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Fraudes en nombre de la astronomia
 

Fraudes en nombre de la astronomia

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Los fraudes electrónicos (hoax) son mensajes con información errónea, que tienen por objetivo engañar a gente incauta y los estimula a retransmitirlo a otros, convirtiéndolo en un fenómeno ...

Los fraudes electrónicos (hoax) son mensajes con información errónea, que tienen por objetivo engañar a gente incauta y los estimula a retransmitirlo a otros, convirtiéndolo en un fenómeno masivo. En el fondo, los fraudes cibernéticos hacen mofa de la credulidad de las personas, que aceptan los datos sin cuestionarlos. ¿Quién gana? Aquellos que cazan direcciones electrónicas para lucrar con ellas.

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  • http://www.adamsavage.com/images/pix/mythbusters.jpg http://www.q2cfestival.com/images/Stephen_Hawking.jpg
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  • http://www.worldwidepropertyshop.com/china/china-wall.jpg http://space.about.com/od/fungamesandhumor/ss/Great_Wall.htm Even the game, Trivial Pursuit claims that the Great Wall of China is the only man-made object visible by NASA astronauts from space or from the moon with the naked eye. It's a space urban legend. While many man-made objects are visible, the Great Wall of China generally isn't, at least to the unaided eye in low Earth orbit. It certainly isn't visible from the Moon. The visible wall theory was tarnished in 2004 with the launch of Chinese Cosmonaut, Yang Liwei. According to the Associated Press, "For decades, the Chinese propagated the myth that their most famous creation was visible from space. Elementary-school textbooks in the world's most populous nation still proclaim that the structure can be seen by the naked eye of an orbiting cosmonaut." Yang Liwei, said he couldn’t see the historic structure. There was even talk about rewriting textbooks that espouse the theory, a formidable task in the Earth’s most populous nation. The idea popped up again when astronaut Leroy Chiao pointed his camera at the Earth from International Space Station. Images taken of Inner Mongolia about 200 miles north of Beijing were determined to show small sections of the wall. The photos, taken with a digital camera and a 180mm lens, and later with a 400mm lens, were greeted with relief and rejoicing by the Chinese. Chiao himself said he didn't see the wall, and wasn't sure if the picture showed it. This photo of central Inner Mongolia, about 200 miles north of Beijing, was taken on Nov. 24, 2004, from the International Space Station. The yellow arrow points to an estimated location of 42.5N 117.4E where the wall is visible. The red arrows point to other visible sections of the wall. Kamlesh P. Lulla, NASA's chief scientist for Earth observation at Johnson Space Center in Houston, directs observation science activities from the Space Shuttle and the International Space Station. He says that generally the Great Wall is hard to see and hard to photograph, because the material from which it is made is about the same color and texture as the area surrounding it. While the Great Wall of China is very difficult to see or photograph from low Earth orbit, sections of the wall can be seen readily in radar imagery. This image of sections of the wall in a desert about 435 miles west of Beijing was made by the Spaceborne Imaging Radar flown aboard the Space Shuttle Endeavour. The wall appears as an orange line extending the length of the image. The theory that the wall could be seen from the Moon dates back to at least 1938. According to About.com's Guide to Geography, Matt Rosenberg, "The myth of being able to see the Great Wall from space originated in Richard Halliburton's 1938 (long before humans saw the earth from space) book Second Book of Marvels said that the Great Wall of China is the only man-made object visible from the moon." (See "The Great Wall of China.") It was repeated and grew until astronauts landed on the lunar surface. Cecil Adams, The Straight Dope columnist says, "Nobody knows exactly where the story got started, although some think it was speculation by some bigshot during an after-dinner speech in the early days of the space program." "The only thing you can see from the Moon is a beautiful sphere, mostly white, some blue and patches of yellow, and every once in a while some green vegetation," said Alan Bean, Apollo 12 astronaut. "No man-made object is visible at this scale." While not visible from the Moon, Ancient pyramids at Giza, Egypt are clearly visible in this photo from the Station. "From space you can see a lot of things people have made," Kamlesh Lulla said. Perhaps most visible from low Earth orbit are cities at night. Cities can be seen during the day too, as can major roadways and bridges, airports, dams and reservoirs. Three Houston landmarks are visible in this photo taken by an Expedition 10 crewmember. Minutemaid Park is the bright rectangle on the left side. The dome on the right side is the Toyota Center. At top center in the photo is the George R. Brown Convention Center. While it's questionable whether you can see the Great Wall with the unaided eye from space the myth that it is the only man-made object visible has definitely been busted.
