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Metabolism c
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  • 1. METABOLISM
  • 2. Why Study Metabolism?
    • Classification of bacteria
      • Oxygen Tolerance
      • Biochemical reactions
        • Acids, Ammonia, Gases
    • Fermentation Products
      • Food Products
        • Yogurt, Sour Cream, Bread, Alcohol
      • Commercial Products
        • Citric Acid, Plastics
    • Environmental Cleanup
  • 3. Ying & Yang of Metabolism
    • Metabolism = Anabolism + Catabolism
    • Photosynthesis requires Respiration
    • Respiration requires Photosynthesis
    • Energy Production = Energy Consumption
  • 4. Breakdown Proteins to Amino Acids, Starch to Glucose Synthesis Amino Acids to Proteins, Glucose to Starch
  • 5.  
  • 6. Overview of Metabolism
    • Source of Energy (Photo- vs. Chemotroph)
      • Source of Electrons
      • Carrier of Electrons
      • Final Electron Acceptor
    • Source of Carbon (Auto- vs. Heterotroph)
      • Auto- : Carbon Dioxide
      • Hetero- : Organic Compounds
    Chapter 5
  • 7.  
  • 8.  
  • 9. Electron Carriers
    • Photosynthesis
      • NADP + H to NADPH
    • Respiration
      • NAD + H to NADH
      • FAD + H to FADH
    • Contain Niacin and Riboflavin
      • Vitamins, not stable
      • Can’t store these molecules
  • 10. Movement of Electrons
    • Chemical reactions
    • Oxidation Reactions
    • Reduction Reactions
    • Reactions Coupled Redox reactions
  • 11. Chapter 5
  • 12. Example of Redox Equations
  • 13. Final Electron Acceptor
    • Photosynthesis
      • CO 2 + H’s to CH 2 O
      • Stores energy
    • Respiration
      • Aerobic
        • 1/2 O 2 + H 2 to H 2 O
      • Anaerobic
        • Fermentation
  • 14. Examples
    • ATP  ADP + P
      • Oxidation, release energy
    • ADP + P  ATP
      • Reduction, stores energy
    • NAD + H  NADH
    • FADH  FAD + H
    • NH 4 + 1 1/ 2 O 2  NO 2 - +H 2 O + 2H + ATP
    • 2H 2 + O 2  2H 2 O
    Chapter 5
  • 15. Respiration
    • Overview;
      • Glucose to Carbon dioxide + Water +Energy
      • C 6 H 12 O 6 + O 2  6CO 2 + 6H 2 O + 38 ATP
      • Glucose is highly reduced; contains energy
      • Oxygen receives the electrons to form energy
    • 4 separate reactions
      • Glycolysis, Transition Reaction, Krebs Cycle, Electron Transport, Chemiosomosis
    • Requires Oxygen
  • 16. Biochemical Pathways of Energy Metabolism Series of controlled reactions rather than in a single burst .
  • 17. Glycolysis- 10 steps
    • Glucose is Phosphorylated to form Fructose 1,6-diphosphate
    • Split to form 2 Glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate
    • Final Products are:
      • 2 Pyruvic Acid (C 3 H 4 O 3 )
        • Compare to original glucose - C 6 H 12 O 6
      • 2 NADH
      • 2 ATP
    Chapter 5
  • 18.  
  • 19. Carbohydrate metabolism
    • Pentose Phosphate Pathway – hexose monophosphate shunt
    • Operates simultaneously with glycolysis
    • Provides a means for the breakdown of 5 carbon sugars as well as glucose
  • 20. Carbohydrate Metabolism
    • EDP is still another pathway for oxidizing glucose to pyruvic acid
    • Yield 1 ATP
  • 21.  
  • 22.
    • Used by Gram negatives (e.g. Rhizobium, Psuedomonas, Agrobacterium), usually not by Gram positives.
  • 23.
    • The Pentose Phosphate pathway (hexose monophosphate shunt) is used to metabolize five-carbon sugars; one ATP and 2 NADPH molecules are produced from oxidation of one glucose molecule. Produces intermediates for nucleotide and nucleic acid synthesis, glucose synthesis from CO 2 in photosynthesis, and some amino acids.
  • 24.  
  • 25.  
  • 26.  
  • 27. Chapter 5
  • 28.  
  • 29. Fermentation Products from Pyruvate
    • Homolactic = Lactic Acid
      • Yogurt, Lactobacillus
    • Alcohol + CO 2
    • Propionic Acid
    • Butyric Acid
    • Acetic Acid
    • Succinic Acid
    • Butylene to Acetoin
      • basis for VP Test (Vogues-Proskauer)
  • 30. Fermentation Products
    • Alcohol and Carbon Dioxide
      • Yeast mostly
    • Lactic Acid
      • Humans, muscles without oxygen
      • Bacteria (Lactobacillus-yogurt)
    • Butyric Acid
      • Rancid butter, Clostridium-gangrene
    • Acetoin
      • Butanediol fermentation in Klebsiella
    • Propionic Acid
      • Swiss Cheese
    Chapter 5
  • 31. Chapter 5 Fermentation in Yeast
  • 32. Chapter 5 Fermentation in Muscle
  • 33.  
