Metabolism b
Upcoming SlideShare
Loading in...5
×

Like this? Share it with your network

Share
  • Full Name Full Name Comment goes here.
    Are you sure you want to
    Your message goes here
    Be the first to comment
No Downloads

Views

Total Views
1,701
On Slideshare
1,701
From Embeds
0
Number of Embeds
0

Actions

Shares
Downloads
42
Comments
0
Likes
1

Embeds 0

No embeds

Report content

Flagged as inappropriate Flag as inappropriate
Flag as inappropriate

Select your reason for flagging this presentation as inappropriate.

Cancel
    No notes for slide

Transcript

  • 1. Biochemical Pathways of Energy Metabolism Series of controlled reactions rather than in a single burst .
  • 2. Carbohydrate Metabolism
    • Glycolysis – Embden Meyerhoff Pathway
    • Oxidation of glucose to pyruvic acid, series of 10 reactions, each reaction catalyzed by a different enzyme
  • 3.  
  • 4. Carbohydrate metabolism
    • Pentose Phosphate Pathway – hexose monophosphate shunt
    • Operates simultaneously with glycolysis
    • Provides a means for the breakdown of 5 carbon sugars as well as glucose
  • 5. Carbohydrate Metabolism
    • EDP is still another pathway for oxidizing glucose to pyruvic acid
    • Yield 1 ATP
  • 6. Fermentation of Carbohydrates
    • Glucose  Pyruvic Acid  fermentation or respiration
    • Release energy from sugars or other organic molecules such as amino acids, organic acids, purines and pyrimidines
    • Does not require oxygen
    • Does not require an electron transport chain
  • 7. Fermentation of Carbohydrates
    • Uses an organic molecule as the final electron acceptor
  • 8.  
  • 9.  
  • 10. Fermentation
    • Products – ethanol and carbon dioxide
    • Brewing and wine making are anaerobic processes if oxygen is present further oxidation will occur
  • 11. Respiration
    • Is an ATP generating process in which chemical compounds are oxidized and the final electron acceptor is almost always an inorganic molecule
    • Electron transport chain – readily accept electrons from one compound and pass them to another
    • ATP generated by oxidative phosphorylation
  • 12. Respiration
    • Oxidize organic molecules completely to carbon dioxide
    • ATP yield greater in respiration than in fermentation
  • 13. Krebs Cycle
    • As acetyl CoA enters the Krebs cycle, CoA detaches from the acetyl group and then can pick up more acetyl groups for the next Krebs cycle
    • Series of redox reactions
    • Yield 38 ATP
  • 14.  
  • 15. Protein Catabolism
    • Require extracellular enzymes – proteases and peptidases
    • Deaminate amino acids
    • Decarboxylation
  • 16. Lipid Catabolism
    • Fats  fatty acids + glycerol
    • Requires lipases
    • Convert glycerol into dihydroxyacetone phosphate
    • Fatty acids catabolized by beta oxidation
  • 17. Energy Utilization
    • Microbes use ATP to provide energy for the transport of substances across plasma membranes
    • For flagellar motion
    • Biosynthesis of new cell components
  • 18. Biosynthesis of Polysaccharides
    • Bacteria synthesize glycogen from adenosine diphosphoglucose – ADPG
    • Synthesize capsular material
  • 19. Biosynthesis of Lipids
    • Microbes synthesize lipids, by uniting glycerol and fatty acids
    • Structural components of plasma membrane and Gram – cell wall
    • Lipids serve as storage forms of energy
  • 20. Biosynthesis of Amino Acids
    • Required for protein synthesis
    • E. coli – synthesize all the amino acids they need
    • Other microbes require some preformed aa from the environment in order to metabolize proteins
    • Krebs cycle source of precursors for aa
  • 21. Biosynthesis of Amino Acids
    • Other sources of precursors are derived from the pentose phosphate pathway and the EDP
    • AA building blocks for proteins (toxins)
  • 22. Biosynthesis of Purines & Pyrimidines
    • Sugars composing nucleotides are derived from either the PPP or the EDP
    • Aspartic acid, glycine and glutamine play an essential role in the biosynthesis of purines and pyrimidines
    • The C and N atoms derived from these aa form the backbone of the purines and pyrimidines
  • 23. Integration of Metabolism
    • Anabolic and catabolic reactions are integrated through a group of common intermediates
    • Krebs cycle – operate in both anabolic and catabolic reactions produce intermediates that lead to the synthesis of amino acids, fatty acids and glycerol – amphibolic pathways