  • http://www.chinaculture.org/img/2004-09/08/xinsrc_25090108150291921049140.jpg http://www.chinapenking.com/user/image/yang2.JPG
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  • http://www.ccastronomy.org/photo_shuttle_Columbia_STS-107_launch_original_800x600.jpg http://weblog.sinteur.com/wp-content/uploads/2008/12/space_shuttle_colombia_explosion.jpg INCREDIBLE PHOTOGRAPHY, YET PAINFUL TO VIEW. Quite hard to believe this; these are amazing! Attached are pictures of the Shuttle Explosion from an Israeli Satellite in space. They are from the Department of Justice in Washington D.C. These are some incredible pictures (jpg format) of the shuttle explosion provided by the Israeli govt. website: www.ojp.usdoj.gov/odp On February 1, 2003, the Space Shuttle Columbia broke apart on re-entry into the Earth's atmosphere, killing all seven crew members aboard. In the hours after the tragedy, terrible images of debris and destruction were paraded across our TV sets, but none were as terrible as these "satellite images." That's mainly because only Hollywood can produce pictures like these. That's right, these images were not taken by an Israeli satellite floating in space. Rather, they were taken by a movie camera in a Hollywood special effects studio. The sequence above is a series of screen shots taken from the opening sequence of the 1998 sci-fi disaster film "Armageddon." In the movie, the Space Shuttle Atlantis is torn apart by debris on the leading edge of giant "planet-killer" asteroid (note the streaking objects in background). In case that's not enough proof for you, here are a few other reasons these pictures could not possibly depict the Columbia disaster: These pictures clearly show a shuttle in space - the real Columbia was well into the Earth's atmosphere when it was destroyed. Columbia did not "explode." It broke apart under the stresses of re-entry into the atmosphere. You may have remembered seeing the startling image of debris "streaking" in the skies above the nation. When the Columbia was destroyed, it was hurtling toward Earth, literally at thousands of miles per hour. No satellite could capture such a clear picture of an object moving that fast. During re-entry, the black thermal shielding tiles on the bottom of the shuttle become super-heated and glow bright orange. The shuttle is also engulfed by a "halo" of flame caused by the friction of the atmosphere. No such super-heating or halo is evident in this series of pictures, despite the fact that news footage taken just before communication was lost with the crew clearly show a re-entry halo. A real explosion of the type pictured would have lasted 3-5 seconds, tops. It's unrealistic to assume that there is an Israeli satellite orbiting earth tracking a moving space shuttle and shooting 3-4 frames a second. Don't you think the media would have been all over spectacular images like these if they were real? They probably would have interrupted programming and put these shots on page one of every paper imaginable (just as they did with the real pictures of shuttle debris streaking across the sky). The Columbia Accident Investigation Board (CAIB), the official team looking into the cause of the disaster, is aware of photographic hoaxes being circulated in relation to the Columbia's destruction and advises that their Web site is the only source for validated, authentic photos on the subject. "As part of the ongoing investigation into the loss of the Columbia Shuttle and its crew, the Columbia Accident Investigation Board (CAIB) will occasionally release official photos on its Web site. The CAIB analyzes and validates any photographs it releases. The Board is aware that a number of fabricated, altered or otherwise falsified photographs have been circulating on the Internet. The CAIB cannot validate the authenticity of photos not posted on its Web site." What we have here is the creation of a sick joker. However, since few people actually know the details of the Columbia disaster and are unaware of the intricate details and risks inherent on shuttle missions, the joke isn't as obvious as some might think, as notes added as it circulates indicate: I must warn you these photos are extremely graphic and gripping. But they do provide a sense of closure and some reassurances that these brave astronauts did not suffer for a prolonged period of time. In some ways, these photos remind us very graphically the risk these courageous souls undertake when they commit to a life of adventure in outer space. And they also remind us that this world will be better for what they accomplished. Our lives will be lengthened though theirs were shortened. May God bless them one and all and may we never forget all they gave. ----------------------------- These impressive photographs were taken from a spy satellite in outer space, and only recently released. They reflect the sequence of events that heralded last moments of the shuttle Columbia. The attribution that these pictures come to us via the United States Department of Justice is the result of False Attribution Syndrome (FAS). An employee of the DOJ's Office of Domestic Preparedness received this letter and forwarded it friends and colleagues, adding her name, title and contact information (including web address) to the message. Some versions still have this information intact, most have abbreviated it into the misleading statement seen above. The last time I saw a photographic hoax as popular as this one, it was a fictional image of a tourist's last moments atop the World Trade Center. Another photographic hoax about the Columbia disaster, this time featuring an impossible picture of sunset over Europe , is also being forwarded with gusto. In all of these cases, a hoaxter has used doctored images to illustrate a sensational and marginally believable story that appeals to a nation's heightened emotions. Break this chain!
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  • http://urbanlegends.about.com/library/bl-shuttle-explosion.htm Subject: Columbia Photos A friend of a friend forwarded the following: "Got these from a friend of mine who is a retired NASA space engineer. Haven't seen anything like this on the news yet. " These photos of the shuttle explosion are very graphic but are outstanding in their clarity and detail. They were taken (I was told) by an Israeli satellite and have not yet been released by the U.S. Government. I thought you might want to see them if they haven't been sent to you already.
  • http://urbanlegends.about.com/library/bl-shuttle-explosion4.htm CONTACTED VIA EMAIL, the folks at NASA's Earth Sciences and Image Analysis Lab in Houston confirmed what some recipients of these so-called "satellite photos" had already deduced: they're fake. "There is some speculation here at the NASA Johnson Space Center that those images have been taken from the movie Armageddon ," my informant wrote. Which is precisely where they did come from, in the form of individual frames of a computer-animated sequence about four minutes into the 1998 science fiction film in which a space shuttle collides with fragments of a comet and explodes ( see video ). It's stunning to realize that even after being bombarded for weeks on end with real-life news footage of the Space Shuttle Columbia's fiery disintegration on February 1, 2003, anyone could mistake what happens in these CGI images for the same event — but such is evidently the case, this being one of the most widely forwarded emails of the past month. Even if we hadn't been able to so easily establish their fictitious origin, Rob Rosenberger of Vmyths.com argues, the "photos" themselves are inherently incredible. "First," he writes, "they suggest we (or the Israelis) keep a satellite in extraordinarily low orbit, close enough to the shuttle to take high-res pictures of its reentry. We know this because the pictures show the shuttle in a head-on view, slightly from below, rather than from above. Remember, things burn up on reentry, and that's not a good place to put an orbiting satellite. "Second, it suggests the NRO (National Reconnaisance Office) released photos in extraordinary wide-angle, 'movie-quality' detail, thereby giving our enemies a clue as to our best resolution. The Hubble telescope can't possibly take such a wide-angle shot, for example. The existence of a wide-angle, movie-quality camera in orbit would shock the world. "Third, the configuration of the blast in later pictures suggests the shuttle carries fuel in areas not previously known to carry fuel. A typical Hollywood cliché - when a fuel tank blows up, the entire vehicle blows up in unison, in place." As usual, we're left guessing as to the motivation of the anonymous prankster who launched the hoax.
