Co Morbidity Of Schizophrenia And Other Mental IllnessesPresentation Transcript
Andrea Bridley Psychology 492: Advanced General Psychology
The most commonly used substance in those that are diagnosed with Schizophrenia is alcohol (Bellack & DiClemente, 1999)
To reduce the negative effects of Schizophrenia
Other commonly used substances include:
What do researchers focus on when looking at co-morbid disorders?
Social perspectives of the client
Focusing on the substance use/abuse
Educational purposes for substance use/abuse
Habits, triggers, cravings, and goal setting
Some of the most common disorders that are co-morbid with Schizophrenia include:
Substance Abuse (most common and predominates over any other disorder) (Buckley, Miller, Lehrer, and Castle, 2009)
There is a 47% chance that those that are diagnosed with Schizophrenia, also have a lifetime chance of substance abuse co-morbidity.
There is also a chance that those diagnosed with Schizophrenia, may also have a medical co-morbid disorder. Some of these include:
Coronary Artery Disease
Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary disease
During a study done of 1,424 patients that were diagnosed with Schizophrenia, 58% of them had a medical condition, and 9% had more than 4 medical conditions.
This study also found that there was a higher rate for poor neurocognitive functioning as well as more depressive symptoms
(Chwastiak, et. Al., 2006)
A study that was done compared those that were discharged from the hospital from at least 2 inpatient stays (with a diagnosis of Schizophrenia) with those that did not have an actual diagnosis of Schizophrenia
This study was done to compare the two groups in regards to the violent crime in relation to those with Schizophrenia
This study shows that the rate of violent crime is minimal in those that had a diagnosis of Schizophrenia.
Those that had a diagnosis of Schizophrenia co-morbid with a substance abuse disorder had a higher violent crime rate.
Fazel, Langstrom, Hjern, Gann, Lichtenstein, 2009
In one study that was comprised of 22 subjects, all who were dually diagnosed with Schizophrenia & substance abuse.
After doing the intake paperwork, completing medical history, and history on their Schizophrenia diagnosis (age at onset, current state, etc) it was found that only 5 of the 22 cases Schizophrenia was experienced before they experienced the onset of substance abuse.
It was not found that the substances increased or decreased the symptoms of the patient’s Schizophrenia.
This study shows that one disorder does not necessarily cause the other in the case of a dual-diagnosis of Schizophrenia and substance abuse.
Goswami, Singh, Mattoo, Basu, 2003
Throughout a 14 year study, those that were admitted to a hospital that were experiencing their first-episode of Schizophrenia & were also diagnosed with substance abuse disorder, had reported that they felt that the substance abuse precedes the onset of Schizophrenia.
Mauri, Volonteri, De Gaspari 2006
It is said that “Antisocial Personality Disorder is more prevalent in those that are diagnosed with Schizophrenia, than in the general population. ” (Moran & Hodgins, 2004, Pg. 791)
Researchers took 232 men, that were diagnosed with Schizophrenia and/or APD, or neither. It was found that there was no affect on the outcome of Schizophrenia if they were dually-diagnosed.
Some things that may cause a person to be more at risk for Schizophrenia include:
Whether it is genetic….Results were inconclusive
Schizophrenia is a very intricate illness, including the co-morbidity rates.
What causes co-morbidity in those with Schizophrenia?
Research is continuing to go on to find out what causes co-morbidity of substance abuse and other mental illnesses.
Bellack A, DiClemente C. Treating substance abuse among patients with schizophrenia. Psychiatr Serv. 1999;50:75-80
Buckley, P. F., Miller, B. J., Lehrer, D. S., & Castle, D. J. (2009). Psychiatric co-morbidities and Schizophrenia. Schizophr Bull , 35 (2), 383-402. http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/schbul/sbn135
Chwastiak, L.A., Rosenheck, R.A., McEvoy, J.P., Keefe, R.S., Swartz, M.S. Lieberman, J.A. (2006). Interrelationships of Psychiatric Symptom Severity, Medical Comorbidity, and
Functioning in Schizophrenia. Psychiatric Serv. (57), pp 1102-1109.
Fazel S, Langstrom N, Hjern A, et al. Schizophrenia, substance abuse, and violent crime. JAMA 2009;301:2016–23.
Goswami S, Singh G, Mattoo SK, Basu D. (2003). Courses of substance use and schizophrenia
In the dual-diagnosis Patients: is there a relationship?. Indian J Med Sci [serial online] 2003 [cited 2010 July 6]; 57:338. Available from:http://www.indianjmedsci.org/text.asp?2003/57/8/338/11939
Mauri, M; Volonteri, L; De Gaspari, I. (2006). Substance abuse in first-episode schizophrenic Patients: a retrospective study. Clin Pract Epidemol Ment Health. 2006;23:2–4.
Moran, P., Hodgins S. (2004). The Correlates of Comorbid Antisocial Personality Disorder in Schizophrenia. Schizophrenia Bulletin, Vol.30 (4), pp 791-802
Sullivan, P.F. (2005). The Genetics of Schizophrenia. PloSMed Vol. 2 (7), e212.