SSUSH 4 The student will identify the ideological, military, and diplomatic aspects of the American Revolution .
Explain the language, organization, and intellectual sources of the Declaration of Independence; include the writing of John Locke and Montesquieu, and the role of Thomas Jefferson.
Explain the reason for and significance of the French alliance and foreign assistance and the roles of Benjamin Franklin and the Marquis de Lafayette
Analyze George Washington as a military leader; include the creation of a professional military and the life of a common soldier, and describe the significance of the crossing of the Delaware River and Valley Forge
Explain Yorktown, the role of Lord Cornwallis, and the Treaty of Paris, 1783.
Ideological ( ideology )
a collection of ideas
unifying system of beliefs, attitudes, and values expressed in a culture. The body of thought and ideas that guides a society.
negotiation between nations
skillful handling of a situation
statesmanship: wisdom in the management of public affairs
A system of formal, regularized communication that allows states to peacefully conduct their business with each other.
Sources of the Declaration of Independence
Social Contract Theory- Men originally formed governments for protection & if government doesn’t fulfill its duties we have the right to overthrow that government.
Writing of John Locke
English philosopher 1632-1704
All people were born with natural rights (inalienable): Life, Liberty, & Property
Writing of Montesquieu
Separation of Powers
Checks & Balances
His ideas became the basis for the United States Constitution .
Role of Thomas Jefferson
Given credit for the Declaration of Independence.
Delegate from VA who was chosen to express committee’s desire for freedom.
He drew on concepts of Locke & Montesquieu.
Reactions to the D.O.I.
Some Patriots celebrated & destroyed property belonging to the Loyalists .
Some Loyalists fled.
Lack of Important supplies, including food & clothing
Shortage of enlistments
Valley Forge, Pennsylvania
Campsite of American Continental Army
Great suffering in snow and ice (Shuylkill River frozen over)
Washington despaired " that unless some great and capital change suddenly takes place ... this Army must inevitably ... Starve, dissolve, or disperse, in order to obtain subsistence in the best manner they can ."
Crossing the Delaware River
Battle of Trenton
1776: Washington and his troops crossed the icy Delaware River for a surprise attack on the night of X-MAS 1776.
The Continental Army quietly approached Trenton, New Jersey and defeated the Hessians (German Mercenaries)
The role of Benjamin Franklin
Continental Congress sends Franklin to Paris to work for an alliance.
France sends money and supplies in secret, but no public support.
After Saratoga, Franklin signs a Treaty of Alliance with France
Battle of Saratoga (1777)
British seek to cut off New England from colonies.
Colonial General Horatio Gates defeats large British force at Saratoga.
This victory convinces the French that colonials have a chance to win.
French become allies to the Continental Army.
The French signed a treaty of cooperation 1778.
against the British
supplies and men.
Marquis de Lafayette
Brave, idealistic 20 yr. old French aristocrat.
Joined Washington and the misery at Valley Forge.
Led a command in VA for the last years of war.
The role of Lord Cornwallis
Ambitious British general who led victories in the South.
His biggest mistake : Led 7,500 troops onto peninsula between James/York Rivers to camp at YORKTOWN.
Battle of Yorktown (1781)
Troops under British General Cornwallis are backed up against water at Yorktown.
French Navy blockades York River
British cannot re-supply or escape.
French and Colonial troops surround town.
After several small battles, Cornwallis surrenders.
The last major battle of the war.
Battle of Yorktown
Treaty of Paris, 1783
John Adams, Ben Franklin, & John Jay demanded that Britain recognize American independence.
Confirmed U.S. independence.
Set boundaries of the new nation.
Impact of War
Idea of liberty spreads throughout the world, leading to revolutions ever since.
This was a radical concept in a world that long accepted the idea of human inequality.
In the US, only white males gain true freedom.
However, seeds of change are planted for women, and slaves.