  • http://dvdinfo.ch/movies/A/AR/armageddon/liv_tyler_nude.jpg
  • http://moonpans.com/prints/aldrinflag.jpg http://space.about.com/od/astronomyhistory/a/moonhoax.htm Did NASA actually send humans to the Moon in the 1960's? Of course, but some people claim that NASA lied about the Apollo program and faked the landings. Actually, it would have been harder to fake the whole thing than to do it! Still, many people are confused about it, so let's look at a few points of contention and clear it up. There are no stars in lunar photographs. This is really simple to understand. The sun was shining brightly on the surface of the moon where the astronauts were working. With no atmosphere, that's some very bright light. In order for any photographs to come out and not be overexposed, the camera had to be set for a very fast shutter speed, which would prevent the much fainter stars from showing up at all. The American flag seems to be waving in the breeze. Try this. Take a flag on a short pole and wave it back and forth vigorously. You'll see that it stands out and ripples, but the moment you stop waving, it settles down. This is because of Newton's laws and gravity. The flag stops waving because of the friction from our atmosphere and settles down because of our gravity. If you tried the same experiment in space, the flag would continue to wave. Well, there is no atmosphere on the moon and the gravity is 1/6 that of Earth. So, when the astronauts had to twist the flag pole back and forth to get it to go into the lunar surface, it caused a ripple affect to be seen on the flag for quite a while. Thanks to the moon's gravity, the flag did eventually settle, as much as the second, horizontal pole would allow. In fact it dropped even further eventually. As the Lunar Module launched to rejoin the Command Module, the blast knocked the flag over. Why aren't the shadows darker? Objects can be seen in the shadows. Since the sun is the only light source and without an atmosphere to scatter its light, those objects should not be visible. OK, this might be a bit confusing. Even though the Sun is the only light source, that light is being reflected by many things; the astronauts' suits, the lunar Lander, Earth, and most especially the Lunar surface, itself. This creates multiple light sources. No human could survive the Van Allen Radiation Belts, so the astronauts could not have actually gone to the moon. On the surface, this sounds pretty reasonable. If a human being stayed inside these areas of trapped solar wind particles for any length of time, he would die. The answer is really rather simple. The astronauts were not unprotected, nor did they spend any length of time in the radiation belts, probably not much more than an hour. They did not need lead shielding to be protected, the hull of the spacecraft provided more than enough protection. Moon Rocks You want physical evidence? Some of the biggest reasons to accept that the Apollo moon landings were real are rock solid. Apollo astronauts brought 841 pounds of Moon rocks home to Earth, a unique treasure trove that has taught us a great deal about the Moon. "Moon rocks are truly unique, and differ from Earth rocks in many ways," says Dr. David McKay of NASA's Johnson Space Center, one of the people who run the Lunar Sample Laboratory Facility where most of the Moon rocks are stored. "Several museums, such as the Smithsonian and others, let the public touch and examine rocks from the Moon," says David. Dr. McKay says that faking a Moon rock to fool scientists around the world would be next to impossible. "It would be far easier to just go to the Moon and get one!" he says. The Eyes Have It While the United States was frantically trying to send men to the moon, it "was being watched keenly and closely by intelligences greater than man's and yet as mortal as his own; that as men busied themselves about their various concerns they were scrutinised and studied, perhaps almost as narrowly as a man with a microscope might scrutinise the transient creatures that swarm and multiply in a drop of water." * No, not by aliens. Russia, China, East Germany and other cold-war enemies of the USA closely monitored the lunar missions. It was easy to tell whether the Apollo radio signals were coming from the direction of the Moon, and whether the time delays in conversation matched the distance the signals had to travel. If anything had seemed wrong, surely these unfriendly countries would have loudly shouted to the world that the USA was pulling a hoax! Yet none of them ever questioned NASA's accomplishment. When even your enemy gives you credit for something, it's pretty convincing!
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  • http://www.nasa.gov/home/hqnews/2008/apr/HQ_08103_student_asteroid_calculations.html The U.S. National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) has moved to calm any emergent fears of a possible asteroid collision following the appearance of a German newspaper story claiming NASA’s impact predictions for the Apophis (99942) asteroid to be significantly wide of the mark. Specifically, the Potsdamer Neuerster Nachrichten ran a news story on Tuesday relaying how a fastidious young German schoolboy had discovered a worrying miscalculation in NASA’s prediction figures regarding the possibility of an Earth-strike by the asteroid Apophis. According to findings made by 13-year-old student Nico Marquardt during a project for a regional science competition, NASA has vastly underestimated the probability of a chance collision with the 270m chunk of space debris. He offered that NASA’s strike prediction of 1in 45,000 is significantly too high, with the actual probability more likely to be somewhere around 1 in every 450. And, to pour further fuel on the fires of panic, the German publication also claimed NASA had conceded to the European Space Agency (ESA) that young Mr. Marquardt’s calculations were indeed correct. Quick to reinforce its position following the Internet distribution of the story, which was bound to whip up a degree of fear mongering based on NASA’s apparent admission, the agency stepped forward on Wednesday to insist that the boy’s project results are wrong and that its expert figures in relation to Apophis are absolutely correct. Speaking with the AFP news agency, NASA spokesman Dwayne Brown commented that NASA’s Near-Earth Object Program Office “has not changed its current estimates for the very low probability (1 in 45,000) of an Earth impact by the asteroid Apophis in 2036.” Mr. Brown also went on to label the German newspaper story as inaccurate in relation to NASA admitting its supposed calculation error, while also noting that at no time did the agency have contact with Nico Marquardt regarding the Apophis asteroid. The boy’s science project took into account the possibility that Apophis could strike one or more of the approximately 40,000 artificial satellites currently orbiting the Earth when it passes in 2029, which would then lead to a shift in the asteroid’s orbit, duly increasing the probability of a planetary collision when it passes once again in 2036. http://www.thetechherald.com/article.php/200816/728/NASA-quashes-German-student-s-asteroid-correction WASHINGTON -- The Near-Earth Object Program Office at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory in Pasadena, Calif., has not changed its current estimates for the very low probability (1 in 45,000) of an Earth impact by the asteroid Apophis in 2036. Contrary to recent press reports, NASA offices involved in near-Earth object research were not contacted and have had no correspondence with a young German student, who claims the Apophis impact probability is far higher than the current estimate. This student's conclusion reportedly is based on the possibility of a collision with an artificial satellite during the asteroid's close approach in April 2029. However, the asteroid will not pass near the main belt of geosynchronous satellites in 2029, and the chance of a collision with a satellite is exceedingly remote. Therefore, consideration of this satellite collision scenario does not affect the current impact probability estimate for Apophis, which remains at 1 in 45,000.
