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Metabolism b
Metabolism b
Metabolism b
Metabolism b
Metabolism b
Metabolism b
Metabolism b
Metabolism b
Metabolism b
Metabolism b
Metabolism b
Metabolism b
Metabolism b
Metabolism b
Metabolism b
Metabolism b
Metabolism b
Metabolism b
Metabolism b
Metabolism b
Metabolism b
Metabolism b
Metabolism b
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Metabolism b


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  • 1. Biochemical Pathways of Energy Metabolism Series of controlled reactions rather than in a single burst .
  • 2. Carbohydrate Metabolism
    • Glycolysis – Embden Meyerhoff Pathway
    • Oxidation of glucose to pyruvic acid, series of 10 reactions, each reaction catalyzed by a different enzyme
  • 3.  
  • 4. Carbohydrate metabolism
    • Pentose Phosphate Pathway – hexose monophosphate shunt
    • Operates simultaneously with glycolysis
    • Provides a means for the breakdown of 5 carbon sugars as well as glucose
  • 5. Carbohydrate Metabolism
    • EDP is still another pathway for oxidizing glucose to pyruvic acid
    • Yield 1 ATP
  • 6. Fermentation of Carbohydrates
    • Glucose  Pyruvic Acid  fermentation or respiration
    • Release energy from sugars or other organic molecules such as amino acids, organic acids, purines and pyrimidines
    • Does not require oxygen
    • Does not require an electron transport chain
  • 7. Fermentation of Carbohydrates
    • Uses an organic molecule as the final electron acceptor
  • 8.  
  • 9.  
  • 10. Fermentation
    • Products – ethanol and carbon dioxide
    • Brewing and wine making are anaerobic processes if oxygen is present further oxidation will occur
  • 11. Respiration
    • Is an ATP generating process in which chemical compounds are oxidized and the final electron acceptor is almost always an inorganic molecule
    • Electron transport chain – readily accept electrons from one compound and pass them to another
    • ATP generated by oxidative phosphorylation
  • 12. Respiration
    • Oxidize organic molecules completely to carbon dioxide
    • ATP yield greater in respiration than in fermentation
  • 13. Krebs Cycle
    • As acetyl CoA enters the Krebs cycle, CoA detaches from the acetyl group and then can pick up more acetyl groups for the next Krebs cycle
    • Series of redox reactions
    • Yield 38 ATP
  • 14.  
  • 15. Protein Catabolism
    • Require extracellular enzymes – proteases and peptidases
    • Deaminate amino acids
    • Decarboxylation
  • 16. Lipid Catabolism
    • Fats  fatty acids + glycerol
    • Requires lipases
    • Convert glycerol into dihydroxyacetone phosphate
    • Fatty acids catabolized by beta oxidation
  • 17. Energy Utilization
    • Microbes use ATP to provide energy for the transport of substances across plasma membranes
    • For flagellar motion
    • Biosynthesis of new cell components
  • 18. Biosynthesis of Polysaccharides
    • Bacteria synthesize glycogen from adenosine diphosphoglucose – ADPG
    • Synthesize capsular material
  • 19. Biosynthesis of Lipids
    • Microbes synthesize lipids, by uniting glycerol and fatty acids
    • Structural components of plasma membrane and Gram – cell wall
    • Lipids serve as storage forms of energy
  • 20. Biosynthesis of Amino Acids
    • Required for protein synthesis
    • E. coli – synthesize all the amino acids they need
    • Other microbes require some preformed aa from the environment in order to metabolize proteins
    • Krebs cycle source of precursors for aa
  • 21. Biosynthesis of Amino Acids
    • Other sources of precursors are derived from the pentose phosphate pathway and the EDP
    • AA building blocks for proteins (toxins)
  • 22. Biosynthesis of Purines & Pyrimidines
    • Sugars composing nucleotides are derived from either the PPP or the EDP
    • Aspartic acid, glycine and glutamine play an essential role in the biosynthesis of purines and pyrimidines
    • The C and N atoms derived from these aa form the backbone of the purines and pyrimidines
  • 23. Integration of Metabolism
    • Anabolic and catabolic reactions are integrated through a group of common intermediates
    • Krebs cycle – operate in both anabolic and catabolic reactions produce intermediates that lead to the synthesis of amino acids, fatty acids and glycerol – amphibolic pathways