage Innovation
      Game-Changing Technology
      Cross-cutting Capabilities
    • Future Space Technology Innovations?
      Inflatable Structures
      Power Beaming
      Aluminum-icenanopropellant
      Spacecraft Swarms
    • ESMD: Blazing a Trail Into the Solar System
      NASA’s human spaceflight program seeks to extend human presence throughout the solar system
      The President's FY2011 Budget Request takes a new approach to this goal, focusing on capabilities that will allow us to reach multiple destinations, including the Moon, Asteroids, Lagrange points, and Mars and its moons
      The investments seek to create the new knowledge and capabilities required for humans to venture beyond low Earth orbit to stay
      Approach expands alternatives available for human exploration, currently limited by lack of strategic investment in technology development over past decades
      21
    • New Exploration Research & Development Activities
      Exploration Technology and Demonstrations
      Develop and demonstrate technologies to reduce costs and expand capabilities for future exploration
      Heavy-Lift and Propulsion Technology
      Research and development of new cost-effective propulsion systems, engines, LV materials, etc.
      Exploration Precursor Robotic Missions
      Scout exploration targets, identify hazards and resources for human visitation and habitation
      22
    • Enabling Technology Development & Demonstration
      Human-robotic partnerships
      Autonomous Landing
      In Situ Resource Utilization
    • ESMD Flagship Technology Demonstrations
      • Evaluation underway of highest leverage demonstrations; Mars destination is a driving case for high leverage demonstration and technology
      • First three primary technology targets for single or combined missions to include:
      • In-orbit propellant transfer and storage
      • Lightweight/inflatable modules
      • Automated/autonomous rendezvous and docking
      • Fourth flight program such as
      • Aerocapture/entry, descent and landing
      • Advanced life support
      • Advanced in-space propulsion (ion/plasma, etc)
      • Initiate four technology demonstrations in FY2011
      • Follow-on demonstrations informed by emerging technologies
      • Identify potential partnerships with industry, other agencies, and international partners and leverage ISS for technology demonstrations, as appropriate
    • Relationship with Mission Directorate Technology Programs (e.g., ESMD)
      …to Support Mission-Specific Technology Needs.
      Developing Technologies with Broad Applicability…
      Mission Development
      9
      8
      7
      Technology Pull
      TRL
      6
      Crosscutting Capability Demonstrations
      Mission
      Focused
      Development &
      Demonstrations
      6
      5
      5
      Technology Push
      4
      Game-Changing Technology
      4
      3
      3
      Early-Stage
      Innovation
      2
      TRL
      1
    • Summary
      NASA as a Major Component of our Nation’s Innovation Engine:
      America’s economic competitiveness and high standard of living are based on decades of investment in innovation
      Investment in innovation in NASA communities will drive a sustainable, yet aggressive, future mission portfolio
      Innovative research and technology, tied to exciting missions with national importance, is a strong motivator for students in STEM disciplines, and a strong attraction for new hires
      This investment will also allow NASA to participate in the development of technological solutions addressing broader National needs in energy, weather & climate, Earth science, health & wellness, and National security
      NASA’s focus on innovation and technology will:
      Be responsive to Augustine and NRC input
      Position NASA for human exploration beyond low earth orbit
      Be highly engaging of our academic and industrial partners, and the emerging commercial space sector
      Leverage efforts of other government agencies and international partners
      Result in new inventions, new capabilities and creation of a pipeline of innovators trained to serve future national needs
      26