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  • http://www.sacredcenters.com/files/earth_holding_sml.jpg http://urbanlegends.about.com/library/bl_nasa_missing_day2.htm Did you know that the space program is busy proving that what has been called "myth" in the Bible is true? Mr Harold Hill, President of the Curtis Engine Company in Baltimore Maryland and a consultant in the space program, relates the following development.I think one of the most amazing things that God has for us today happened recently to our astronauts and space scientists at Green Belt, Maryland. They were checking the position of the sun, moon, and planets out in space where they would be 100 years and 1000 years from now.We have to know this so we won't send a satellite, up and have it bump into something later on its orbits. We have to lay out the orbits in terms of the life of the satellite, and where the planets will be so the whole thing will not bog down. They ran the computer measurement back and forth over the centuries and it came to a halt. The computer stopped and put up a red signal, which meant that there was something wrong either with the information fed into it or with the results as compared to the standards.They called in the service department to check it out and they said "what's wrong ?" Well they found there is a day missing in space in elapsed time. They scratched their heads and tore their hair. There was no answer. Finally, a Christian man on the team said, "You know, one time I was in Sunday School and they talked about the sun standing still."While they didn't believe him, they didn't have an answer either, so they said, "Show us". He got a Bible and went back to the book of Joshua where they found a pretty ridiculous statement for any one with "common sense."There they found the Lord saying to Joshua ,"Fear them not, I have delivered them into thy hand; there shall not a man of them stand before thee." Joshua was concerned because he was surrounded by the enemy and if darkness fell they would overpower them.So Joshua asked the Lord to make the sun stand still! That's right--"The sun stood still and the moon stayed---and hasted not to go down about a whole day!" The astronauts and scientists said, "There is the missing day!"They checked the computers going back into the time it was written and found it was close but not close enough. The elapsed time that was missing back in Joshua's day was 23 hours and 20 minutes--not a whole day.They read the Bible and there it was "about (approximately) a day" These little words in the Bible are important, but they were still in trouble because if you cannot account for 40 minutes you'll still be in trouble 1,000 years from now. Forty minutes had to be found because it can be multiplied many times over in orbits. As the Christian employee thought about it, he remembered somewhere in the Bible where it said the sun went BACKWARDS.The scientists told him he was out of his mind, but they got out the Book and read these words in 2 Kings: Hezekiah, on his death-bed, was visited by the prophet Isaiah who told him that he was not going to die.Hezekiah asked for a sign as proof. Isaiah said "Do you want the sun to go ahead 10 degrees?" Hezekiah said "It is nothing for the sun to go ahead 10 degrees, but let the shadow return backward 10 degrees.." Isaiah spoke to the Lord and the Lord brought the shadow ten degrees BACKWARD! Ten degrees is exactly 40 minutes! Twenty three hours and 20 minutes in Joshua, plus 40 minutes in Second Kings make the missing day in the universe!References: Joshua 10:8 and 12,13 2 Kings 20:9-11 Comments: Though it has been debunked countless times, there are no doubt some Christians who still believe this tale and perhaps even find it rife with irony. Who would have thought that science, the nemesis of faith, would inadvertently be harnessed to prove one of God's cosmic miracles true? Certainly not the scientists themselves, who work so hard to undermine biblical values with their secular theories on the origins of man and the universe. The person ultimately responsible for the story didn't see it that way, however. I'm talking about Harry Rimmer, a Presbyterian minister and amateur archaeologist whose life's mission, succinctly summarized in the title of his 1936 book The Harmony of Science and Scripture , was to bring the two seemingly incompatible world views together. That he had to forge said "harmony" out of speculation and hearsay doesn't seem to have troubled him much. Totten vs. the astronomer Rimmer told of an encounter that took place toward the end of the 19th century (well before the advent of NASA, obviously) between a Bible-believing Yale professor named C.A. Totten and a skeptical British astronomer named Sir Edwin Ball. Having pored over a set of mystifying calculations for hours on end, Ball approached Totten and confided that he had discovered an entire day "lost out of time" -- 24 missing hours that he couldn't account for scientifically. Totten suggested that the answer might be found in the pages of the Holy Bible. Intrigued by the suggestion, Ball began working his way through the scriptures and found a tentative solution in the tenth chapter of Joshua, where it is written that God caused the sun and moon to stand still for one day. But there was a discrepancy. According to Ball's own calculations, a day only lasted 23 hours and 20 minutes in Joshua's time, the astronomer told Totten. "If the Bible made a mistake of forty minutes, it is not the Book of God!" Unruffled, Totten pointed his skeptical friend back to the scriptures, where in due time Ball discovered, in the second book of Kings, the account of God turning the sundial back 10 degrees. "This settled the case," Harry Rimmer concluded, "for ten degrees on the sundial is forty minutes on the face of the clock! So the accuracy of the Book was established to the satisfaction of this exacting critic." Unfortunately, Rimmer could offer no documentation for this anecdote and no one has ever been able to find record of it outside of his book. As it happens, C.A. Totten himself had published a volume in 1890 purporting to prove the biblical accounts of the missing day and the backward-moving sundial true mathematically, but in it he made no mention of an encounter with a skeptical astronomer. And far from grounding his argument in science, Totten used calendrical calculations based on the assumption that the universe was only 6,000 years old. Harold Hill After Rimmer, the "missing day" story languished in comparative obscurity for decades, turning up now and again in Christian tracts and sermons until the 1960s, when it was revived by Harold Hill, an engineer at NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center in Maryland who later went on to serve as president of the Curtis Engine Company. Hill, who died in 1986, always maintained that his version of the story was true, but given the glaring similarities between his account and Rimmer's there can be little doubt that Hill simply updated it for a space-age audience and claimed it as his own. In How to Live Like a King's Kid , an inspirational book published in 1974, Hill explained how the story became common currency. He often told it, he wrote, when lecturing to high school and college students on the subject of science and the Bible. Apparently someone liked it so much they transcribed it and mailed it around, and by 1970 versions naming Harold Hill as their sources began appearing in midwestern newspapers. Indeed, when we look at examples of those news stories from 36 years ago (the one below is from the News Journal of Mansfield, Ohio, dated April 11, 1970), there is verbiage exactly matching what we find in the emails still circulating today: Did you know that the space program is busy proving that what has been called "myth" in the Bible is true? Mr. Harold Hill, President of the Curtis Engine Company, in Baltimore, Md., and a consultant in the space program, relates the following development: I think one of the most amazing things that God has for us today happened recently to our astronauts and space scientists at Green Belt, Md. They