Ssush02_brit_america

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Ssush02_brit_america

  1. 1. SSUSH2 The student will trace the ways that the economy and society of British North America developed. <ul><li>Explain the development of mercantilism and the trans-Atlantic trade . </li></ul><ul><li>Describe the Middle Passage , growth of the African population, and African-American culture. </li></ul><ul><li>Identify Benjamin Franklin as a symbol of social mobility and individualism. </li></ul><ul><li>Explain the significance of the Great Awakening. </li></ul>
  2. 2. Economic Development <ul><li>Mercantilism : economic principle followed by European nations during colonial era </li></ul><ul><li>Included concepts of: </li></ul><ul><li>1) acquire and maintain wealth to </li></ul><ul><li>increase power in world </li></ul><ul><li>2) export more than imported </li></ul><ul><li>(“favorable balance of trade”) </li></ul><ul><li>3) acquire colonies to provide resources </li></ul><ul><li>needed by mother country </li></ul>
  3. 3. Trans-Atlantic Trade <ul><li>Characterized by competition between European nations as they sought to increase power and gain wealth through mercantilism </li></ul><ul><li>Involved colonies as locations that provided resources </li></ul><ul><li>Leads to trading of slaves and expansion of institution of slavery in America </li></ul>
  4. 4. Colonial Shipping/ Triangular Trade (2 min)
  5. 5. Middle Passage <ul><li>Refers to “trans- atlantic” journey made by African slaves (16 th -18 th centuries) </li></ul><ul><li>One leg of the “ Triangular Trade ” that evolved across the Atlantic Ocean (Africa, Europe, Americas) </li></ul>
  6. 6. “ Triangular Trade” routes in transatlantic trade
  7. 7. Slavery (2 min)
  8. 9. Growth of the African population <ul><li>By 1768, the English shipped 53,000 slaves a year to North America </li></ul><ul><li>Estimates of up to 10 million slaves took the Middle Passage Voyage to reach the Americas . </li></ul>
  9. 10. African roots and black culture <ul><li>Societies often matrilineal </li></ul><ul><li>Many could earn money on side and buy freedom </li></ul><ul><li>Demand rose as plantations grew – kidnappings </li></ul><ul><li>Brought music, folklore, religion and kinship ties </li></ul>
  10. 11. Enlightenment <ul><li>In England – scientific revolution: led to idea that natural laws govern all things </li></ul><ul><li>The way to improve society and human nature was by the application and improvement of Reason </li></ul>
  11. 12. Ben Franklin Video (11min)
  12. 13. <ul><li>Social Mobility </li></ul><ul><li>Individualism </li></ul>
  13. 14. American Enlightenment <ul><li>Ben Franklin epitome </li></ul><ul><ul><li>published PA Gazette and Poor Richard’s Almanac began U of PA, </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Inventor </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Printer </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Librarian </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>American Statesman </li></ul></ul>
  14. 15. The Great Awakening <ul><li>Between 1720 and 1750 a widespread and intense revival of interest in religion occurred in the American colonies, a phenomenon that supporters called the Great Awakening . </li></ul>
  15. 16. Jonathan Edwards
  16. 17. Great Awakening: Causes <ul><li>Deism – God doesn’t interfere </li></ul><ul><li>Skepticism – questioned assumptions and beliefs </li></ul>
  17. 18. Great Awakening: George Whitefield <ul><li>Evangelist </li></ul><ul><li>Ministers “slothful shepherds and dumb dogs” – reawakened idea of individual salvation </li></ul><ul><li>Jonathan Edwards heard sermon then began “Sinners in the Hands of an Angry God” – </li></ul>
  18. 19. Great Awakening: Jonathan Edwards <ul><li>Congregationalist minister in Mass – people too materialistic and religion too intellectual – scared people away from Hell </li></ul><ul><li>Wrote “Sinners in the Hands of an Angry God” - “he looks upon you as worthy of nothing else, but to be cast into the fire” </li></ul>
  19. 20. Religion in the Colonies http://player.discoveryeducation.com/index.cfm?guidAssetId=5A715D5B-82F5-48CD-9C28-320DBFA01F68
  20. 21. Piety and Reason <ul><li>1740-42 – 25,000-50,000 New Englanders joined churches </li></ul><ul><li>Great Awakening spawned new religious groups which undermined state-supported churches – Puritans fragmented </li></ul><ul><li>Harvard 1636 – Puritans; William and Mary 1693 Anglican; Yale 1701 Puritans; Princeton 1746 Presbyterians; Kings College 1754 Anglican; Brown 1764 Baptist; U of Penn 1751 secular </li></ul>
  21. 22. Effects of Great Awakening <ul><li>Evangelical energies and appeal of revivalism </li></ul><ul><li>Established clergy weaker </li></ul><ul><li>Believers encouraged to exercise own judgment </li></ul>
  22. 23. George Whitefield The most famous contributor to this contagious religious response was the English preacher George Whitefield who traveled through the colonies.
  23. 24. <ul><li>A. New colleges to train ministers--Princeton, Harvard, Brown, & Rutgers (Today these are some of the most prestigious universities in the country) </li></ul><ul><li>B. Divisions in denominations : differences between those who </li></ul><ul><li>defined religion as a rational process (old lights) and those who </li></ul><ul><li>focused on experience (new lights). </li></ul><ul><li>C. Development of revivalism tradition in American religion. Future </li></ul><ul><li>outbreaks: </li></ul><ul><li>1) Second Great Awakening in first half of 19th century--camp </li></ul><ul><li>meetings and frontier revivals featuring emotional appeals and </li></ul><ul><li>spontaneous religious expressions </li></ul><ul><li>2) Charles G. Finney and Dwight Moody- -19th century urban </li></ul><ul><li>revivalism with campaigns in many cities </li></ul><ul><li>3) Billy Sunday, Billy Graham and mass meetings--20th century </li></ul><ul><li>revivalism </li></ul>Impact of the Great Awakening
  24. 25. Additional Colonial Concepts <ul><li>Previous items from GPS 1 </li></ul><ul><li>Evolving Colonial Ideas : </li></ul><ul><li>toleration, civil liberties, </li></ul><ul><li>equality, freedom, </li></ul><ul><li>education, separation of church & state, </li></ul><ul><li>representative government, </li></ul><ul><li>free market system, </li></ul><ul><li>rise of merchant middle class </li></ul><ul><li>First written colonial constitution: “ Fundamental Orders of Connecticut ” </li></ul>
  25. 26. Geographic Regions & Economies <ul><li>New England : lumber, fishing, merchants </li></ul><ul><li>Middle : wheat, “bread basket” colonies </li></ul><ul><li>Southern : Plantation system, tobacco, rice, indigo </li></ul>
  26. 27. Founding of Georgia <ul><li>1732 </li></ul><ul><li>James Oglethorpe </li></ul><ul><li>Buffer colony between St. Augustine (Spanish Florida) and other English colonies </li></ul><ul><li>A place for debtors to work off their debt and avoid English jails </li></ul>

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