DARPA/NASA Joint Efforts

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2011 American Astronautical Society Robert H. Goddard Memorial Symposium--David Neyland, DARPA

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  • It was recognized from the outset that DARPA’s unique mission required an organization with unique characteristics. Among the most salient of these are:It is independent from service R&D organizations. DARPA neither supports a service directly nor does it seek to implement solutions to identified service requirements. Its purpose is to focus on capabilities that have not been identified in service R&D and on meeting defense needs that are not defined explicitly as service requirements. It is a lean, agile organization with a risk-taking culture. DARPA’s charter to focus on “high-risk – high-payoff” research requires that it be tolerant of failure and open to learning. It has had to learn to manage risk, not avoid it. Because of its charter, it has adopted organizational, management, and personnel policies that encourage individual responsibility and initiative, and a high degree of flexibility in program definition. This is one reason that DARPA does not maintain any of its own labs. A primary aspect of DARPA’s lean structure is that it centers on and facilitates the initiative of its program managers. The DARPA program manager is the technical champion who conceives and owns the program. As the program manager is the guiding intelligence behind the program, the most important decisions of DARPA’s few office directors are the selection of and support of risk-taking, idea-driven program managers dedicated to making the technology work.It is idea-driven and outcome-oriented. The coin of the realm at DARPA is promising ideas. The program manager succeeds by convincing others – the office director and the DARPA director – that he or she has identified a high potential new concept. The gating notion isn’t that the idea is well-proven, but that it has high prospects of making a difference. The DARPA program manager will seek out and fund researchers within U.S. defense contractors, private companies, and universities to bring the incipient concept into fruition. Thus, the research is outcome-driven to achieve results toward identified goals, not to pursue science per se. The goals may vary from demonstrating that an idea is technically feasible to providing proof-of-concept for an operational capability. To achieve these results the program manager needs to be open to competing approaches, and be adroit and tough-minded in selecting among these.http://www.darpa.mil/Docs/Intro_-_Van_Atta_200807180920581.pdf
  • MOD. For consistency, underlined ‘System Implementation’ and ‘Power Systems’. Made the boxes a bit more consistent.
  • Alternate version of previous slide.MOD. Removed the ‘seeded by’ line because all of the studies are seeded by DARPA and NASA.
  • DARPA/NASA Joint Efforts

    1. 1. DARPA / NASA Joint Efforts<br />Mr. David L. Neyland<br />Director, Tactical Technology Office<br />Briefing prepared for the American Astronautical Society<br />48th Annual Robert H. Goddard Memorial Symposium<br />Greenbelt, MD<br />March 31, 2011<br />Distribution Statement “A” (Approved for Public Release, Distribution Unlimited).<br />
    2. 2. DARPA organizational culture<br />DARPA/NASA pairing<br />DARPA<br />Orbital Express<br />SPUTNIK<br />DARPA<br />ARPA<br />GPS<br />Have Blue<br />ARPAnet<br />transit<br />1960<br />1970<br />1980<br />1990<br />2000<br />2010<br />1950<br />► Create and deny surprise<br />► Lean, agile organization with a risk-taking culture<br />► Idea-driven and outcome-oriented<br />► Demonstrate solution concepts<br />3/30/2011<br />2<br />Distribution Statement “A” (Approved for Public Release, Distribution Unlimited). DISTAR Case 16938<br />
    3. 3. 3/30/2011<br />3<br />Fortunate consequences of high risk / high pay-off investment<br />1969<br />1990<br />1955-1959<br />1967<br />Unplanned innovation turned it into<br /> the world wide web.<br />Original ARPAnet for sharing large volumes of lab data.<br />The ‘Internet’<br />Original F1 engine too complicated for early launch requirements.<br />Four years later developed for heavy-lift manned missions. <br />Apollo launch<br />1999<br />1963<br />Transit 2A satellite pioneered doppler navigation for specific military missions.<br />Became global precision navigation technology for military and civilian use.<br />GPS<br />Navstar Global Positioning System (GPS) satellite Image: USAF Research Lab<br />Distribution Statement “A” (Approved for Public Release, Distribution Unlimited). DISTAR Case 16938<br />