were checking the position of the sun, moon, and planets out in space where they would be 100 years and 1,000 years from now. We have to know this so we don't send a satellite up and have it bump into something later on in its orbits. We have to lay out the orbit in terms of the life of the satellite, and where the planets will be so the whole thing will not bog down! They ran the computer measurement back and forth over the centuries and it come to a halt. The computer stopped and put up a red signal, which meant that there was something wrong either with the information fed into it or with the results as compared to the standards. And so on. Unsurprisingly, Hill, like his predecessor Harry Rimmer, could not document the story. In a form letter he sent out in response to public queries, he claimed to have "misplaced" relevant details such as names and places. "I can only say," he wrote, "that had I not considered the information to be reliable, I would not have used it in the first place." NASA weighs in NASA scientists addressed the reliability of Harold Hill's information from a technical standpoint in a March 25, 1997 Web site feature entitled "Ask an Astrophysicist," essentially pooh-poohing the very premise of the story. The future orbits of the planets aren't calculated by going "back and forth over the centuries" to plot their past positions, they explained. It's done with simple, highly accurate formulae that can predict any future position of a planet based on its current position. "This calculation would not cover any time before the present, so some missing day many centuries ago, if it had occurred, could not be uncovered with this method," the scientists wrote. "In general," they concluded, "trying to prove events that are said to have occurred in the Bible, using scientific principles, doesn't work. Most scientists draw a clear distinction between things that are taken on faith, and those that are testable and therefore falsifiable. Science deals with the later, and religion with the former." Can the event that took place in Joshua 10:13 be confirmed, for example by counting the positions of heavenly bodies backward in time? According to the laws of physics, there are only two possible explanations for having the Sun stand still in the sky for a day: (1) the Earth would essentially have to stop spinning on its axis...for which there is no evidence. -or- (2) the Sun would have to start moving about in the solar system in a very specific way so that it appeared to us on our spinning Earth to be standing still. There is no evidence of this occurring either. We, too, have heard an "urban legend" about scientists at NASA GSFC finding the "missing day" in computer calculations of the motions of the planets. The legend has been around for longer than NASA itself, but turned into a NASA "event" sometime in the 60's. The story goes that some scientists were doing orbital mechanics calculations to determine the positions of the planets in the future, for use in determining the trajectories of future satellite missions. They realized they were off by a day. A biblical scholar in the lot remembered the passage from Joshua and all was set right. But these events, in fact, never occurred. It is easy to understand why: The "GSFC finds missing day" urban legend doesn't make sense for the following reason. If we want to know where the planets will be in the future, we use accurate knowledge of their initial positions and orbital speeds (which would be where they are located now), and solve for their positions for some time in the future. We solve a very well determined set of equations that describe their motions. The major dynamical component of any planet's orbital motion is determined by solving an equation (force is equal to the mass times the acceleration) which is the perhaps the most fundamental in classical physics. The validity and predictive power of this equation are well documented and can be seen every day: a recent example is the lunar eclipse that was visible to much of the world last Sunday. This calculation would not cover any time before the present, so some missing day many centuries ago, if it had occurred, could not be uncovered with this method. In general, trying to prove events that are said to have occurred in the Bible, using scientific principles, doesn't work. Most scientists draw a clear distinction between things that are taken on faith, and those that are testable and therefore falsifiable. Science deals with the later, and religion with the former. Check out: Brunvand, Jan Harold (1984) The Choking Doberman and Other "New" Urban Legends. W. W. Norton and Company, pp. 198-199. Brunvand, Jan Harold (1991) "The Missing Day in Time," paper presented at the annual conference of the Committee for the Scientific Investigation of Claims of the Paranormal (CSICOP), Berkeley, California, May 4. Loftin, Robert W. (1991) Origin of the Myth About a Missing Day in Time. Skeptical Inquirer. vol. 15, no. 4, Summer, pp. 350-351. McIver, Tom (1986) Ancient Tales and Space-Age Myths of Creationist Evangelism. Skeptical Inquirer. vol. 10, no. 3, Spring, pp. 258-276. Has NASA Discovered Joshua's “Lost Day"? by Bert Thompson, Ph.D. Printer version | Email this article [EDITOR’S NOTE: This year marks the nineteenth year of continuous publication for Reason & Revelation . To the best of my knowledge, not once during all those years have we repeated an article, due mainly to the fact that we wanted each issue to be relevant, current, and fresh. However, with this issue we are veering from that long-established policy—an action that we do not take lightly. I believe an explanation is in order. For years a story has been circulated by well-meaning people whose intent is to defend the accuracy and inspiration of the Bible. The story sounds great, and is quite impressive in the telling. The problem is: it is false—from beginning to end. In the May 1991 issue of R&R , I wrote an article documenting the incorrect nature of the account, and urging our readers not to use it. Now, however, the story is being circulated again—most likely due to the fact that it has been published on the Internet. While there are many positive aspects of the Internet and the World Wide Web, one negative aspect is that error can be disseminated rapidly, and widely, with little more than the click of a mouse button. Apparently that is exactly what has happened here. Some well-intentioned soul posted the story on the Internet. Another saw it, and sent it to a few (or a few hundred!) people via an electronic address book. Those people then forwarded it to others, who sent it to still others. Ad infinitum! Because of the serious nature of the situation (i.e., the fact that false information is being used—albeit probably unwittingly—to defend God’s Word), I have decided to break with our policy of not re-running articles in R&R , and to reprint (with some revision in order to include updated material) my May 1991 article exposing the false nature of this story. As those whose lives and teachings revolve around the importance of truth, we, of all people, should do all we can to avoid the dissemination of erroneous material, regardless of how “good” it may sound, or the “evidential value” it may appear to have. Yes, we should defend God’s Word. But no, we should not use error to do it. “Faithfully teaching the Faith” is not merely an awesome privilege, but an awesome responsibility as well. It is my hope that this article will be of use to our readers in doing just that.] Q. In the tenth chapter of the Old Testament book of Joshua, it is recorded that the Sun “stood still.” The story often circulates that NASA scientists, using computers to calculate orbits for the Earth and Sun, discovered that there was a “lost day.” Upon further examination, so the story goes, these scientists used their computers to find this missing day, proving the biblical record to be accurate. Is this story true? A. From time to time stories such as the one described above appear—in church bulletins and religious publications, or even on the Internet—as factual and true. No doubt those who