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Role of Multi-Stakeholders Forum in Reducing Vulnerability and Poverty: Perspective and Lessons From Nusa Tenggara, Indonesia
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Role of Multi-Stakeholders Forum in Reducing Vulnerability and Poverty: Perspective and Lessons From Nusa Tenggara, Indonesia


Poverty Reduction Initiative in Eastern Indonesia

Poverty Reduction Initiative in Eastern Indonesia

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  • 1. Role of Multi- S takeholder s Forum in Reducing Vulnerability and Poverty: Perspective and Lessons From Nusa Tenggara, Indonesia Dr. Astia Dendi, and Dr. Ahmad Zaini A Presentation at the 3 rd ARSA International Conference Sanhe City, China, 8-10 August 2007
  • 2. Structure of Presentation
    • Background and context;
    • Conceptual framework, key questions and methods of data collection;
    • Overview of health and nutrition status in Indonesia;
    • Factors underlying people vulnerability with a focus on health and nutrition;
    • Role and prospect of stakeholder forum to help reduce poverty and vulnerability;
    • Lessons learnt and recommendations
    • The “Big Bang” decentralization in Indonesia;
    • Poverty remains high in Indonesia, but more prevailing in eastern Indonesia;
    • Overall, Indonesia HDI improved considerably from 0.677 in 1999 to 0.711 in 2006 (rank 108 of 177 countries), but:
      • Less progressive compared to neighboring countries and there is notable inter-regional variation
      • High incidence of malnutrion and high rate of infant and maternal mortality in eastern Indonesia;
      • West Nusa Tenggara province (NTB) is among the most critical regions in Indonesia in term of infant and maternal mortality rate:
      • IMR in NTB (BPS, 2004) = 73.5/ 1000 live birth (national=45/ 1000 live birth);
      • MMR in NTB= 370/ 100,000 live birth (national = 307/ 100,000 live birth);
  • 4. Global Poverty: Indonesian position Sachs, J. (2005:180)-The end of poverty: How we can make it happen in our lifetime?
  • 5. Life Expectancy Vs H uman D evelopment I ndex Human Development Index Life expectancy Province
  • 6. POVERTY Low Food Intake Frequent Infectious Diseases Hard Labour Frequent Pregnancy Big Household Size Nutrition Status High expenditures for health care Reduce productivity due to bad physical condition Reduce productivity due to low inteligence and education status Source : Repositioning Nutrition as Central of Development ( World Bank , 2006) CONCEPTUAL FRAMEWORK
  • 7. Key Questions
    • What factors underlying the high rate of undernourishment of children U5, infant and maternal mortality in eastern Indonesia, primarily West Nusa Tenggara (NTB)?;
    • What is the prospect of stakeholder’s forum at community and local levels toward reducing vulnerability of the poor?;
    • What lessons can be learnt from these forums initiative?;
    • What are some ways forward?
    • Desk study (secondary data)
    • Primary data collection:
      • Key informants interviews
      • Focus Group Discussion
      • Observation
  • 9. Overview of health and nutrition issues in Eastern Indonesia
  • 10. Trend of children U nder 5 Years Old (U5) suffering severely under nourished (Z score <-3) Source: Susenas 1995-2005
  • 11. Trend of children U5 suffering under nourished (Z score -3.00 to -2.00) Source: Susenas 1995-2005
  • 12. Under nutrition of Children U5 in Indonesia (2003)
  • 13.  
  • 14.  
  • 15.  
  • 16.  
  • 17. UNDER NUTRITION FOOD DISEASES Availability of Food at Household Level Care of Children & Pregnant Women Health and Sanitation services
    • Resources :
    • Purchasing power
    • Agriculture land
    • Think (mindset)
    • Skill
    Politics Economy, Social Direct Causes Indirect Causes Core Problems Roots of the problems UNICEF, 1998 FACTORS UNDERLYING UNDER NUTRITION
  • 18. Problems/ challenges at community level:
      • Low education level;
      • Low income
      • Women work as hard labors (including migrant labor to neighboring countries);
      • Lack of time to care children U5;
      • Lack of healthcare during pregnancy;
      • Lack of knowledge and skills in post natal health care;
  • 19. Governance problems:
      • Lack of political commitment at provincial and local levels;
      • Insignificant budget allocation for financing health and nutrition programs for the poor compared to that for apparatus (operational) expenditures;
      • Lack of transparancy of budgeting and public expenditures;
      • Lack of community participation in public policy formulation (particularly budgeting);
      • Local parliament members lack the understanding on factors underlying poverty and under nutrition problems;
      • Local parliament members have inadequate knowledge and skills in the formulation of pro-poor planning and budgeting;
      • The monitoring and supervision ha ve been administrative-focus rather than results-focus;
  • 20.
    • Media for collective learning;
    • Media for building mutual understanding, trust, and mutual agreement;
    • Promote responsibility sharing;
    • Induce collective action;
    • Stimulate and catalyze social changes
    Role and prospect of Stakeholder’s Forum
  • 21. Stakeholder’s dialog fosters collective learning and responsibility sharing for actions
  • 22.  
  • 23. Example: Teniga Village, West Lombok
      • Self-financed village office building
      • Community watch-dog against illegal logging
  • 24.
      • Road improvement to facilitate community access to the integrated health services ( P olindes /Posyandu )
      • Installation of clean water pipes for 7 , 012 meter and mass water reservoir ( 3x2x1 . 5m )
      • Community fund-raising to hire a building for Village Health Clinic ( P olindes) office
      • New rotary saving groups ( arisan ) were founded to support P osyandu activities
    Example: Sigar Penjalin Village, West Lombok
  • 25. Road improvement by community to improve access to Health Care Service (Posyandu) at Sub-village level
  • 26. Installation of clean water pipes ( 7 . 0 2 k m ), self-financed by the community of Sigar Penjalin village, West Lombok
  • 27.
      • The community built a “ beruga q” ’ (a traditional platform) for dialogues;
      • The community work together to clean their surroundings twice a week;
      • Community participation to facilitate integrated health care services (P osyandu activities);
      • New “rotary saving groups” were founded to support posyandu activities.
    Sokong Village, West Lombok
    • Stakeholder s forum can be an effective instrument to foster learning and actions toward reducing poverty and vulnerability of the poor (e.g. health and nutrition problems);
    • Key factors affecting performance of the stakeholders forum, among others:
      • Shared understanding among forum members regarding problems and needs;
      • Good quality learning process to develop leadership and change the mindset of the forum members;
      • Priority programs are based on mutual agreements among forum members depending on community & local needs and self-help potentials;
  • 29.
    • The weakness of development intervention strategies by various agencies in eastern Indonesia, among others, is the rush to focus directly on technical aspects;
    • Such approach overlooks the need for community envisioning, establishing mutual understanding, trust and agreements through social learning;
    • Establishment of stakeholder forum, as we observed, is instrumental and thus a necessary conditions for increasing effectiveness of development strategies;
    • Policy makers and development implementing agencies should be made familiar with the existing forums model in order to promote pro-poor approach in development ;