    4. 4. Art becomes life<br />3/30/2011<br />4<br />Interactive tablet communication<br />2001: A Space Odyssey (MGM)<br />Real life 2010<br />DARPA 1969<br />ART 1969<br />Spaceflight<br />Jules Verne<br />ART 1865<br />DARPA 1958<br />Real life 1969<br />Portable phone<br />Star Trek (Paramount)<br />Real life 1996<br />DARPA1980s<br />ART 1966<br />Distribution Statement “A” (Approved for Public Release, Distribution Unlimited). DISTAR Case 16938<br />
    5. 5. 3/30/2011<br />5<br />Fortunate consequences of spaceflight investment<br /><ul><li>Water purification equipment
    6. 6. Enriched baby food
    7. 7. Scratch-resistant lenses
    8. 8. Athletic shoes
    9. 9. Shock-absorbing helmets
    10. 10. Home security systems
    11. 11. Smoke detectors
    12. 12. Flat panel televisions
    13. 13. Food packaging
    14. 14. Freeze-dried technology
    15. 15. Fogless ski goggles
    16. 16. Self-adjusting sunglasses
    17. 17. Hang gliders
    18. 18. Art preservation
    19. 19. Quartz crystal timing equipment</li></ul>http://www.sti.nasa.gov/tto/apollo.htm<br />Distribution Statement “A” (Approved for Public Release, Distribution Unlimited). DISTAR Case 16938<br />
    20. 20. 3/30/2011<br />6<br />Challenges► Successes ► Opportunity<br />How can we lower barriers of entry into space?<br />How can increased participation increase safety? <br />How can we generate invention, investment and increased opportunity in space? <br />How can we decrease costs by re-using mass on orbit?<br />Distribution Statement “A” (Approved for Public Release, Distribution Unlimited). DISTAR Case 16938<br />
    21. 21. 3/30/2011<br />7<br />Challenges ► Successes ► Opportunity<br />Small satellites have decreased barriers of entry into space.<br />Distribution Statement “A” (Approved for Public Release, Distribution Unlimited). DISTAR Case 16938<br />
    22. 22. 3/30/2011<br />8<br />Challenges ► Successes ► Opportunity<br />Increased participation may improve safety.<br />…Even when total launch mass increased 80%<br />in the same time period.<br />Stabilized debris period<br />due to voluntary mitigation…<br />1960<br />2010<br />2000<br />1970<br />1980<br />1990<br />2009<br />2000<br />1990<br />NASA Orbital Debris Quarterly News, vol. 14 issue 1, p 12, January 2010.<br />FAA COMSTAC 2009 Commercial Geosynchronous Orbit (GSO) Launch Demand Forecast<br /><ul><li>1995 NASA: First comprehensive set of orbital debris mitigation guidelines.
    23. 23. 1997 U.S. Government: Orbital Debris Mitigation Standard Practices.
    24. 24. 1998-2002 Japan, France, Russia, European Space Agency (ESA): Orbital debris mitigation guidelines.
    25. 25. 2002 Inter-Agency Space Debris Coordination Committee (IADC): Guidelines to mitigate the growth of the orbital debris.</li></ul>Distribution Statement “A” (Approved for Public Release, Distribution Unlimited). DISTAR Case 16938<br />
    26. 26. 3/30/2011<br />9<br />Challenges ► Successes ► Opportunity<br />Horizontal Launch Study<br />Manned Servicing at GEO Study<br />Beamed Energy Propulsion Study<br />100 Year Starship Study<br />Distribution Statement “A” (Approved for Public Release, Distribution Unlimited). DISTAR Case 16938<br />
    27. 27. 3/30/2011<br />10<br />Opportunity ► Horizontal Launch Study<br />Improving the cost, availability and safety of space launch <br />by leveraging a broader industrial base and existing aviation infrastructure.<br />DARPA Interest<br /><ul><li>Near-term technology demonstration with first stage conventional aircraft.
    28. 28. Technologies for an improved upper stage(s) for reusability or higher performance.
    29. 29. Improved first stage options, including supersonic and hypersonic.</li></ul>Distribution Statement “A” (Approved for Public Release, Distribution Unlimited). DISTAR Case 16938<br />
    30. 30. Opportunity ► Horizontal Launch Study (cont.)<br />Reasonable timeframes for innovative launch options. <br />3/30/2011<br />11<br />Distribution Statement “A” (Approved for Public Release, Distribution Unlimited). DISTAR Case 16938<br />
    31. 31. 3/30/2011<br />12<br />Opportunity ► Manned GEO Servicing Study<br />Assess GEO-based human satellite servicing.<br />Study objectives: <br /><ul><li>Assess GEO-based human satellite servicing.