propagate such information mean well, and have as their ultimate goal a defense of the Bible against the slings and arrows of infidelity. However, the story is untrue. An investigation reveals the following details. Similar stories have been around for more than half-a-century. In his 1936 book, The Harmony of Science and Scripture , Harry Rimmer devoted the entire last chapter to “Modern Science and the Long Day of Joshua.” In his discussion, Rimmer recounted the biblical story of how God made the Sun stand still (Joshua 10), and then made the following statement concerning this miracle: “The final testimony of science is that such a day left its record for all time. As long as time shall be, the record of this day must remain. The fact is attested by eminent men of science, two of whom I quote here” (1936, p. 280). Dr. Rimmer then mentioned two scientists—Sir Edwin Ball, a British astronomer, and Charles A.L. Totten, a Yale professor. He credited Ball with being the first to notice that “twenty-four hours had been lost out of solar time.” Rimmer then asked the questions: “Where did that go, what was the cause of this strange lapse, and how did it happen” (p. 280)? In the very next paragraph, he wrote: “There is a place, however, where the answer is found. And this place is attested by a scientist of standing. There is a book by Prof. C.A. Totten of Yale, written in 1890, which establishes the case beyond the shadow of a doubt” (p. 281). Rimmer then offered what he called a “summary” of Totten’s book where, he said, information could be found to prove exactly how the “lost day” had been discovered. Rimmer even gave the exact day and month on which Joshua’s battle was fought—Tuesday, July 22 (p. 266). Before responding to the question about NASA scientists allegedly having found the “lost day” of Joshua, let me make several observations about this older version (from which the newer one obviously has been fashioned—with considerable embellishment). First, Rimmer specifically stated that he intended to “quote from” Ball and Totten, yet none of the statements he offered was placed in quotation marks. Second, the 1890 book that Totten wrote ( Joshua’s Long Day and the Dial of Ahaz ) never was named by Rimmer, which seems a bit odd considering that Rimmer devoted an entire chapter to this subject in his own book. Third, no bibliographic references were provided by Rimmer to the works of either Ball or Totten—again, quite unusual, seeing as how Rimmer based his entire argument on the validity of their respective cases. Fourth, numerous other writers have made serious efforts to determine the validity of Rimmer’s claims, as well as those of Ball and Totten, but with no success. For example, Bernard Ramm, in The Christian View of Science and Scripture, discussed Dr. Rimmer’s viewpoint and his reference to Totten. Ramm couched his personal conclusion regarding the documentation offered by Rimmer, Totten, and Ball in well-chosen terminology. He observed: “This I have not been able to verify to my own satisfaction.... Dr. Kulp has tried to check this theory at Yale [Totten’s employer—BT] and in England [Sir Edwin Ball’s home—BT], and has found nothing to verify it” (1954, pp. 109,117). No doubt Rimmer himself believed the story to be true. But the documentation that should have provided the proof was seriously and obviously lacking. How such stories originate is far more difficult to ascertain than how they circulate. When a story has been “corroborated” with what appear to be credible names and relevant facts, people often do not go to the trouble of investigating it any further. Once accepted, it then is used in what the Bible believer sees as a reasoned defense of God’s Word. From all evidence now available, the story of Ball, Totten, and Rimmer simply is not true, and should not be used in defending the Bible as the Word of God. The same can be said about the modern-day version of the story. Again, some historical background is necessary. When the account, as told by Dr. Rimmer, first was published, apparently it caused quite a bit of excitement, and was accepted uncritically by those anxious to show how science “proved” the Bible true. After the initial excitement subsided, the story was forgotten, or overlooked, and eventually relegated to the relic heaps of history. Its stay there, however, was brief. Someone (to this day, no one knows who) rediscovered the story, “dusted it off,” gave it some embellishment (no doubt to make it more appealing to the modern scientific mind), provided names (of individuals, companies, and cities), and then, for good measure, threw in a reference to a popular government agency that was/is very much in the public eye (the National Aeronautic and Space Administration—NASA). With this “remake” of the story now complete, it had built-in credibility that few thought to doubt or question.. The modern version of the story suggests that NASA scientists at the Goddard Space Flight Center in Greenbelt, Maryland were using sophisticated computers to plot positions of the Sun, Moon, and other planets 100, and 1000, years in the future in order to calculate spacecraft trajectories. Suddenly the computers ground to a halt. As it turns out, the computers had discovered a “lost day” in time. Repairmen did not know how to correct the problem. But one of the scientists present had attended Sunday school as a child, and recalled a story in which God made the Sun stand still for about a day. When he suggested this as a possible solution, the other scientists ridiculed him. However, the scientist turned to Joshua 10 and read the story. The repairmen then fed the new data into the computers (carefully factoring in the “lost day” of Joshua), and the machines once more whirred along perfectly—almost. The computers suddenly stopped again because they had not discovered a whole day; something still was missing. Apparently (so the story goes) the computers found only 23 hours and 20 minutes. In other words, 40 minutes still were unaccounted for. But the Sunday-school-going scientist suggested the answer to this conundrum. He remembered 2 Kings 20, which indicates that King Hezekiah, upon being promised a reprieve from imminent death, had requested a sign from Heaven. God then made the Sun move backwards ten degrees—or exactly 40 minutes! This information was fed into the computers, and they once again worked perfectly. This tale became widely circulated in the late 1960s and early 1970s as a result of the efforts of Harold Hill, then-president of the Curtis Engine Company in Halethorpe (Baltimore), Maryland. In his 1974 book, How to Live Like a King’s Kid , Mr. Hill devoted an entire chapter to the story (pp. 65-77), and explained how it became so widespread. He stated that on occasion he spoke to high school and college students regarding Bible/science matters, and that the story of NASAs “missing day” was one he “told often” (pp. 65-66). Somehow (even Mr. Hill never knew how), Mary Kathryn Bryan, a columnist for the Evening World of Spencer, Indiana, received a written account of Mr. Hill’s story and ran it in her column. Afterwards, Hill noted, “Various news services picked up the story and it appeared in hundreds of places” (p. 69, emp. in orig.). The account no doubt was afforded a certain amount of built-in credibility when Mr. Hill suggested regarding the space program at Goddard: “I was involved from the start, through contractual arrangements with my company” (1974, p. 65). [As it turns out, Mr. Hill’s connection to NASA was tenuous at best; his company had a contract to service some of the government agency’s electrical generators. He never was connected in any way with mission operations or planning.] All efforts to confirm the origin of the story have failed. After an article about it appeared in the April 1970 Bible-Science Newsletter , several readers of that magazine wrote Mr. Hill. A subsequent article in the July 1989 Bible-Science Newsletter made mention of the fact that after the 1970 article, some readers finally received a form letter from Mr. Hill in which he stated that he did not originate the tale. In his 1974 