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Ssush02_brit_america Ssush02_brit_america Presentation Transcript

  • SSUSH2 The student will trace the ways that the economy and society of British North America developed.
    • Explain the development of mercantilism and the trans-Atlantic trade .
    • Describe the Middle Passage , growth of the African population, and African-American culture.
    • Identify Benjamin Franklin as a symbol of social mobility and individualism.
    • Explain the significance of the Great Awakening.
  • Economic Development
    • Mercantilism : economic principle followed by European nations during colonial era
    • Included concepts of:
    • 1) acquire and maintain wealth to
    • increase power in world
    • 2) export more than imported
    • (“favorable balance of trade”)
    • 3) acquire colonies to provide resources
    • needed by mother country
  • Trans-Atlantic Trade
    • Characterized by competition between European nations as they sought to increase power and gain wealth through mercantilism
    • Involved colonies as locations that provided resources
    • Leads to trading of slaves and expansion of institution of slavery in America
  • Colonial Shipping/ Triangular Trade (2 min)
  • Middle Passage
    • Refers to “trans- atlantic” journey made by African slaves (16 th -18 th centuries)
    • One leg of the “ Triangular Trade ” that evolved across the Atlantic Ocean (Africa, Europe, Americas)
  • “ Triangular Trade” routes in transatlantic trade
  • Slavery (2 min)
  • Growth of the African population
    • By 1768, the English shipped 53,000 slaves a year to North America
    • Estimates of up to 10 million slaves took the Middle Passage Voyage to reach the Americas .
  • African roots and black culture
    • Societies often matrilineal
    • Many could earn money on side and buy freedom
    • Demand rose as plantations grew – kidnappings
    • Brought music, folklore, religion and kinship ties
  • Enlightenment
    • In England – scientific revolution: led to idea that natural laws govern all things
    • The way to improve society and human nature was by the application and improvement of Reason
  • Ben Franklin Video (11min)
    • Social Mobility
    • Individualism
  • American Enlightenment
    • Ben Franklin epitome
      • published PA Gazette and Poor Richard’s Almanac began U of PA,
      • Inventor
      • Printer
      • Librarian
      • American Statesman
  • The Great Awakening
    • Between 1720 and 1750 a widespread and intense revival of interest in religion occurred in the American colonies, a phenomenon that supporters called the Great Awakening .
  • Jonathan Edwards
  • Great Awakening: Causes
    • Deism – God doesn’t interfere
    • Skepticism – questioned assumptions and beliefs
  • Great Awakening: George Whitefield
    • Evangelist
    • Ministers “slothful shepherds and dumb dogs” – reawakened idea of individual salvation
    • Jonathan Edwards heard sermon then began “Sinners in the Hands of an Angry God” –
  • Great Awakening: Jonathan Edwards
    • Congregationalist minister in Mass – people too materialistic and religion too intellectual – scared people away from Hell
    • Wrote “Sinners in the Hands of an Angry God” - “he looks upon you as worthy of nothing else, but to be cast into the fire”
  • Religion in the Colonies http://player.discoveryeducation.com/index.cfm?guidAssetId=5A715D5B-82F5-48CD-9C28-320DBFA01F68
  • Piety and Reason
    • 1740-42 – 25,000-50,000 New Englanders joined churches
    • Great Awakening spawned new religious groups which undermined state-supported churches – Puritans fragmented
    • Harvard 1636 – Puritans; William and Mary 1693 Anglican; Yale 1701 Puritans; Princeton 1746 Presbyterians; Kings College 1754 Anglican; Brown 1764 Baptist; U of Penn 1751 secular
  • Effects of Great Awakening
    • Evangelical energies and appeal of revivalism
    • Established clergy weaker
    • Believers encouraged to exercise own judgment
  • George Whitefield The most famous contributor to this contagious religious response was the English preacher George Whitefield who traveled through the colonies.
    • A. New colleges to train ministers--Princeton, Harvard, Brown, & Rutgers (Today these are some of the most prestigious universities in the country)
    • B. Divisions in denominations : differences between those who
    • defined religion as a rational process (old lights) and those who
    • focused on experience (new lights).
    • C. Development of revivalism tradition in American religion. Future
    • outbreaks:
    • 1) Second Great Awakening in first half of 19th century--camp
    • meetings and frontier revivals featuring emotional appeals and
    • spontaneous religious expressions
    • 2) Charles G. Finney and Dwight Moody- -19th century urban
    • revivalism with campaigns in many cities
    • 3) Billy Sunday, Billy Graham and mass meetings--20th century
    • revivalism
    Impact of the Great Awakening
  • Additional Colonial Concepts
    • Previous items from GPS 1
    • Evolving Colonial Ideas :
    • toleration, civil liberties,
    • equality, freedom,
    • education, separation of church & state,
    • representative government,
    • free market system,
    • rise of merchant middle class
    • First written colonial constitution: “ Fundamental Orders of Connecticut ”
  • Geographic Regions & Economies
    • New England : lumber, fishing, merchants
    • Middle : wheat, “bread basket” colonies
    • Southern : Plantation system, tobacco, rice, indigo
  • Founding of Georgia
    • 1732
    • James Oglethorpe
    • Buffer colony between St. Augustine (Spanish Florida) and other English colonies
    • A place for debtors to work off their debt and avoid English jails