    32. 32. Identify activities which mitigate risk to human exploration.
    33. 33. Recommend areas for possible technology investment .
    34. 34. Provide context for recommended areas of technology investment.</li></ul>Scope of study includes:<br /><ul><li>Hardware transportation from LEO/GTO to GEO.
    35. 35. Crew transportation to GEO and return.
    36. 36. Near-GEO human presence considerations.
    37. 37. Robotic, EVA, and element infrastructure.</li></ul>Distribution Statement “A” (Approved for Public Release, Distribution Unlimited). DISTAR Case 16938<br />
    38. 38. 3/30/2011<br />13<br />Opportunity ► Manned GEO Servicing Study (cont.)<br />Research needs by servicing type.<br />Distribution Statement “A” (Approved for Public Release, Distribution Unlimited). DISTAR Case 16938<br />
    39. 39. 3/30/2011<br />14<br />Opportunity ► Beamed Energy Propulsion Study (BEP)<br />Low-cost, rapid access to space by:<br /><ul><li>High-specific impulse power source.
    40. 40. Removing the power-generation mass from the spacecraft.</li></ul>Advancements in high-energy beamed power systems and optics over the past 20 years warrant a fresh look.<br />BEP could help meet NASA or DoD needs by providing low-cost, rapid access to space for:<br /><ul><li>Launch to Earth orbit of small payloads.
    41. 41. Continuous presence at VLEO.
    42. 42. LEO to GEO transportation system.
    43. 43. Extreme deep space exploration.</li></ul>NASA artwork by Pat Rawlings <br />Distribution Statement “A” (Approved for Public Release, Distribution Unlimited). DISTAR Case 16938<br />
    44. 44. 3/30/2011<br />15<br />Opportunity ► Beamed Energy Propulsion Study (cont.)<br />Engine Types<br /><ul><li>Heat Exchanger
    45. 45. Optical Cavity
    46. 46. Lightcraft
    47. 47. MET, Hall, Ion</li></ul>Hybrids<br /><ul><li>Bimodal
    48. 48. Afterburner
    49. 49. Ablative</li></ul>Propellants<br /><ul><li>Water
    50. 50. Hydrogen
    51. 51. Nitrogen
    52. 52. Methane
    53. 53. Hydrazine</li></ul>Beam Types<br /><ul><li>mm Wave
    54. 54. µ Wave
    55. 55. Laser (Continuous)
    56. 56. Laser Pulsed</li></ul>Beamed Energy Power Concept<br />Vehicle Types<br /><ul><li>Reusable
    57. 57. Staged
    58. 58. Drop Tank
    59. 59. Sail</li></ul>Power Systems<br /><ul><li>Solar
    60. 60. Nuclear
    61. 61. Flywheel</li></ul>System Implementation<br /><ul><li>Launch Assist
    62. 62. Relay Mirrors
    63. 63. Ground Site
    64. 64. Shipboard
    65. 65. Launch Availability</li></ul>Distribution Statement “A” (Approved for Public Release, Distribution Unlimited). DISTAR Case 16938<br />
    66. 66. 3/30/2011<br />16<br />Opportunity ► 100 Year Starship Study<br />Goal: Develop a viable and sustainable model for persistent, long-term, private-sector investment into the myriad of disciplines needed to make long-distance space travel viable; with the agility to respond to the accelerating pace of technological change.  <br /><ul><li>How do organizations evolve and maintain focus and momentum for 100 years or more?
    67. 67. What models have supported long term technology development?
    68. 68. What resources and financial structures have initiated and sustained prior settlements of “new worlds”?</li></ul>Distribution Statement “A” (Approved for Public Release, Distribution Unlimited). DISTAR Case 16938<br />
    69. 69. 3/30/2011<br />17<br />Opportunity ► 100 Year Starship Study (cont.)<br />Distribution Statement “A” (Approved for Public Release, Distribution Unlimited). DISTAR Case 16938<br />
    70. 70. 3/30/2011<br />18<br />Opportunity ► 100 Year Starship Study (cont.)<br />Distribution Statement “A” (Approved for Public Release, Distribution Unlimited). DISTAR Case 16938<br />
    71. 71. DARPA, NASA and Spaceflight … great opportunities ahead<br />3/30/2011<br />19<br />Distribution Statement “A” (Approved for Public Release, Distribution Unlimited). DISTAR Case 16938<br />

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