book, he acknowledged that he did not witness the incident at NASA personally, and said that he could not remember where he first heard it, but insisted that “my inability to furnish documentation of the ‘Missing day’ incident in no way detracts from its authenticity” (p. 71). The July 1989 Bible-Science Newsletter article went on to report that Dr. Bolton Davidheiser wrote the NASA office at Greenbelt, Maryland, where all of this was supposed to have happened. They replied that they knew nothing of Mr. Harold Hill and could not corroborate the “lost day” reference.... The concluding paragraph of NASAs letter read, “Although we make use of planetary positions as necessary in the determination of space-craft orbits on our computers, I have not found that any ‘astronauts and space scientists at Greenbelt’ were involved in the ‘lost day’ story attributed to Mr. Hill” (Bartz, 1989, p. 12). The story’s origin is dubious at best (and spurious at worst). The facts, where verifiable, are incorrect. And those allegedly involved in finding the “lost day” of Joshua admit to knowing nothing about such events. Furthermore, anyone claiming that computers somehow could “find” a lost day fails to understand how computers work. As Paul Bartz has commented: Computers are not magic machines which can figure out things which are hidden from normal people. As wonderful as they are, they are limited by the knowledge which we give them. Computers depend on us for knowledge. While a computer could be used to generate a calendar from today back into the far distant past, which is not an uncommon practice, a computer could not tell us if any time was missing or not. In fact, the computer would have to be programmed with all sorts of adjustments to account for several changes in the western calendar over the past couple of thousand years. In short, the story is technically impossible, no matter how sophisticated your computer (1989, p. 12). The only conclusion one can draw, respecting the available facts, is that this story is false and should not be circulated. We do a disservice to God’s Word when we attempt to “defend” it with stories such as these that, with a bit of common sense and a small amount of research, can be shown to have no factual foundation whatsoever. REFERENCES Bartz, Paul (1989), “Questions and Answers,” Bible-Science Newsletter , 27[7]:12, July. Hill, Harold (1974), How to Live Like a King’s Kid (South Plainfield, NJ: Bridge Publishing). Ramm, Bernard (1954), The Christian View of Science and Scripture (Grand Rapids, MI: Eerdmans). Rimmer, Harry (1936), The Harmony of Science and Scripture (Grand Rapids, MI: Eerdmans). Totten, Charles A.L. (1890), Joshua’s Long Day and the Dial of Ahaz (New Haven, CT: Our Race Publishing Co.). Copyright © 1999 Apologetics Press, Inc. All rights reserved. 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  • http://rutas4wd.com/imagenews/1248093722-g-NASA_Logo.gif https://jamco.us/store/images/WarrantyCartoon.jpg http://tkool.jp/products/rpgxp/eng/gameover.jpg
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  • http://www.breakthechain.org/exclusives/shuttlesunset.html http://contenidos.educarex.es/mci/2003/47/imagenes/Earth-night-day.jpg This photograph was taken by the crew on board the Columbia during its last mission. This photograph was taken via satellite, on a cloudless day. The picture is of Europe and Africa when the sun is setting. Half of the picture is in night. The bright dots you see are the cities lights. The top part of Africa is the Sahara Desert. Note that the lights are already on in Holland, Paris, and Barcelona, and that's it's still daylight in London, Lisbon, and Madrid. The sun is still shining on the Straight of Gibraltar. The Mediterranean Sea is already in darkness. In the middle of the Atlantic Ocean you can see the Azores Islands; below them to the right are the Madeira Islands; a bit below are the Canary Islands; and further south, close to the farthest western point of Africa, are the Cape Verde Islands. Note that the Sahara is huge and can be seen clearly both during daytime and nighttime. To the left, on top, is Greenland, totally frozen. In case you were wondering how this photo could possibly have been taken "by the crew on board the Columbia" and "via satellite," you're right to be skeptical. In truth, it's technically neither. The photograph included in this mailing predates the Columbia shuttle disaster by quite some time. As we found with the World Trade Center attacks of 2001, even the most nondescript of chain letters seems somewhat more "special" when associated with tragedy. Fortunately, this one appears to be a hopeful misattribution and not an intentionally misleading hoax like another chain , supposedly including a series of photographs of the Columbia's destruction. The image above is not a "photograph" in the literal sense. According to NASA's Astronomy Picture of the Day web site, it is a computer construct drawn from a variety of sources. "No single spacecraft or astronaut took this picture. It is a digital composite of archived images taken by several Earth-orbiting satellites and ocean-faring ships... Specifically, the daytime land images were taken by the MODIS instrument on NASA's Terra satellite, while the nighttime images were taken by the DMSP satellites. This image is different from what an astronaut would see for reasons including a complete lack of clouds and an unrealistic exaggeration of lights and contrasts.“ It is a stunning image and the descriptive text accompanying it is at least geographically correct. But it's not a real photo, nor is it a beam of hope from a tragic mission. Break this chain
  • http://www.nuketown.com/images/photos/hoaxes/wtcplane.jpg http://nuevoleon.files.wordpress.com/2006/11/cerro-de-la-silla.JPG
  • http://urbanlegends.about.com/library/blgorsky.htm When Apollo Mission Astronaut Neil Armstrong first walked on the moon, he not only gave his famous "one small step for man, one giant leap for mankind" statement but followed it by several remarks, usual com traffic between him, the other astronauts and Mission Control. Just before he re-entered the lander, however, he made the enigmatic remark "Good luck, Mr. Gorsky." Many people at NASA thought it was a casual remark concerning some rival Soviet Cosmonaut. However, upon checking, there was no Gorsky in either the Russian or American space programs. Over the years many people questioned Armstrong as to what the "Good luck, Mr. Gorsky" statement meant, but Armstrong always just smiled. On July 5, 1995 (in Tampa Bay, FL) while answering questions following a speech, a reporter brought up the 26 year old question to Armstrong. This time he finally responded. Mr. Gorsky had finally died and so Neil Armstrong felt he could answer the question. When he was a kid, he was playing baseball with a friend in the backyard. His friend hit a fly ball which landed in the front of his neighbor's bedroom windows. His neighbors were Mr. & Mrs. Gorsky. As he leaned down to pick up the ball, young Armstrong heard Mrs. Gorsky shouting at Mr. Gorsky, "Oral sex! You want oral sex?! You'll get oral sex when the kid next door walks on the moon!" True story. Analysis: This whopper has been circulating for years via forwarded email and can be found on dozens of websites accompanied by the claim that it "really happened." But it didn't happen, as anyone can verify by perusing the official lunar landing transcript on NASA's Apollo 11 site (audio & video clips included). Sometimes attributed to stand-up comedian Buddy Hackett, "Good Luck, Mr. Gorsky" clearly came into this world as a joke, earning the status of urban legend over time through sheer repetition under the guise of a "true story." In spite of the ease with which this revisionist history of the Apollo lunar landing and moonwalk is debunked, it's so much fun to read and pass along that it will doubtless be with us for decades to come. A related urban legend popular among Muslims claims that Armstrong heard a voice say " Allahu akbar " ("God is great") the moment he stepped on the moon and was inspired to convert to Islam. Never happened.

