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  1. 1. America’s Roots
  2. 2. SSUSH1: The student will describe European settlement in North America during the 17 th century. <ul><li>Explain Virginia’s development; include the Virginia Company, tobacco cultivation, relationships with Native Americans such as Powhatan, development of the House of Burgesses, Bacon’s Rebellion, and the development of slavery. </li></ul>
  3. 3. Southern Colonies <ul><li>Georgia </li></ul><ul><li>South Carolina </li></ul><ul><li>North Carolina </li></ul><ul><li>Virginia </li></ul><ul><li>Maryland </li></ul>
  4. 4. Settlement @ Jamestown
  5. 5. The Development of Virginia <ul><li>Virginia Company : joint-stock company; founded Jamestown 1607 </li></ul><ul><li>Tobacco Cultivation : introduced by John Rolfe; led to profitability of colony; “brown gold” led to headright system & indentured servitude </li></ul>
  6. 6. Marriage of john Rolfe & Pocahontas
  7. 7. Virginia: Encounters in America <ul><li>Relationships with Native Americans : </li></ul><ul><li>-- Provided early assistance to colonists; </li></ul><ul><li>-- Later conflict led to wars and issues </li></ul><ul><li>over land </li></ul><ul><li>The Powhatan : near VA; eventual conflict over rising numbers of settlers (tribe of Pocahontas) </li></ul>
  8. 8. Virginia: Political Development <ul><li>The House of Burgesses: Virginia’s colonial legislature; rule by people </li></ul>
  9. 9. Virginia: Social Development <ul><li>Bacon’s Rebellion : Nathaniel Bacon </li></ul><ul><li>- frontier settlers angry over taxes </li></ul><ul><li>and lack of support from eastern </li></ul><ul><li>colonial govt. marched on Jamestown </li></ul><ul><li>1676 </li></ul><ul><li>- exposed weakness in colonies due to growing power of former indentured servants </li></ul>
  10. 10. Beginnings of Slavery : <ul><li>Began as way to keep servants working as response to indentured servant problem </li></ul><ul><li>Indentured servants : worked 4-7 years then freed from service </li></ul><ul><li>“Perpetual” servitude eliminated need for indentured servants </li></ul><ul><li>1619 first Africans arrived; originally treated as indentured servants </li></ul><ul><li>Several decades later -- institution of slavery develops </li></ul>
  11. 11. <ul><li>Describe the settlement of New England; include religious reasons, relations with Native Americans (e.g. King Philip's War), the establishment of town meetings and development of a legislature, religious tensions that led to colonies such as Rhode Island, the half-way covenant, Salem Witch Trials, and the loss of the Massachusetts charter. </li></ul>SSUSH1: The student will describe European settlement in North America during the 17 th century.
  12. 12. New England Colonies <ul><li>Massachusetts </li></ul><ul><li>Connecticut </li></ul><ul><li>Rhode Island </li></ul><ul><li>New Hampshire </li></ul>
  13. 13. Settlement of New England <ul><li>Reasons Why: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Puritans: to “purify” the Church of England. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Established Massachusetts Bay Colony to create a “model new society”. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>“ A city upon a hill.” </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>-John Winthrop </li></ul></ul></ul>
  14. 15. English Puritans Escape to America
  15. 16. Differences in New Englanders <ul><li>Puritans </li></ul><ul><li>Originated from English Reformation. </li></ul><ul><li>Believed they could remain in C.O.E. while working to rid it of Catholic practices. </li></ul><ul><li>Established Massachusetts Bay Colony. (1630) </li></ul><ul><li>Pilgrims </li></ul><ul><li>Wanted to “separate” from C.O.E. </li></ul><ul><li>Founded Plymouth Colony. (1620) </li></ul>
  16. 18. Mayflower Compact <ul><li>Written agreement to rule by the wishes of the majority. (Pilgrims) </li></ul><ul><li>Showed that people considered themselves the source of power for creating a government. </li></ul>
  17. 19. Religious Tensions: Banished from Massachusetts : founded settlements in Rhode Island Anne Hutchinson Roger Williams Because she spoke out against the clergy threatening their power and authority. Because he supported ideas of separation of church & state.
  18. 20. New Englanders encounter Native Americans Conflicts over Land Pequot War King Philip’s War 1637: Pequot nation battled Connecticut colonists & their Narragansett allies. 1675-76: New England colonists & Native American groups allied under leadership of the Wampanoag chief, Metacom.
  19. 21. <ul><li>The “Town Meeting”: Allowed for people to voice their opinions RE taxes & local issues; meetinghouses & town meeting form of govt. still prevalent in New England today </li></ul><ul><li>Development of the Legislature: A representative lawmaking body. Sought to limit royal authority & assert local control of colony </li></ul>New England: Political Development
  20. 22. New England: Religious Tensions <ul><li>Roger Williams left Massachusetts colony in search of complete religious freedom & founded Rhode Island . </li></ul><ul><li>The “Half-Way Covenant”: Applied to children of Puritan colonists who were not yet church members; </li></ul><ul><ul><li>covenant (agreement) allowed them to participate in some church affairs; </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>alleviated diminishing minority of church members as colonies developed </li></ul></ul>
  21. 23. <ul><li>Salem Witchcraft Trials : 1692; result of Puritan accusations against supposed witches in Massachusetts; revealed religious fanaticism </li></ul>
  22. 24. The Halfway Covenant was a form of partial church membership created by New England Puritans in 1662 . It was promoted in particular by the Reverend Solomon Stoddard , who felt that the people of the English colonies were drifting away from their original religious purpose. First-generation settlers were beginning to die out, while their children and grandchildren often expressed less religious piety , and more desire for material wealth.
