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Co Morbidity Of Schizophrenia And Other Mental Illnesses

Co Morbidity Of Schizophrenia And Other Mental Illnesses






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    Co Morbidity Of Schizophrenia And Other Mental Illnesses Co Morbidity Of Schizophrenia And Other Mental Illnesses Presentation Transcript

    • Andrea Bridley Psychology 492: Advanced General Psychology
      • The most commonly used substance in those that are diagnosed with Schizophrenia is alcohol (Bellack & DiClemente, 1999)
        • Why?
          • To reduce the negative effects of Schizophrenia
      • Other commonly used substances include:
        • Cannabis
        • LSD
        • Amphetamines
      • What do researchers focus on when looking at co-morbid disorders?
        • Social perspectives of the client
          • Focusing on the substance use/abuse
        • Educational purposes for substance use/abuse
          • Habits, triggers, cravings, and goal setting
      • Some of the most common disorders that are co-morbid with Schizophrenia include:
        • Anxiety disorders
        • Panic disorders
        • Obsessive-compulsive disorders
        • Substance Abuse (most common and predominates over any other disorder) (Buckley, Miller, Lehrer, and Castle, 2009)
          • There is a 47% chance that those that are diagnosed with Schizophrenia, also have a lifetime chance of substance abuse co-morbidity.
      • There is also a chance that those diagnosed with Schizophrenia, may also have a medical co-morbid disorder. Some of these include:
        • Hepatitis C
        • Diabetes Mellitus
        • Coronary Artery Disease
        • Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary disease
      • During a study done of 1,424 patients that were diagnosed with Schizophrenia, 58% of them had a medical condition, and 9% had more than 4 medical conditions.
      • This study also found that there was a higher rate for poor neurocognitive functioning as well as more depressive symptoms
      • (Chwastiak, et. Al., 2006)
      • A study that was done compared those that were discharged from the hospital from at least 2 inpatient stays (with a diagnosis of Schizophrenia) with those that did not have an actual diagnosis of Schizophrenia
        • This study was done to compare the two groups in regards to the violent crime in relation to those with Schizophrenia
      • This study shows that the rate of violent crime is minimal in those that had a diagnosis of Schizophrenia.
      • Those that had a diagnosis of Schizophrenia co-morbid with a substance abuse disorder had a higher violent crime rate.
      • Fazel, Langstrom, Hjern, Gann, Lichtenstein, 2009
      • In one study that was comprised of 22 subjects, all who were dually diagnosed with Schizophrenia & substance abuse.
        • After doing the intake paperwork, completing medical history, and history on their Schizophrenia diagnosis (age at onset, current state, etc) it was found that only 5 of the 22 cases Schizophrenia was experienced before they experienced the onset of substance abuse.
        • It was not found that the substances increased or decreased the symptoms of the patient’s Schizophrenia.
        • This study shows that one disorder does not necessarily cause the other in the case of a dual-diagnosis of Schizophrenia and substance abuse.
        • Goswami, Singh, Mattoo, Basu, 2003
      • Throughout a 14 year study, those that were admitted to a hospital that were experiencing their first-episode of Schizophrenia & were also diagnosed with substance abuse disorder, had reported that they felt that the substance abuse precedes the onset of Schizophrenia.
      • Mauri, Volonteri, De Gaspari 2006
      • It is said that “Antisocial Personality Disorder is more prevalent in those that are diagnosed with Schizophrenia, than in the general population. ” (Moran & Hodgins, 2004, Pg. 791)
      • Researchers took 232 men, that were diagnosed with Schizophrenia and/or APD, or neither. It was found that there was no affect on the outcome of Schizophrenia if they were dually-diagnosed.
      • Some things that may cause a person to be more at risk for Schizophrenia include:
        • Cannabis use
        • Migrant status
        • Urban residence
        • Biological sex
        • Whether it is genetic….Results were inconclusive
        • Sullivan, 2005
      • Schizophrenia is a very intricate illness, including the co-morbidity rates.
      • What causes co-morbidity in those with Schizophrenia?
        • Research is continuing to go on to find out what causes co-morbidity of substance abuse and other mental illnesses.
      • Bellack A, DiClemente C. Treating substance abuse among patients with schizophrenia. Psychiatr Serv. 1999;50:75-80
      • Buckley, P. F., Miller, B. J., Lehrer, D. S., & Castle, D. J. (2009). Psychiatric co-morbidities and Schizophrenia. Schizophr Bull , 35 (2), 383-402. http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/schbul/sbn135
      • Chwastiak, L.A., Rosenheck, R.A., McEvoy, J.P., Keefe, R.S., Swartz, M.S. Lieberman, J.A. (2006). Interrelationships of Psychiatric Symptom Severity, Medical Comorbidity, and
      • Functioning in Schizophrenia. Psychiatric Serv. (57), pp 1102-1109.
      • Fazel S, Langstrom N, Hjern A, et al. Schizophrenia, substance abuse, and violent crime. JAMA 2009;301:2016–23.
      • Goswami S, Singh G, Mattoo SK, Basu D. (2003). Courses of substance use and schizophrenia
      • In the dual-diagnosis Patients: is there a relationship?. Indian J Med Sci [serial online] 2003 [cited 2010 July 6]; 57:338. Available from:http://www.indianjmedsci.org/text.asp?2003/57/8/338/11939
      • Mauri, M; Volonteri, L; De Gaspari, I. (2006). Substance abuse in first-episode schizophrenic Patients: a retrospective study. Clin Pract Epidemol Ment Health. 2006;23:2–4.
      • Moran, P., Hodgins S. (2004). The Correlates of Comorbid Antisocial Personality Disorder in Schizophrenia. Schizophrenia Bulletin, Vol.30 (4), pp 791-802
      • Sullivan, P.F. (2005). The Genetics of Schizophrenia. PloSMed Vol. 2 (7), e212.