Fraudes en nombre de la astronomia Fraudes en nombre de la astronomia Presentation Transcript

  • DOS LUNAS Y OTROS FRAUDES
  • Los fraudes electrónicos (hoax) son mensajes con información errónea, que tienen por objetivo engañar a gente incauta y los estimula a retransmitirlo a otros, convirtiéndolo en un fenómeno masivo. En el fondo, los fraudes cibernéticos hacen mofa de la credulidad de las personas, que aceptan los datos sin cuestionarlos. ¿Quién gana? Aquellos que cazan direcciones electrónicas para lucrar con ellas.
  • Los fraudes más ingeniosos están redactados de manera tal que, sin arrojar datos equivocados, tienen la “virtud” de desorientar al lector y lo impulsan a tener certeza de que la verdad le asiste. El resultado es una voluntad manipulada. A veces, los fraudes cibernéticos empiezan inocentemente, por un simple malentendido.
  • ALGUNAS CARACTERÍSTICAS DE LOS FRAUDES CIBERNÉTICOS 1.- Son anónimos (o están referidos a un personaje inexistente) En el peor de los casos, se recurre a la difamación. 2.- La información se presenta de manera “creíble”. A veces recurre a medias verdades. 3.- Se anticipan a una fecha “especial” 4.- Te piden reenviar el mensaje a todos tus contactos. 5.- Vienen acompañados de advertencias ( Te caerá la maldición gitana si no lo reenvías )
  • 1.- HAY MÁS NACIMIENTOS EN LUNA LLENA Buscar en http://stardate.org/nightsky/moon/
  • 2.- LOS ECLIPSE SON PELIGROSOS EN EL EMBARAZO
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  • 3.- LA MURALLA CHINA ES LA ÚNICA ESTRUCTURA HECHA POR EL HOMBRE QUE SE VE DESDE EL ESPACIO
  • Yang Liwei
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  • 4.- EL DESASTRE DEL COLUMBIA
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  • EL DESASTRE DEL COLUMBIA
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  • Se desintegró en la atmósfera, no en el espacio
  • 5.- LA BANDERA DEL APOLLO 11
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  • 6.- EL GRAN COLISIONADOR DE HADRONES PRODUCIRÁ UN HOYO NEGRO (Que se tragará a la Tierra)
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  • 7.- UN ESTUDIANTE DEMUESTRA QUE LA NASA SE EQUIVOCÓ EN CÁLCULO
  • 1/ 450 Vs 1/ 4,500
  • 8.- CIUDADES EN LA LUNA
  • 9.- CÍRCULOS EN LOS CAMPOS DE TRIGO
  • Doug Bower & Dave Chorley
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  • 10.- EL ROSTRO DE CYDONIA (Pareidolia)
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  • 11.- EL YETI MARCIANO
  • 12.- OVNI EN HAITÍ
  • 13.- EL PLANETA DEL APOCALIPSIS: PLANETA ROJO, NIBIRU, AJENJO, HERCÓLUBUS O PLANETA X
  • 14.- EL TSUNAMI QUE CAMBIÓ DE EJE DE LA TIERRA
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  • 15.- EL IMPACTO DEL APOPHIS
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  • 16.- TORMENTAS SOLARES Y CELULARES
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  • 17.- EL PASO DEL SOL POR EL CENTRO DE LA GALAXIA EL 12 DE DICIEMBRE DEL 2012
  • 18.- EL CINTURÓN DE FOTONES
  • ¿Qué papel desempeña el cercano CINTURÓN FOTÓNICO en estos momentos?   El Cinturón puede dividirse en tres secciones:   P rimero entraremos en lo que se denomina la Zona Nula que demora aproximadamente 5 ó 6 días, incluyendo 72 horas, aproximadamente, de oscuridad total (3 días de oscuridad); Luego, pasaremos a la parte principal del CINTURÓN mismo y se experimentará una luz de día permanente (24 horas al día). Este viaje normalmente dura alrededor de 2.000 años (Dramáticas Profecías de la Gran Pirámide) y termina cuando el Sistema Solar sale por el otro lado del Cinturón, cruzando la otra Zona Nula por otro periodo de 5 ó 6 días
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  • William Herschel
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  • Para el momento crucial habrá tres fuentes de ayuda:   1.- De los grandes ayudantes espirituales y ángeles de las muchas dimensiones.   2.- Aquellos en forma humana que ayudan a las fuerzas celestiales.   3.- Se han establecido patrones energéticos protectores alrededor del planeta. Todo este conjunto minimiza la actividad sísmica.
  • Las capas de hielo no resistirán mucho debido a la ausencia de lluvias y pronto se derretirán producto de la radiación constante. Entonces la Tierra se inundará, los niveles de agua subirán hasta los 900 metros de altura cubriendo la faz del planeta
  • Según profecías y estudios Mayas el 22 de Diciembre del Año 2012 entraremos definitivamente en el Campo de Radiación Fotónica
  • 19.- EL 06/06/06
  • 20.- DOS LUNAS
  • 2287
  • Marte y Tierra, agosto 27 de 2003 Nunca en 60,000 años Marte estuvo tan cerca 55.9 millones de km
  • LUNA Y MARTE 2003-07-17 José García Batarse KOSMOS SCIENTIFIC
  • 244 millones de Km.
  • 2003 2009
  • 21.- LUNA EN EL POLO NORTE
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  • 22.- EL OJO DE DIOS
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  • ¡3,000 años!
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  • 23.- EL SOL PERTENECE A OTRA GALAXIA Tengo que confesarles que tengo una casa chica
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  • 24.- EL HOYO NEGRO EN LA GALAXIA DEL CENTAURO
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  • 25.- EL DÍA PERDIDO
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  • Charles Totten publicó en 1890 el libro Joshua's Long Day and the Dial of Ahaz: A Scientific Vindication Pero no publicó ningún cálculo que demostrara cómo llegó a esta conclusión En 1960, Harold Hill mejoró la versión, diciendo que la NASA había hecho el cálculo
  • 26.- LE PUEDES PONER NOMBRE A UNA ESTRELLA
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  • 27.- EL CRÁTER MICHAEL JACKSON
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  • GRACIAS
  • SR. GORSKY