  23. 25. Overall, religious piety began to decrease and secular values began to become more prevalent in colonial society. Response to the Halfway Covenant may have sown the seeds for the First Great Awakening in the 1730s, launched by Stoddard's grandson Jonathan Edwards . Along with Calvinist George Whitefield , he preached that God is &quot;in the now&quot;, and there must be a &quot;urgent call for lanquid will&quot;, in response to the half will that the Halfway Covenant allows.
  24. 26. <ul><li>Loss of Massachusetts Charter : </li></ul><ul><li>-- 1684; resulted from violations of </li></ul><ul><li>Navigation Acts; </li></ul><ul><li>-- Colonists resisted obeying English laws </li></ul><ul><li>-- revocation of colonial charter by King </li></ul><ul><li>Charles II </li></ul>
  25. 27. GPS 1: Continued… <ul><li>Explain the development of the mid-Atlantic colonies; include the Dutch settlement of New Amsterdam and subsequent English takeover, and the settlement of Pennsylvania. </li></ul><ul><li>Explain the reasons for French settlement of Quebec. </li></ul>
  26. 28. Middle Colonies <ul><li>New York </li></ul><ul><li>Pennsylvania </li></ul><ul><li>New Jersey </li></ul><ul><li>Delaware </li></ul>
  27. 29. New Amsterdam <ul><li>The Dutch : </li></ul><ul><li>1609: Dutch East India Company hired English sailor Henry Hudson to find a northeast passage to India. Unsuccessful, Hudson turned his ship west and sailed across the Atlantic. </li></ul><ul><li>Hudson hoped to discover a &quot; northwest passage ,&quot; that would allow a ship to cross the entirety of the North American continent and gain access to the Pacific Ocean, and from there, India. </li></ul><ul><li>Hudson sailed into the mouth of a large river, today called the Hudson River. Making his way as far as present-day Albany, Hudson later returned to Europe and claimed the entire Hudson River Valley for his Dutch employers. </li></ul>
  28. 30. Dutch Settlement Video (6 min)
  29. 31. West India Company established by Dutch Parliament <ul><li>1624 thirty Dutch families in area </li></ul><ul><li>1626 Peter Minuit arrived to oversee struggling colony </li></ul><ul><li>Purchased Manhattan from Natives and named it New Amsterdam </li></ul><ul><li>Established Fort Orange further north on Hudson River (today Albany) </li></ul><ul><li>1630’s-1640’s conflict with natives and English </li></ul>
  30. 32. English Takeover : <ul><li>Under leadership of Peter Stuyvesant, New Netherlands prospered (1647-1657) </li></ul><ul><li>Dutch lost New Netherlands to English in 1664 </li></ul><ul><li>King Charles granted brother James (Duke of York) all Dutch territory in Americas. </li></ul><ul><li>James sent in small fleet and Stuyvesant surrendered </li></ul><ul><li>New Amsterdam became New York in September of 1664 </li></ul>
  31. 33. Geography Of English & Dutch Colonization
  32. 34. Settlement of Pennsylvania: A “Holy Experiment” <ul><li>William Penn 1682 arrived after land grant; Proprietary colony (included what is today Delaware and Pennsylvania) </li></ul><ul><li>Unique Colony : Penn paid natives for land upon arrival; welcomed all Europeans </li></ul><ul><li>Quakers persecuted in England settled PA </li></ul><ul><li>Religious freedom allowed; tolerance </li></ul><ul><li>Philadelphia laid out by Penn 1683 and had population of 7,000 one year later </li></ul>
  33. 36. Penn’s “ First Frame of Government” <ul><li>Written by Penn before leaving England </li></ul><ul><li>Outlined governmental structure of colony </li></ul><ul><li>Promised certain rights to citizens of colony </li></ul>
  34. 37. French Settlement of Quebec <ul><li>1508 French navigators ventured into gulf of St. Lawrence </li></ul><ul><li>1524 French paid Italian Giovanni da </li></ul><ul><li>Verrazano to seek passage to Asia </li></ul><ul><li>1534-1535 French explorer Jacques Cartier claimed territory in name of France and sailed up St. Lawrence River </li></ul>
  35. 38. <ul><li>Quebec became part of territory of New France </li></ul><ul><li>Founded 1608 by Samuel de Champlain </li></ul><ul><li>Reasons : </li></ul><ul><li>Economic : fishing & whaling industry; </li></ul><ul><li>fur trade </li></ul><ul><li>French did not leave to escape France, but to exploit and benefit from resources of Canada </li></ul>