  • 34. Fermentation of Carbohydrates
    • Glucose  Pyruvic Acid  fermentation or respiration
    • Release energy from sugars or other organic molecules such as amino acids, organic acids, purines and pyrimidines
    • Does not require oxygen
    • Does not require an electron transport chain
  • 35. Fermentation of Carbohydrates
    • Uses an organic molecule as the final electron acceptor
  • 36. Other Fermentation Pathways
  • 37. Other Fermentation Pathways Swiss cheese. Beer, wine, bread. Flatulence! LAB & our own muscles.
  • 38.  
  • 39.  
  • 40. Fermentation
    • Products – ethanol and carbon dioxide
    • Brewing and wine making are anaerobic processes if oxygen is present further oxidation will occur
  • 41. Respiration
    • Is an ATP generating process in which chemical compounds are oxidized and the final electron acceptor is almost always an inorganic molecule
    • Electron transport chain – readily accept electrons from one compound and pass them to another
    • ATP generated by oxidative phosphorylation
  • 42. Respiration
    • Oxidize organic molecules completely to carbon dioxide
    • ATP yield greater in respiration than in fermentation
  • 43. Krebs Cycle
    • As acetyl CoA enters the Krebs cycle, CoA detaches from the acetyl group and then can pick up more acetyl groups for the next Krebs cycle
    • Series of redox reactions
    • Yield 38 ATP
  • 44.  
  • 45.  
  • 46. Protein Catabolism
    • Require extracellular enzymes – proteases and peptidases
    • Deaminate amino acids
    • Decarboxylation
  • 47. Lipid Catabolism
    • Fats  fatty acids + glycerol
    • Requires lipases
    • Convert glycerol into dihydroxyacetone phosphate
    • Fatty acids catabolized by beta oxidation
  • 48.  
  • 49.  
  • 50. Energy Utilization
    • Microbes use ATP to provide energy for the transport of substances across plasma membranes
    • For flagellar motion
    • Biosynthesis of new cell components
  • 51. Biosynthesis of Polysaccharides
    • Bacteria synthesize glycogen from adenosine diphosphoglucose – ADPG
    • Synthesize capsular material
  • 52. Biosynthesis of Lipids
    • Microbes synthesize lipids, by uniting glycerol and fatty acids
    • Structural components of plasma membrane and Gram – cell wall
    • Lipids serve as storage forms of energy
  • 53. Biosynthesis of Amino Acids
    • Required for protein synthesis
    • E. coli – synthesize all the amino acids they need
    • Other microbes require some preformed aa from the environment in order to metabolize proteins
    • Krebs cycle source of precursors for aa
  • 54. Biosynthesis of Amino Acids
    • Other sources of precursors are derived from the pentose phosphate pathway and the EDP
    • AA building blocks for proteins (toxins)
  • 55.  
  • 56. Biosynthesis of Purines & Pyrimidines
    • Sugars composing nucleotides are derived from either the PPP or the EDP
    • Aspartic acid, glycine and glutamine play an essential role in the biosynthesis of purines and pyrimidines
    • The C and N atoms derived from these aa form the backbone of the purines and pyrimidines
  • 57. Integration of Metabolism
    • Anabolic and catabolic reactions are integrated through a group of common intermediates
    • Krebs cycle – operate in both anabolic and catabolic reactions produce intermediates that lead to the synthesis of amino acids, fatty acids and glycerol – amphibolic pathways
  • 58.  
  • 59. Chemo Organic Autotrophs
    • • Two types
    • – Chemo organic autotroph
    • • Derives their energy from organic compounds
    • and their carbon source from inorganic
    • compounds
    • – Lithoautotrophs
    • • Neither sunlight nor organics used, rather it
    • relies totally on inorganics
  • 60. Photoautotroph
    • • Derive their energy from sunlight
    • • Transform light rays into chemical
    • energy
    • • Primary producers of organic matter for
    • heterotrophs
    • • Primary producers of oxygen
    • • Ex. Algae, plants, some bacteria
  • 61. Chemoheterotrophs
    • Derive both carbon and energy from
    • organic compounds
    • – Saprobic
    • • decomposers of plant litter, animal matter, and dead microbes
    • – Parasitic
    • • Live in or on the body of a host
  • 62.  
  • 63.  
  • 64. Iron precipitation at near an iron mine: Iron rich (Fe 2+ ) anaerobic waters become oxygenated at the surface
  • 65. Precipitated iron seeping from an iron bog in Colorado Bog iron ore from Poland Bog iron ore from coastal Virginia swamps