Co Morbidity Of Schizophrenia And Other Mental Illnesses


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Co Morbidity Of Schizophrenia And Other Mental Illnesses

  1. 1. Andrea Bridley Psychology 492: Advanced General Psychology
  2. 2. <ul><li>The most commonly used substance in those that are diagnosed with Schizophrenia is alcohol (Bellack & DiClemente, 1999) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Why? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>To reduce the negative effects of Schizophrenia </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Other commonly used substances include: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Cannabis </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>LSD </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Amphetamines </li></ul></ul>
  3. 3. <ul><li>What do researchers focus on when looking at co-morbid disorders? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Social perspectives of the client </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Focusing on the substance use/abuse </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Educational purposes for substance use/abuse </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Habits, triggers, cravings, and goal setting </li></ul></ul></ul>
  4. 4. <ul><li>Some of the most common disorders that are co-morbid with Schizophrenia include: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Anxiety disorders </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Panic disorders </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Obsessive-compulsive disorders </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Substance Abuse (most common and predominates over any other disorder) (Buckley, Miller, Lehrer, and Castle, 2009) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>There is a 47% chance that those that are diagnosed with Schizophrenia, also have a lifetime chance of substance abuse co-morbidity. </li></ul></ul></ul>
  5. 5. <ul><li>There is also a chance that those diagnosed with Schizophrenia, may also have a medical co-morbid disorder. Some of these include: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Hepatitis C </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Diabetes Mellitus </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Coronary Artery Disease </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary disease </li></ul></ul>
  6. 6. <ul><li>During a study done of 1,424 patients that were diagnosed with Schizophrenia, 58% of them had a medical condition, and 9% had more than 4 medical conditions. </li></ul><ul><li>This study also found that there was a higher rate for poor neurocognitive functioning as well as more depressive symptoms </li></ul><ul><li>(Chwastiak, et. Al., 2006) </li></ul>
  7. 7. <ul><li>A study that was done compared those that were discharged from the hospital from at least 2 inpatient stays (with a diagnosis of Schizophrenia) with those that did not have an actual diagnosis of Schizophrenia </li></ul><ul><ul><li>This study was done to compare the two groups in regards to the violent crime in relation to those with Schizophrenia </li></ul></ul>
  8. 8. <ul><li>This study shows that the rate of violent crime is minimal in those that had a diagnosis of Schizophrenia. </li></ul><ul><li>Those that had a diagnosis of Schizophrenia co-morbid with a substance abuse disorder had a higher violent crime rate. </li></ul><ul><li>Fazel, Langstrom, Hjern, Gann, Lichtenstein, 2009 </li></ul>
  9. 9. <ul><li>In one study that was comprised of 22 subjects, all who were dually diagnosed with Schizophrenia & substance abuse. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>After doing the intake paperwork, completing medical history, and history on their Schizophrenia diagnosis (age at onset, current state, etc) it was found that only 5 of the 22 cases Schizophrenia was experienced before they experienced the onset of substance abuse. </li></ul></ul>
  10. 10. <ul><ul><li>It was not found that the substances increased or decreased the symptoms of the patient’s Schizophrenia. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>This study shows that one disorder does not necessarily cause the other in the case of a dual-diagnosis of Schizophrenia and substance abuse. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Goswami, Singh, Mattoo, Basu, 2003 </li></ul></ul>
  11. 11. <ul><li>Throughout a 14 year study, those that were admitted to a hospital that were experiencing their first-episode of Schizophrenia & were also diagnosed with substance abuse disorder, had reported that they felt that the substance abuse precedes the onset of Schizophrenia. </li></ul><ul><li>Mauri, Volonteri, De Gaspari 2006 </li></ul>
  12. 12. <ul><li>It is said that “Antisocial Personality Disorder is more prevalent in those that are diagnosed with Schizophrenia, than in the general population. ” (Moran & Hodgins, 2004, Pg. 791) </li></ul><ul><li>Researchers took 232 men, that were diagnosed with Schizophrenia and/or APD, or neither. It was found that there was no affect on the outcome of Schizophrenia if they were dually-diagnosed. </li></ul>
  13. 13. <ul><li>Some things that may cause a person to be more at risk for Schizophrenia include: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Cannabis use </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Migrant status </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Urban residence </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Biological sex </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Whether it is genetic….Results were inconclusive </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Sullivan, 2005 </li></ul></ul>
  14. 14. <ul><li>Schizophrenia is a very intricate illness, including the co-morbidity rates. </li></ul><ul><li>What causes co-morbidity in those with Schizophrenia? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Research is continuing to go on to find out what causes co-morbidity of substance abuse and other mental illnesses. </li></ul></ul>
  15. 15. <ul><li>Bellack A, DiClemente C. Treating substance abuse among patients with schizophrenia. Psychiatr Serv. 1999;50:75-80 </li></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul><ul><li>Buckley, P. F., Miller, B. J., Lehrer, D. S., & Castle, D. J. (2009). Psychiatric co-morbidities and Schizophrenia. Schizophr Bull , 35 (2), 383-402. </li></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul><ul><li>Chwastiak, L.A., Rosenheck, R.A., McEvoy, J.P., Keefe, R.S., Swartz, M.S. Lieberman, J.A. (2006). Interrelationships of Psychiatric Symptom Severity, Medical Comorbidity, and </li></ul><ul><li>Functioning in Schizophrenia. Psychiatric Serv. (57), pp 1102-1109. </li></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul>
  16. 16. <ul><li>Fazel S, Langstrom N, Hjern A, et al. Schizophrenia, substance abuse, and violent crime. JAMA 2009;301:2016–23. </li></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul><ul><li>Goswami S, Singh G, Mattoo SK, Basu D. (2003). Courses of substance use and schizophrenia </li></ul><ul><li>In the dual-diagnosis Patients: is there a relationship?. Indian J Med Sci [serial online] 2003 [cited 2010 July 6]; 57:338. Available from: </li></ul><ul><li>Mauri, M; Volonteri, L; De Gaspari, I. (2006). Substance abuse in first-episode schizophrenic Patients: a retrospective study. Clin Pract Epidemol Ment Health. 2006;23:2–4. </li></ul>
  17. 17. <ul><li>Moran, P., Hodgins S. (2004). The Correlates of Comorbid Antisocial Personality Disorder in Schizophrenia. Schizophrenia Bulletin, Vol.30 (4), pp 791-802 </li></ul><ul><li>Sullivan, P.F. (2005). The Genetics of Schizophrenia. PloSMed Vol. 2 (7), e212. </li></ul>